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NCERT Class 12 Syllabus 2024-25 - National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has provided the NCERT syllabus for class 12 Science, Arts, and Commerce stream. NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 PDF is available to download from the official website, ncert.nic.in. The NCERT syllabus gives an outline of the curriculum and contents of each subject including Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics, etc.
The NCERT 12th Class syllabus contains detailed information on each subject such as unit wise topics of each chapter along with the marks distribution. Students can check all the important topics from the syllabus. The syllabus for some subjects is segregated into theory and practicals, whereas for some subjects there will be a theory paper only. Check the detailed NCERT syllabus for Class 12 on this page.
Subjects | Links |
NCERT 12th syllabus for English - Kaleidoscope | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for English - Flamingo | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for English - Vistas | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Maths - Part 1 | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Maths - Part 2 | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Physics - Part 1 | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Physics - Part 2 | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Chemistry - Part 1 | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Chemistry - Part 2 | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Biology | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for History - Themes in Indian History Part 1 | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for History - Themes in Indian History Part 2 | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for History - Themes in Indian History Part 3 | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Psychology | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Accountancy - 1 | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Accountancy - 2 | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Political Science - 1 | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Political Science - 2 | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Geography - Part 1 | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Geography - Part 2 | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Geography - Part 3 | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Sociology - Indian Society | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Sociology - Social Change and Development in India | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Economics - Introductory Microeconomics | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Economics - Introductory Macroeconomics | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Business Studies - 1 | Click here |
NCERT 12th syllabus for Business Studies - 2 | Click here |
The theory paper of English is of 100 marks. The question paper is divided into three sections: Reading, Writing, and Literature. The exam duration will be 3 hours. There are two books prescribed in the NCERT syllabus for class 12 English - Flamingo, and Vistas (Supplementary reader). Below is the list of chapters included in both books.
Prose | Poetry |
The Last Lesson | My Mother at Sixty Six |
Lost Spring | Keeping Quiet |
Deep Water | A Thing of Beauty |
The Rattrap | A Roadside Stand |
Indigo | Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers |
Poets and Pancakes | |
The Interview (Part I & II) | |
Going Places |
The Third Level
The Tiger King
Journey to the End of the Earth
The Enemy
On the Face of It
Memories of childhood: The cutting of my long hair, We too are Human beings
The syllabus of NCERT Physics for class 12 is divided into theory and practical. The theory exam is 70 marks and the practical exam is of 30 marks. Students must go through the complete NCERT Physics syllabus for 12th to have a basic idea about the curriculum. Refer to the tables below to know the NCERT syllabus for 12th Physics Theory and Practicals.
Unit | NCERT Chapter-wise Solution | Important Topics | Marks |
I | Electrostatics | 16 | |
Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; torque on a dipole in uniform electric field, super position principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole,etc. | |||
Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field, etc. | |||
II | Current Electricity | ||
Ohm's law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear) Carbon resistors, Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current , electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance,etc | |||
III | Magnetic Effect of Current & Magnetism | 17 | |
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment. Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields, Cyclotron.Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, etc. | |||
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, magnetic field lines; earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements, magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis, torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, etc | |||
IV | Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Current | ||
Electromagnetic induction; Lenz's Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction. Faraday's laws, induced EMF and current. | |||
Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; power factor, wattless current, LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, etc | |||
V | Electromagnetic Waves | 18 | |
Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only), etc | |||
VI | Optics | ||
Power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism. Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibers, etc | |||
Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, Wave front and Huygen's principle, Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle, coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Interference, etc. | |||
VII | Dual Nature of Matter | 12 | |
Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light, etc. | |||
VIII | Atoms & Nuclei | ||
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum, Rutherford's model of atom. | |||
Composition and size of nucleus, Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law, etc. | |||
IX | Electronic Devices | 7 | |
Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier, Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only), etc. | |||
Total | 70 |
Particulars | Marks |
Two experiments one from each section | 8+8 |
Practical record (experiments and activities) | 6 |
Investigatory Project | 3 |
Viva on experiments, activities and project | 5 |
Total | 30 |
The mathematics syllabus of 12th NCERT is segregated into theory and internal assessment. The question paper of NCERT is 80 marks, wherein the internal assessment will be of 20 marks. The questions asked in the examination will be very short, short, and long answer types. Check the NCERT syllabus for class 12 for mathematics from the table below.
