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Edited By Ravindra Pindel | Updated on Sep 12, 2022 05:57 PM IST

**NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Maths solutions Chapter 14** Mathematical Reasoning covers the concept of Mathematical reasoning. In the chapter, the students will learn the fundamentals of Mathematical Reasoning and their application. Through the use of Class 11 Maths NCERT Exemplar Chapter 14 solutions, the students will also comprehensively understand the different types of reasoning with the help of different mathematically acceptable statements like negation and compound statements. The Class 11 MathsNCERT Exemplar Chapter 14 solutions act as a guide for students and can be referred to at any point in time.

This Story also Contains

- NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Maths Solutions Chapter 14: Exercise: 1.3
- More About NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Maths Chapter 14
- Main Subtopics in NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Maths Solutions Chapter 14 Mathematical Reasoning
- What students will learn from NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Maths Solutions Chapter 14?
- NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Maths Chapters
- Important Topics to Cover from NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Maths Solutions Chapter 14 Mathematical Reasoning

The NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Maths solutions Chapter 14 are given below and the pdf for the same can be downloaded. The solutions are based on the exercises given in the textbook and are solved by experts. The NCERT Exemplar solutions for Class 11 Maths Chapter 14 proves to be a great help to students who find the chapter Mathematical Reasoning difficult. The solutions are in a stepwise format which allows the students to understand the problem easily and excel in their exams.

Question:1

Answer:

**i) Concept:**

A statement is considered as an assertive sentence if it is either true or false, but it shouldn’t be both.The given sentence is a true statement, since we know that it is true that “a triangle has three sides.”**ii) Concept:**

A statement is considered as an assertive sentence if it is either true or false, but it should not be both.The given sentence is a true statement, since we know that it is true that “0 is a complex number”, because we can also write it as a + ib, where the imaginary part is 0 as, a + 0i.**iii) Concept:**

A statement is considered as an assertive sentence if it is either true or false, but it should not be both. The given sentence is a false statement, since we know that it is not true that “sky is red.”**iv) Concept:**

A statement is considered as an assertive sentence if it is either true or false, but it should not be both.The given sentence is a false statement, since we know that it is not true that “every set is an infinite set.”**v) Concept:**

A statement is considered as an assertive sentence if it is either true or false, but it should not be both. The given sentence is a false statement, since we know that it is not true that because .**vi) Concept:**

A statement is considered as an assertive sentence if it is either true or false, but it should not be both.The given sentence is not a statement, since we know that “y + 9 = 7” will be true for some value & false for some. For example, at y = -2 is true & y = 1 or any other value is false.**vii) Concept:**

A statement is considered as an assertive sentence if it is either true or false, but it should not be both. The given sentence is not a statement since we know that “where is your bag” is a question.**viii) Concept:**

A statement is considered as an assertive sentence if it is either true or false, but it shouldn’t be both.Theve given sentence is a true statement, since we know that it is true that “ every square is a rectangle.”**ix) Concept:**

A statement is considered as an assertive sentence if it is either true or false, but it should not be both. The given sentence is a true statement, since we know that “Sum of opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180?” is true by the properties f quadrilateral.**x) Concept:**

A statement is considered as an assertive sentence if it is either true or false, but it should not be both. The given sentence is a false statement since we know that is the correct expression according to the laws of trigonometry.

Question:2

Answer:

**i) Concept: **

A compound statement is defined as a combination of two statements or components. Here the components of the given statement “number 7 is prime and odd, will be –

p: Number 7 is prime &

q: Number 7 is odd**ii) Concept: **

A compound statement is defined as a combination of two statements or components. Here the components of the given statement “Chennai is in India and is the capital of Tamil Nadu”, will be –

p: Chennai is in India

q: Chennai is the capital of Tamil Nadu

**iii) Concept: **

A compound statement is defined as a combination of two statements or components. Here the components of the given statement “the number 100 is divisible by 3, 11 & 5”, will be –

p: 100 is divisible by 3

q: 100 is divisible by 11 &

r: 100 is divisible by 5

**iv) Concept: **

A compound statement is defined as a combination of two statements or components. Here the components of the given statement “Chandigarh is the capital of Haryana and U.P.”, will be –

p: Chandigarh is the capital of Haryana &

q: Chandigarh is the capital of U.P.

