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NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 2024-25 (All Subjects) - Download PDF Here

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 2024-25 (All Subjects) - Download PDF Here

Edited By Apoorva Singh | Updated on Jun 12, 2024 05:22 PM IST

NCERT Class 12 Syllabus 2024-25 - National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has provided the NCERT syllabus for class 12 Science, Arts, and Commerce stream. NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 PDF is available to download from the official website, The NCERT syllabus gives an outline of the curriculum and contents of each subject including Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics, etc.

The NCERT 12th Class syllabus contains detailed information on each subject such as unit wise topics of each chapter along with the marks distribution. Students can check all the important topics from the syllabus. The syllabus for some subjects is segregated into theory and practicals, whereas for some subjects there will be a theory paper only. Check the detailed NCERT syllabus for Class 12 on this page.

NCERT Class 12 Syllabus 2024-25 PDF Download

NCERT 12th syllabus for English - Kaleidoscope
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NCERT 12th syllabus for English - Flamingo
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NCERT 12th syllabus for English - Vistas
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NCERT 12th syllabus for Maths - Part 1
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NCERT 12th syllabus for Maths - Part 2
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NCERT 12th syllabus for Physics - Part 1
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NCERT 12th syllabus for Physics - Part 2
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NCERT 12th syllabus for Chemistry - Part 1
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NCERT 12th syllabus for Chemistry - Part 2
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NCERT 12th syllabus for BiologyClick here
NCERT 12th syllabus for History - Themes in Indian History Part 1
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NCERT 12th syllabus for History - Themes in Indian History Part 2
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NCERT 12th syllabus for History - Themes in Indian History Part 3
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NCERT 12th syllabus for PsychologyClick here
NCERT 12th syllabus for Accountancy - 1
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NCERT 12th syllabus for Accountancy - 2
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NCERT 12th syllabus for Political Science - 1
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NCERT 12th syllabus for Political Science - 2
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NCERT 12th syllabus for Geography - Part 1
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NCERT 12th syllabus for Geography - Part 2
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NCERT 12th syllabus for Geography - Part 3
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NCERT 12th syllabus for Sociology - Indian Society
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NCERT 12th syllabus for Sociology - Social Change and Development in India
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NCERT 12th syllabus for Economics - Introductory Microeconomics
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NCERT 12th syllabus for Economics - Introductory Macroeconomics
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NCERT 12th syllabus for Business Studies - 1
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NCERT 12th syllabus for Business Studies - 2
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NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 English

The theory paper of English is of 100 marks. The question paper is divided into three sections: Reading, Writing, and Literature. The exam duration will be 3 hours. There are two books prescribed in the NCERT syllabus for class 12 English - Flamingo, and Vistas (Supplementary reader). Below is the list of chapters included in both books.

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 for English - (Flamingo)



The Last Lesson

My Mother at Sixty Six

Lost Spring

Keeping Quiet

Deep Water

A Thing of Beauty

The Rattrap

A Roadside Stand


Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers

Poets and Pancakes

The Interview (Part I & II)

Going Places

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 English - Vistas

  1. The Third Level

  2. The Tiger King

  3. Journey to the End of the Earth

  4. The Enemy

  5. On the Face of It

  6. Memories of childhood: The cutting of my long hair, We too are Human beings

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Physics

The syllabus of NCERT Physics for class 12 is divided into theory and practical. The theory exam is 70 marks and the practical exam is of 30 marks. Students must go through the complete NCERT Physics syllabus for 12th to have a basic idea about the curriculum. Refer to the tables below to know the NCERT syllabus for 12th Physics Theory and Practicals.

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 - Physics (Theory)


NCERT Chapter-wise Solution

Important Topics





Chapter-1: Electric Charges and Fields

Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; torque on a dipole in uniform electric field, super position principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole,etc.

Chapter-2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field, etc.


Current Electricity

Chapter-3: Current Electricity

Ohm's law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear) Carbon resistors, Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current , electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance,etc


Magnetic Effect of Current & Magnetism


Chapter-4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment. Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields, Cyclotron.Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, etc.

Chapter-5: Magnetism and Matter

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, magnetic field lines; earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements, magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis, torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, etc


Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Current

Chapter-6: Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic induction; Lenz's Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction. Faraday's laws, induced EMF and current.

Chapter-7: Alternating Current

Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; power factor, wattless current, LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, etc


Electromagnetic Waves


Chapter-8: Electromagnetic Waves

Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only), etc



Chapter-9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism. Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibers, etc

Chapter-10: Wave Optics

Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, Wave front and Huygen's principle, Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle, coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Interference, etc.