NCERT Chapter-wise Solution | Important Topics | Marks |
Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions | 08 | |
Definition, range, domain, principal value branch. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions | ||
Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero and identity matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Operation on matrices: Addition and multiplication and multiplication with a scalar. Simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Oncommutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2). Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries) | 10 | |
Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), minors, co-factors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix. | ||
Continuity and differentiability, chain rule, derivative of inverse trigonometric functions, ???? sin−1 ? , cos−1 ? and tan−1 ?, derivative of implicit functions. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions. Derivatives of logarithmic and exponential functions. Logarithmic differentiation, derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives | 35 | |
Applications of derivatives: rate of change of bodies, increasing/decreasing functions, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as reallife situations) | ||
Integration as inverse process of differentiation. Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, Evaluation of simple integrals of the following types and problems based on them. ∫ dx x 2 ± a 2, ∫ dx √x 2 ± a 2 , ∫ dx √a 2 − x 2 , ∫ dx ax2 + bx + c , ∫ dx √ax2+bx+c ∫ px + q ax2 + bx + c dx, ∫ px + q √ax2+bx + c dx, ∫ √a 2 ± x 2 dx, ∫ √x 2 − a 2 dx ∫√??2 + ?? + ? ??, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals | ||
Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, circles/ parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only) | ||
Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables, solutions of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type: dy dx + py = q, where p and q are functions of x or constants. d? d? + px = q, where p and q are functions of y or constants. | ||
Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties and application of scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors. | 14 | |
Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line, skew lines, shortest distance between two lines. Angle between two lines. | ||
Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions (bounded or unbounded), feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints). | 05 | |
Conditional probability, multiplication theorem on probability, independent events, total probability, Bayes’ theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean of random variable. | 08 | |
Total | 80 |
The details for the Theory and practical syllabus of NCERT 12th chemistry is given in the table below. Students can check the unit wise important topics and marks allotted for each unit here. The evaluation scheme for the chemistry practical examination is given in the second table.
Chapters | Important Topics | Marks |
Solid State | General characteristics of solid states Amorphous and crystalline solids Classification of crystalline solids Molecular solids, etc. | 23 |
Solutions | Types of solutions Expressing concentration of solutions Solubility, solubility of a gas in liquid, etc. | |
Electrochemistry | Electrochemical cells Galvanic cells Measurement of electrode potential Nernst equation, etc. | |
Chemical Kinetics | Rate of a chemical reaction Dependence of rate on concentration Rate expression and rate constant, etc. | |
Surface Chemistry | Adsorption Distinction between adsorption and absorption Types of adsorption etc | |
General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements | Occurence of metals Extraction of crude metal from concentrated ore, Thermodynamic principles of metallurgy, etc. | 19 |
The p-Block elements | Occurrence Electronic configuration Atomic and ionic radii IIonisation Enthalpy Electronegativity, etc. | |
The d- and f - Block Elements | Electronic Configurations of the d-Block Elements Variation in Atomic and Ionic Sizes of Transition Metals, etc. | |
Coordination Compounds | Werner’s theory of coordination compounds Definitions of Some Important Terms Pertaining to Coordination Compounds, etc. | |
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes | Nature of C-X Bond Methods of preparation of haloalkanes, hydrocarbons, halogen exchange, etc. | 28 |
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers | Alcohols— Mono, Di, Tri or Polyhydric alcohols, Phenols— Mono, Di and trihydric phenols etc | |
Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids | Nomenclature, structure of the carbonyl group Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones etc. | |
Amines | Structure of amines Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction Gabriel phthalimide synthesis, etc | |
Biomolecules | Carbohydrates, Monosaccharides, Preparation of Glucose, structure of glucose Cyclic Structure of Glucose, etc. | |
Polymers | Classification of Polymers Types of polymerization reactions Mechanism of polymerisation reaction, etc. | |
Chemistry in Everyday Life | Drugs and their classification Drug-target interaction Receptors as drug targets | |
Total | 70 |
Practicals | Marks |
Volumetric Analysis | 8 |
Salt Analysis | 8 |
Content-based Experiment | 6 |
Project Work | 4 |
Class record and viva | 4 |
Total | 30 |
The NCERT Syllabus of Biology class 12 comprises theory and practical exam. The total marks for Biology subject is 100, where the theory exam is 70 marks and practicals are of 30 marks. Check the important topics and marking scheme below.
NCERT Chapter-wise Solution | Important Topics |
Flower Structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; pollination -Types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; post-fertilization events - development of endosperm and embryo, pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization, etc. | |
Embryo development up to blastocyst formation, menstrual cycle, fertilisation, Male and Female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis - spermatogenesis and oogenesis, etc. | |
Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control - contraception and medical termination of pregnancy, need and methods, etc. | |
Chromosome theory of inheritance; linkage and crossing over; sex-linked inheritance - haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans, Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple alleles and inheritance, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance, etc. | |
Central dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation - lac operon, Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication, etc. | |
Darwin's contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution, Origin of life; biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution (palaeontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence), etc. | |
Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm) and their control, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, etc. | |
Energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers, In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, etc. | |
Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology). | |
Stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms, Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, etc. | |
Population and ecological adaptations; population interactions - mutualism, Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, competition, predation, parasitism, etc. | |
Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession, etc. | |
Biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity, etc. | |
Total |
Also read,
Particulars | Marks |
One Major Experiment | 5 |
One Minor Experiment | 4 |
Slide Preparation | 5 |
Spotting | 7 |
Practical Record/Project record + Viva Voce | 4 |
Investigatory Project and its Project Record + Viva Voce | 5 |
Total | 30 |
CBSE is a board whereas NCERT is a counsel. CBSE prescribes the books published by NCERT.
Passing marks in CBSE class 12 are 33%.
Ideally you have to start your revision at least two months before the examination.
NCERT is enough for understanding the concepts. For practice purpose you may to refer to other books as well.
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