**v) Concept:**

A compound statement is defined as a combination of two statements or components. Here the components of the given statement is a rational number or an irrational number”, will be –

p: is a rational number &

q: is an irrational number**vi) Concept: **

A compound statement is defined as a combination of two statements or components.Here the components of the given statement “0 is less than every positive integer and every negative integer”, will be –

p: 0 is less than every positive integer &

q: 0 is less than every negative integer**vii) Concept: **

A compound statement is defined as a combination of two statements or components. Here the components of the given statement “Plants use sunlight, water and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis”, will be –

p: Plants use sunlight for photosynthesis

q: Plants use water for photosynthesis &

r: Plants use carbon dioxide for photosynthesis**viii) Concept: **

A compound statement is defined as a combination of two statements or components. Here the components of the given statement “two lines in a plane either intersect at one point or they are parallel”, will be –

p: Two lines in a plane intersect at one point &

q: Two lines in a plane are parallel**ix) Concept: **

A compound statement is defined as a combination of two statements or components. Here the components of the given statement “A rectangle is a quadrilateral or a 5 – sided polygon”, will be –

p: A rectangle is a quadrilateral

q: A rectangle is a 5 – sided polygon.

Question:3

Answer:

**i) Concept: **

A compound statement is defined as a combination of two statements or components. Here the components of the given statement “57 is divisible by 2 or 3”, will be –

p: 57 is divisible by 2 &

q: 57 is divisible by 3

Here, the given statement is true. Compound statement is in the form P V Q, which has truth value T if either P or Q or both will be true.

**ii) Concept: **

A compound statement is defined as a combination of two statements or components. Here the components of the given statement “24 is a multiple of 4 & 6”, will be –

p: 24 is a multiple of 4 &

q: 24 is a multiple of 6

Here, the given statement is true as both p & q are true since 24 is a multiple of both 4 & 6.**iii) Concept **

A statement is considered as an assertive sentence if it is either true or false, but it shouldn’t be both.The given sentence is a true statement, since we know that “All living things have two eyes and two legs”, will be –

p: All living things have two eyes &

q: All living things have two legs.

Compound statement is in the form , which has truth value T which will be true only if both the components will be true.

Here p is false & q is true. Hence, the given statement is false.**iv) Concept**

A compound statement is defined as a combination of two statements or components. Here the components of the given statement “2 is an even number and a prime number”, will be –

p: 2 is an even number &

q: 2 is a prime number.

Compound statement is in the form P ? Q, which has truth value T which will be true only if both the components will be true. Here p & q both are true.

Hence, the given statement is true.

Question:4

Answer:

**i) Concept **

We know that negation of p is “not p”, viz. symbolized as –p, also its truth value of –p is the opposite of the truth value of p. Thus, the negation of this statement will be – “The number 17 is not prime.”**ii) Concept **

We know that negation of p is “not p”, viz. symbolized as –p, also its truth value of –p is the opposite of the truth value of p. Thus, the negation of this statement will be – **iii) Concept **

We know that negation of p is “not p”, viz. symbolized as –p, also its truth value of –p is the opposite of the truth value of p. Thus, the negation of this statement will be –

“Violets are not blue”**iv) Concept**

We know that negation of p is “not p”, viz. symbolized as –p, also its truth value of –p is the opposite of the truth value of p. Thus, the negation of this statement will be –

“ is not a rational number."**v) Concept **

We know that negation of p is “not p”, viz. symbolized as –p, also its truth value of –p is the opposite of the truth value of p. Thus, the negation of this statement will be –

“2 is a prime number.”**vi) Concept **

We know that negation of p is “not p”, viz. symbolized as –p, also its truth value of –p is the opposite of the truth value of p. Thus, the negation of this statement will be –

“Every real number is not an irrational number.”**vii) Concept **

We know that negation of p is “not p”, viz. symbolized as –p, also its truth value of –p is the opposite of the truth value of p. Thus, the negation of this statement will be –

“Cow does not have four legs.”**viii) Concept **

We know that negation of p is “not p”, viz. symbolized as –p, also its truth value of –p is the opposite of the truth value of p. Thus, the negation of this statement will be –

“A leap year does not have 366 days.”**ix) Concept **

We know that negation of p is “not p”, viz. symbolized as –p, also its truth value of –p is the opposite of the truth value of p. Thus, the negation of this statement will be –

“All similar triangles are not congruent.”**x) Concept **

We know that negation of p is “not p”, viz. symbolized as –p, also its truth value of –p is the opposite of the truth value of p.