Dual Nature of Matter


Chapter-11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light, etc.


Atoms & Nuclei

Chapter-12: Atoms

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum, Rutherford's model of atom.

Chapter-13: Nuclei

Composition and size of nucleus, Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law, etc.


Electronic Devices


Chapter-14: Semiconductor Electronics

Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier, Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only), etc.



NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 - Physics (Practicals)



Two experiments one from each section


Practical record (experiments and activities)


Investigatory Project


Viva on experiments, activities and project




NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Maths

The mathematics syllabus of 12th NCERT is segregated into theory and internal assessment. The question paper of NCERT is 80 marks, wherein the internal assessment will be of 20 marks. The questions asked in the examination will be very short, short, and long answer types. Check the NCERT syllabus for class 12 for mathematics from the table below.

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 - Mathematics

NCERT Chapter-wise Solution

Important Topics


Chapter 1 - Relations and Functions

Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions


Chapter 2 - Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Definition, range, domain, principal value branch. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions

Chapter 3 - Matrices

Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero and identity matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Operation on matrices: Addition and multiplication and multiplication with a scalar. Simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Oncommutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2). Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries)


Chapter 4 - Determinants

Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), minors, co-factors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.

Chapter 5 - Continuity and Differentiability

Continuity and differentiability, chain rule, derivative of inverse trigonometric functions, ???? sin−1 ? , cos−1 ? and tan−1 ?, derivative of implicit functions. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions. Derivatives of logarithmic and exponential functions. Logarithmic differentiation, derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives


Chapter 6 - Application of Derivatives

Applications of derivatives: rate of change of bodies, increasing/decreasing functions, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as reallife situations)

Chapter 7 - Integrals

Integration as inverse process of differentiation. Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, Evaluation of simple integrals of the following types and problems based on them. ∫ dx x 2 ± a 2, ∫ dx √x 2 ± a 2 , ∫ dx √a 2 − x 2 , ∫ dx ax2 + bx + c , ∫ dx √ax2+bx+c ∫ px + q ax2 + bx + c dx, ∫ px + q √ax2+bx + c dx, ∫ √a 2 ± x 2 dx, ∫ √x 2 − a 2 dx ∫√??2 + ?? + ? ??, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals

Chapter 8 - Application of Integrals

Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, circles/ parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only)

Chapter 9 - Differential Equations

Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables, solutions of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type: dy dx + py = q, where p and q are functions of x or constants. d? d? + px = q, where p and q are functions of y or constants.

Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra

Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties and application of scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors.


Chapter 11 - Three Dimensional Geometry

Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line, skew lines, shortest distance between two lines. Angle between two lines.

Chapter 12 - Linear Programming

Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions (bounded or unbounded), feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints).


Chapter 13 - Probability

Conditional probability, multiplication theorem on probability, independent events, total probability, Bayes’ theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean of random variable.




NCERT syllabus for class 12 Chemistry

The details for the Theory and practical syllabus of NCERT 12th chemistry is given in the table below. Students can check the unit wise important topics and marks allotted for each unit here. The evaluation scheme for the chemistry practical examination is given in the second table.

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 - Chemistry


Important Topics


Solid State

General characteristics of solid states

Amorphous and crystalline solids

Classification of crystalline solids

Molecular solids, etc.



Types of solutions

Expressing concentration of solutions

Solubility, solubility of a gas in liquid, etc.


Electrochemical cells

Galvanic cells

Measurement of electrode potential

Nernst equation, etc.

Chemical Kinetics

Rate of a chemical reaction

Dependence of rate on concentration

Rate expression and rate constant, etc.

Surface Chemistry


Distinction between adsorption and absorption

Types of adsorption etc

General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

Occurence of metals

Extraction of crude metal from concentrated ore,

Thermodynamic principles of metallurgy, etc.


The p-Block elements


Electronic configuration

Atomic and ionic radii

IIonisation Enthalpy

Electronegativity, etc.

The d- and f - Block Elements

Electronic Configurations of the d-Block Elements

Variation in Atomic and Ionic Sizes of Transition Metals, etc.

Coordination Compounds

Werner’s theory of coordination compounds

Definitions of Some Important Terms Pertaining to Coordination Compounds, etc.

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Nature of C-X Bond

Methods of preparation of haloalkanes, hydrocarbons, halogen exchange, etc.


Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Alcohols— Mono, Di, Tri or Polyhydric alcohols,

Phenols— Mono, Di and trihydric phenols etc

Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

Nomenclature, structure of the carbonyl group

Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones etc.