Thus, the negation of this statement will be – “Area of a circle is not same as the perimeter of the circle.”

Question:5

Answer:

(i) It is a compound statement whose components are –

p: Rahul passed in Hindi &

q: Rahul passed in English

Symbolically the function is represented as –

– Rahul passed in Hindi & English

(ii) It is a compound statement whose components are –

p: x is an even integer &

q: y is an even integer

Symbolically the function is represented as –

are even integers.

(iii) It is a compound statement whose components are –

p: 2 is a factor of 12

q: 3 is a factor of 12 &

r: 6 is a factor of 12

Symbolically the function is represented as –

are factors of 12.

(iv) It is a compound statement whose components are –

p: x is an odd integer &

is an odd integer

Symbolically the function is represented as –

p V q – Either x or x + 1 is an odd integer.

(v) It is a compound statement whose components are –

p: A number is divisible by 2 &

q: A number is divisible by 3

Symbolically the function is represented as –

p V q – A number is either divisble by 2 or 3.

(vi) It is a compound statement whose components are –

is a root of &

is a root of

Symbolically the function is represented as –

p v q – Either x = 2 or x = 3 is a root of

(vii) It is a compound statement whose components are –

p: Hindi is the optional paper &

q: English is the optional paper

Symbolically the function is represented as –

p v q – Either Hindi or English is optional paper.

Question:6

Answer:

(i) It is a compound statement whose components are –

p: all rational numbers are real

-p: all rational numbers are not real

q: All rational numbers are complex

-q: All rational numbers are not complex

Thus,All rational numbers are real and complex.

& All rational nos. are neither complex nor real

(ii) It is a compound statement whose components are –

p: all real numbers are rational

-p: all real numbers are not rational

q: All real numbers are not irrational &

-q: All real numbers are not irrational

Thus, (p v q) = All real nos. are either rational or irrational.

& = All real numbers are neither rational or irrational.

(iii) It is a compound statement whose components are –

p: x = 2 is a root of Quadratic equation .

-p: x = 2 is not a root of Quadratic equation .

q: x = 3 is a root of Quadratic equation .

-q: x = 3 is not a root of Quadratic equation .

Thus, are roots of Quadratic equation .

&

Neither x = 2 nor x = 3 are roots of Quadratic equation .

(iv) It is a compound statement whose components are –

p: A triangle has 3 sides

-p: A triangle does not have 3 sides

q: A triangle has 4 sides

-q: A triangle does not have 4 sides

Thus, (p V q) = A triangle has either 3 or 4 sides & = A triangle has neither 3 nor 4 sides

(v) It is a compound statement whose components are –

p: 35 is a prime no.

-p: 35 is not a prime no.

q: 35 is a composite no.

-q: 35 is not a composite no.

Thus, (p V q) = 35 is either a prime no. or a composite no. & -(p V q) = -p ? –q = 35 is neither a prime no. nor a composite no.

(vi) It is a compound statement whose components are –

p: All prime integers are even

-p: All prime integers are not even

q: All integers are odd

-q: All integers are not odd

Thus, (p V q) = All prime integers are either even or odd & -(p V q) = -p ? –q = All prime integers are neither even nor odd

(vii) It is a compound statement whose components are –

p: is equal to x.

-p: is not equal to x.

q: is equal to-x.

-q: is not equal to-x.

Thus, (p V q) = x is either equal to x or-x & -(p V q) = -p ? – = is neither equal to x nor-x.

(viii) ) It is a compound statement whose components are –

p: 6 is divisible by 2

-p: 6 is not divisible by 2

q: 6 is divisible by 3

-q: 6 is not divisible by 3

Thus, (p ^ q) = 6 is divisible by 2 & 3

& -(p v q) = -p V –q = 6 is neither divisible by 2 nor 3.

Question:7

Answer:

(i) The expression in the given conditional statement is- if p, then q.

p: The no. is odd

q: The square of the no. is odd

Thus, “if the no. is odd, then its square is even.

(ii) The expression in the given conditional statement is- if p, then q.

p: Take the dinner

q: you will get sweet dish

Thus, “If you take the dinner, then you will get sweet dish.”

(iii) The expression in the given conditional statement is- if p, then q.

p: You do not study

q: you will fail

Thus, “If you do not study, you will fail.”

(iv) The expression in the given conditional statement is- if p, then q.

p: An integer is divisible by 5

q: Unit digits of an integer are 0 or 5.

Thus, “If an integer is divisible by 5, then its unit digits are 0.”

(v) The expression in the given conditional statement is- if p, then q.

p: Any no. is prime

q: square of no. is not prime

Thus, “If any no. is prime, then its square is not prime.”

(vi) The expression in the given conditional statement is- if p, then q.

p: a, b & c are in AP

q: 2b = a + c

Thus, “If a, b & c are in AP, then 2b = a + c.”

Question:8

Answer:

i) We use only & only if in biconditional statements, here,

p: The unit digit of an integer is zero.

q: It is divisible by 5.

Thus, p ↔ q = Unit digit of an integer is zero if and only if it is divisible by 5.

ii) We use only & only if in biconditional statements, here,

p: A natural no. n is odd

q: Natural no. n is not divisible by 2.

Thus, p ↔ q = A natural no. is odd if and only if it is not divisible by 2.

iii) We use only & only if in biconditional statements, here,

p: A triangle is an equilateral triangle.

q: All three sides of a triangle are equal.

p ↔ q = A triangle is an equilateral triangle if and only if all three sides of triangle are equal.

Question:9

Answer:

(i) Contrapositive definition: A conditional statement is said to be logically equivalent to its contrapositive.

Thus, Contrapositive: If x ≠ 3, then y ≠x or y ≠3.

(ii) Contrapositive definition: A conditional statement is said to be logically equivalent to its contrapositive.

Thus, Contrapositive: If n is not an integer, then it is not a natural no.

(iii) Contrapositive definition: A conditional statement is said to be logically equivalent to its contrapositive.

Thus, Contrapositive: If the triangle is not equilateral, then all three sides of the triangle are not equal.

(iv) Contrapositive definition: A conditional statement is said to be logically equivalent to its contrapositive.

Thus, Contrapositive: If xy is not a positive integer, then either x or y is not a negative integer.

(v) Contrapositive definition: A conditional statement is said to be logically equivalent to its contrapositive.

Thus, Contrapositive: If natural no. ‘n’ is not divisible by 2 or 3, then n is not divisible by 6.

(vi) Contrapositive definition: A conditional statement is said to be logically equivalent to its contrapositive.

Thus, Contrapositive: The weather will not be cold if it doesn’t snow.

(vii) Contrapositive definition: A conditional statement is said to be logically equivalent to its contrapositive.

Thus, Contrapositive: If then, x is not a real number such that 0 < x < 1.

Question:10

Answer:

(i) Converse definition: A conditional statement is said to be not logically equivalent to its converse.Thus, Converse: If the rectangle R is rhombus, then it is square.

(ii) Converse definition: A conditional statement is said to be not logically equivalent to its converse. Thus, Converse: If tomorrow is Tuesday, then today is Monday.

(iii) Converse definition: A conditional statement is said to be not logically equivalent to its converse.Thus, Converse: If you must visit Taj Mahal, then you go to Agra.

(iv) Converse definition: A conditional statement is said to be not logically equivalent to its converse. Thus, Converse: If the triangle is right triangle, then the sum of the squares of a triangle is equal to the square of the third side.

(v) Converse definition: A conditional statement is said to be not logically equivalent to its converse. Thus, Converse: If the triangle is equilateral, then all three angles of the triangle are equal.

(vi) Converse definition: A conditional statement is said to be not logically equivalent to its converse. Thus, Converse: If 2x = 3y, then x:y = 3:2.

(vii) Converse definition: A conditional statement is said to be not logically equivalent to its converse. Thus, Converse: If the opposite angles of a quadrilateral are supplementary, then S is cyclic.

(viii) Converse definition: A conditional statement is said to be not logically equivalent to its converse. Thus, Converse: If x is neither positive nor negative, then x = 0.

(ix) Converse definition: A conditional statement is said to be not logically equivalent to its converse. Thus, Converse:If the ratio of the corresponding sides of two triangles are equal, then trianles are similar.

Question:11

Answer:

(i) Quantifiers: It is a phrase viz. used to make the prepositional statement, example – ‘there exist’, ‘for all’, ‘for every’, etc.

In the given statement, quantifier is – “There exist” Thus, there is a quantifier.

(ii) Quantifiers: It is a phrase viz. used to make the prepositional statement, example – ‘there exist’, ‘for all’, ‘for every’, etc.

In the given statement, quantifier is – “For all” Thus, there is a quantifier.

(iii) Quantifiers: It is a phrase viz. used to make the prepositional statement, example – ‘there exist’, ‘for all’, ‘for every’, etc.

In the given statement, quantifier is – “There exist” Thus, there is a quantifier.

(iv) Quantifiers: It is a phrase viz. used to make the prepositional statement, example – ‘there exist’, ‘for all’, ‘for every’, etc.

In the given statement, quantifier is – “For every” Thus, there is a quantifier.

(v) Quantifiers: It is a phrase viz. used to make the prepositional statement, example – ‘there exist’, ‘for all’, ‘for every’, etc.

In the given statement, quantifier is – “For all” Thus, there is a quantifier.

(vi) Quantifiers: It is a phrase viz. used to make the prepositional statement, example – ‘there exist’, ‘for all’, ‘for every’, etc.

In the given statement, quantifier is – “There exist” Thus, there is a quantifier.

(vii) Quantifiers: It is a phrase viz. used to make the prepositional statement, example – ‘there exist’, ‘for all’, ‘for every’, etc.

In the given statement, quantifier is – “For all” Thus, there is a quantifier.

(viii) Quantifiers: It is a phrase viz. used to make the prepositional statement, example – ‘there exist’, ‘for all’, ‘for every’, etc.

In the given statement, quantifier is – “There exist” Thus, there is a quantifier.

(ix) Quantifiers: It is a phrase viz. used to make the prepositional statement, example – ‘there exist’, ‘for all’, ‘for every’, etc.

In the given statement, quantifier is – “There exist” Thus, there is a quantifier.

(x) Quantifiers: It is a phrase viz. used to make the prepositional statement, example – ‘there exist’, ‘for all’, ‘for every’, etc.

In the given statement, quantifier is – “There exist” Thus, there is a quantifier.

Question:12

Prove by direct method that for any integer is always even.

Answer:

Given :

Let us consider that, n is even

Thus,

[Let us consider that ]

Thus,

Thus,

is even

Now, we will assume that n is an odd no.

Thus,

Thus, from this we can say that is always even.

Question:13

Answer:

i) Here, p: 125 is divisible by 5 & 7

Now let, q: 125 is divisible by 5 &

r: 125 is divisible by 7.

We know that q is true & r is false.

Thus, q ^ r is false..

Therefore, p is no valid.

ii) Here, q: 131 is a multiple of 3 or 11.

Now let, P: 131 is a multiple of 3

& Q: 131 is a multiple of 11.

We know that both P & Q are false.

Thus, P V Q is False & q is not valid.

Question:14

Answer:

p: The sum of an irrational number and a rational number is irrational.

We know that the sum of a rational no. & a irrational no. is irrational, p is false.

Let,

&

Now,

But since, is irrational and n is rational viz.contradictiona, our assumption will be false.

Thus, P is true.

Question:15

Prove by direct method that for any real numbers if , then

Answer:

Given: For any real no. .

Let us consider that,

, where x & y are real no.

If we square both sides,

……. (assumption)

Thus, .

Question:16

Answer:

Let us consider that,

p: n^{2} is an even integer

-p: n is not an even integer

Q: n is also an even integer

-q: n is not an even integer.

A conditional statement is said to be logically equivalent to its contrapositive.

Thus, If n is not an even integer, then is not an even integer.

Thus, are true.

Question:17

Which of the following is a statement.

A. x is a real number.

B. Switch off the fan.

C. 6 is a natural number.

D. Let me go.

Answer:

A statement is considered as an assertive sentence if it is either true or false, but it should not be both.

Therefore, (C) 6 is a natural no. is true.

Question:18

Which of the following is not a statement

A. Smoking is injurious to health.

B.

C. 2 is the only even prime number.

D. Come here.

Answer:

Option D

‘Go there’ is not a statement to a given order like ‘Come here’.

Question:19

The connective in the statement is

A. and

B. or

C. >

D. <

Answer:

Since the two statements are connected by ‘or’ –

Option (B) is the correct answer.

Question:20

The connective in the statement

“Earth revolves round the Sun and Moon is a satellite of earth” is

A. or

B. Earth

C. Sun

D. and

Answer:

The connective in the given statement is ‘and’

Thus, option (D) is the correct answer.

Question:21

The negation of the statement

“A circle is an ellipse” is

A. An ellipse is a circle.

B. An ellipse is not a circle.

C. A circle is not an ellipse.

D. A circle is an ellipse.

Answer:

The negation of the given statement will be (C) A circle is not an ellipse

Question:22

The negation of the statement

“7 is greater than 8” is

A. 7 is equal to 8.

B. 7 is not greater than 8.

C. 8 is less than 7.

D. none of these

Answer:

The negation of the given statement will be –

(B) 7 is not greater than 8

Question:23

The negation of the statement

“72 is divisible by 2 and 3” is

A. 72 is not divisible by 2 or 72 is not divisible by 3.

B. 72 is not divisible by 2 and 72 is not divisible by 3.

C. 72 is divisible by 2 and 72 is not divisible by 3.

D. 72 is not divisible by 2 and 72 is divisible by 3.

Answer:

In the given statement-

p: 72 is divisible by 2 & 3

q: 72 is divisible by 2 & -q: 72 is not divisible by 2

r: 72 is divisible by 3 & -r: 72 is not divisible by 3

Thus, 72 is not divisible by 2 or 72 is not divisible by 3.

Thus, opt A is the correct answer.

Question:24

The negation of the statement

“Plants take in and give out ” is

A. Plants do not take in and do not give out .

B. Plants do not take in or do not give out .

C. Plants take in and do not give out .

D. Plants take in or do not give out .

Answer:

In the given statement-

p: Plants take in and give out

q: Plants take in & -q: Plants do not take in

r: Plants give out & -r: Plants do not give out

Thus, Plants do not take in or do not give out .

Thus, option B is the correct answer.

Question:25

The negation of the statement

“Rajesh or Rajni lived in Bangalore” is

A. Rajesh did not live in Bangalore or Rajni lives in Bangalore.

B. Rajesh lives in Bangalore and Rajni did not live in Bangalore.

C. Rajesh did not live in Bangalore and Rajni did not live in Bangalore.

D. Rajesh did not live in Bangalore or Rajni did not live in Bangalore.

Answer:

In the given statement-

p: Rajesh or Rajini lived in Bangalore

q: Rajesh lived in Bangalore & -q: Rajesh dis not lived in Bangalore

r: Rajini lived in Bandalore & -r: Rajini did not lived in Bangalore

Thus, Rajesh did not live in Bangalore and Rajini did not live in Bangalore.

Thus, Option C is the correct answer.

Question:26

The negation of the statement

“101 is not a multiple of 3” is

A. 101 is a multiple of 3.

B. 101 is a multiple of 2.

C. 101 is an odd number.

D. 101 is an even number.

Answer:

The negation of the given statement is –

101 is a multiple of 3.

Thus, option A is the correct answer.

Question:27

The contrapositive of the statement

“If 7 is greater than 5, then 8 is greater than 6” is

A. If 8 is greater than 6, then 7 is greater than 5.

B. If 8 is not greater than 6, then 7 is greater than 5.

C. If 8 is not greater than 6, then 7 is not greater than 5.

D. If 8 is greater than 6, then 7 is not greater than 5.

Answer:

Here, p: 7 is greater than 5 & -p: 7 is not greater than 5

& q: 8 is greater than 6 & -q: 8 is not greater than 6.

Now,

A conditional statement is said to be logically equivalent to its contrapositive.

Thus, -p → -q = If 8 is not greater than 6, then 7 is not greater than 5.

Thus, option (C) is the correct answer.

Question:28

The converse of the statement

“If x > y, then x + a > y + a” is

A. If x < y, then x + a < y + a.

B. If x + a > y + a, then x > y.

C. If x < y, then x + a > y + a.

D. If x > y, then x + a < y + a.

Answer:

Here,

& q:

Thus, , whose converse will be –

viz., if , then .

Thus, option (B) is the correct answer.

Question:29

The converse of the statement

“If sun is not shining, then sky is filled with clouds” is

A. If sky is filled with clouds, then the sun is not shining.

B. If sun is shining, then sky is filled with clouds.

C. If sky is clear, then sun is shining.

D. If sun is not shining, then sky is not filled with clouds.

Answer:

Here, p: Sun is not shining

& q: Sky is filled with clouds.

Thus, whose converse will be –

viz., If the sky is filled with clouds, then the sun is not shining.

Thus, option (A) is the correct answer.

Question:30

The contrapositive of the statement

“If p, then q”, is

A. If q, then p.

B. If p, then .

C. If , then .

D. If , then .

Answer:

Here the statement is in the form – “If p, then q” viz.

whose converse will be

Thus, if –q, then –p.

Therefore, option (C) is the correct answer.

Question:31

The statement

“If is not even, then x is not even” is converse of the statement

A. If is odd, then x is even.

B. If x is not even, then is not even.

C. If x is even, then is even.

D. If x is odd, then is even.

Answer:

Here, let p: x^{2} is not even & q: x is not even

Thus, , whose converse will be –

viz., If x is not even, then is not even.

Thus, option B is the correct answer.

Question:32

The contrapositive of statement

‘If Chandigarh is capital of Punjab, then Chandigarh is in India’ is

A. If Chandigarh is not in India, then Chandigarh is not the capital of Punjab.

B. If Chandigarh is in India, then Chandigarh is Capital of Punjab.

C. If Chandigarh is not capital of Punjab, then Chandigarh is not capital of India.

D. If Chandigarh is capital of Punjab, then Chandigarh is not in India.

Answer:

Here, let us take,

p: Chandigarh is the capital of Punjab, thus –p: Chandigarh is not the capital of Punjab

& q: Chandigarh is in India, thus –q: Chandigarh is not in India.

Now, If (-q), then (-p),

Thus, If Chandigarh is not in India, then Chandigarh is not the capital of Punjab.

Thus, option A is the correct answer.

Question:33

Which of the following is the conditional ?

A. q is sufficient for p.

B. p is necessary for q.

C. p only if q.

D. if q, then p.

Answer:

p only if q is the same as .

Thus, option C is the correct answer.

Question:34

The negation of the statement “The product of 3 and 4 is 9” is

A. It is false that the product of 3 and 4 is 9.

B. The product of 3 and 4 is 12.

C. The product of 3 and 4 is not 12.

D. It is false that the product of 3 and 4 is not 9.

Answer:

The negation of the given statement is –

“It is false that the product of 3 & 4 is 9.”

Thus, option A is the correct answer.

Question:35

Which of the following is not a negation of

“A natural number is greater than zero”

A. A natural number is not greater than zero.

B. It is false that a natural number is greater than zero.

C. It is false that a natural number is not greater than zero.

D. None of the above

Answer:

We know that the negation of the given statement is false, viz.

“It is false that a natural no. is not greater than zero.”

Thus, option C is the correct answer.

Question:36

Which of the following statement is a conjunction?

A. Ram and Shyam are friends.

B. Both Ram and Shyam are tall.

C. Both Ram and Shyam are enemies.

D. None of the above.

Answer:

None of the given statements is separated by ‘and’, thus, option D is the correct answer.

Question:37

Answer:

(i) “The angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal” is true, thus, it is clear that it is a statement.

(ii) “The moon is the satellite of the earth” is true, thus, it is clear that it is a statement.

(iii) “May God bless you!” is an exclamation sentence, thus, it is clear that it is not a statement.

(iv) “Asia is a continent” is true, thus, it is clear that it is a statement.

(v) “How are you?” is a question, thus, it is clear that it is not a statement.

Students can download the notes by clicking on the NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Maths solutions Chapter 14 PDF Download. The PDF consists of solutions to those questions which are important from the examination point of view and is very convenient for the students to refer to.

· Mathematical Statements

· The negation of a Statement

· Compound Statements

· Special Words/Phrases

· The word ‘And’

· The word ‘Or’

· Quantifiers

· Implications

· Contrapositive

· Converse

· Validating Statements

· Direct Method

· Contrapositive Method

· Contradiction Method

· Using a Counterexample Method

The experts have given the solutions in a simple manner which enables the students to grasp the concept of Mathematical Reasoning. The Class 11 Maths NCERT Exemplar Solutions Chapter 14 also includes the answers to the questions related to different sub-topics like contrapositive and converse implications and different types of methods.

With the help of illustrations and stepwise format of the solutions, the students can easily ace the chapter in their examination. As NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Maths solutions Chapter 14 are important, it cannot be skipped by the students. It is the most crucial chapter from the entire syllabus and many questions which are asked in the exam are based on Mathematical Reasoning.

Mathematical Statements: Mathematical Statements are divided into two sub-topics namely: Negation statements and Compound statements. A mathematically acceptable statement is a statement which can either be termed as true or false. Negation statements in mathematics are used to determine the opposite of a given statement, for example, the statement given is A, then the negation of the statement will be denoted by ∼A. Compound Statements in mathematics in simple terms consist of two smaller statements.

Validating Statements: NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Maths solutions Chapter 14 suggests that there are four ways in mathematics to validate statements by using the Direct Method, Contrapositive Method, Contradiction Method, and by using a Counterexample Method. The students should first understand the basic concept behind all these methods and then apply them to validate the given statement.

Implications: Implication is another important topic which must be studied thoroughly by the students. The students should learn what are the different types of implications used in mathematical reasoning and the precise way to apply them to statements. NCERT Exemplar solutions for Class 11 Maths Chapter 14 proves to be the perfect guide for learning Mathematical Reasoning.

**Check Chapter-Wise NCERT Solutions of Book**

Chapter-1 | |

Chapter-2 | |

Chapter-3 | |

Chapter-4 | |

Chapter-5 | |

Chapter-6 | |

Chapter-7 | |

Chapter-8 | |

Chapter-9 | |

Chapter-10 | |

Chapter-11 | |

Chapter-12 | |

Chapter-13 | |

Chapter-14 | Mathematical Reasoning |

Chapter-15 | |

Chapter-16 |

**Read more NCERT Solution subject wise -**

- NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Maths
- NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Physics
- NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry
- NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology

**Also, read NCERT Notes subject wise -**

- NCERT Notes for Class 11 Maths
- NCERT Notes for Class 11 Physics
- NCERT Notes for Class 11 Chemistry
- NCERT Notes for Class 11 Biology

**Also Check NCERT Books and NCERT Syllabus here:**

1. Does the NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Class 11 Maths Chapter 14 include textbook-based exercises?

Yes, most of the questions solved in NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Maths Chapter 14 Solutions include textbook-based exercises

2. Can the format of the solutions be followed for board examination?

Yes, the format of the solutions can be followed for board examinations.

3. Where can I download the NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Maths Chapter 14 Solutions?

Students can use the NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Maths Solutions Chapter 14 PDF Download function to download the PDF for this chapter.

Dec 07, 2023

Dec 07, 2023

Application Date:20 November,2023 - 19 December,2023

Application Date:20 November,2023 - 19 December,2023

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Individuals who are interested in working as a Cloud Administration should have the necessary technical skills to handle various tasks related to computing. These include the design and implementation of cloud computing services, as well as the maintenance of their own. Aside from being able to program multiple programming languages, such as Ruby, Python, and Java, individuals also need a degree in computer science.

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