Structure of amines

Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction

Gabriel phthalimide synthesis, etc


Carbohydrates, Monosaccharides,

Preparation of Glucose, structure of glucose

Cyclic Structure of Glucose, etc.


Classification of Polymers

Types of polymerization reactions

Mechanism of polymerisation reaction, etc.

Chemistry in Everyday Life

Drugs and their classification

Drug-target interaction

Receptors as drug targets



NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 - Chemistry Practical



Volumetric Analysis


Salt Analysis


Content-based Experiment


Project Work


Class record and viva




NCERT syllabus for class 12 Biology

The NCERT Syllabus of Biology class 12 comprises theory and practical exam. The total marks for Biology subject is 100, where the theory exam is 70 marks and practicals are of 30 marks. Check the important topics and marking scheme below.

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 - Biology (Theory)

NCERT Chapter-wise Solution

Important Topics

Chapter 2 - Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Flower Structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; pollination -Types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; post-fertilization events - development of endosperm and embryo, pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization, etc.

Chapter 3 - Human Reproduction

Embryo development up to blastocyst formation, menstrual cycle, fertilisation, Male and Female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis - spermatogenesis and oogenesis, etc.

Chapter 4 - Reproductive Health

Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control - contraception and medical termination of pregnancy, need and methods, etc.

Chapter 5 - Principles of Inheritance And Variation

Chromosome theory of inheritance; linkage and crossing over; sex-linked inheritance - haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans, Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple alleles and inheritance, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance, etc.

Chapter 6 - Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Central dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation - lac operon, Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication, etc.

Chapter 7 - Evolution

Darwin's contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution, Origin of life; biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution (palaeontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence), etc.

Chapter 8 - Human Health and Disease

Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm) and their control, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, etc.

Chapter 10 - Microbes in Human Welfare

Energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers, In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, etc.

Chapter 11 - Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).

Chapter 12 - Biotechnology and its Applications

Stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms, Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, etc.

Chapter 13 - Organisms And Population

Population and ecological adaptations; population interactions - mutualism, Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, competition, predation, parasitism, etc.

Chapter 14 - Ecosystem

Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession, etc.

Chapter 15 - Biodiversity and Conservation

Biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity, etc.


Also read,

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 - Biology (Practicals)



One Major Experiment


One Minor Experiment


Slide Preparation




Practical Record/Project record + Viva Voce

Investigatory Project and its Project Record + Viva Voce5



NCERT Books for class 12 all Subjects

Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

1. Is CBSE and NCERT different?

CBSE is a board whereas NCERT is a counsel. CBSE prescribes the books published by NCERT.

2. What are the passing marks in CBSE class 12?

Passing marks in CBSE class 12 are 33%.

3. What is the ideal time to revise for CBSE class 12?

Ideally you have to start your revision at least two months before the  examination.

4. Is NCERT enough for the preparation of competitive examinations?

NCERT is enough for understanding the concepts. For practice purpose you may to refer to other books as well.


Get answers from students and experts

A block of mass 0.50 kg is moving with a speed of 2.00 ms-1 on a smooth surface. It strikes another mass of 1.00 kg and then they move together as a single body. The energy loss during the collision is

Option 1)

0.34\; J

Option 2)

0.16\; J

Option 3)

1.00\; J

Option 4)

0.67\; J

A person trying to lose weight by burning fat lifts a mass of 10 kg upto a height of 1 m 1000 times.  Assume that the potential energy lost each time he lowers the mass is dissipated.  How much fat will he use up considering the work done only when the weight is lifted up ?  Fat supplies 3.8×107 J of energy per kg which is converted to mechanical energy with a 20% efficiency rate.  Take g = 9.8 ms−2 :

Option 1)

2.45×10−3 kg

Option 2)

 6.45×10−3 kg

Option 3)

 9.89×10−3 kg

Option 4)

12.89×10−3 kg


An athlete in the olympic games covers a distance of 100 m in 10 s. His kinetic energy can be estimated to be in the range

Option 1)

2,000 \; J - 5,000\; J

Option 2)

200 \, \, J - 500 \, \, J

Option 3)

2\times 10^{5}J-3\times 10^{5}J

Option 4)

20,000 \, \, J - 50,000 \, \, J

A particle is projected at 600   to the horizontal with a kinetic energy K. The kinetic energy at the highest point

Option 1)


Option 2)

\; K\;

Option 3)


Option 4)


In the reaction,

2Al_{(s)}+6HCL_{(aq)}\rightarrow 2Al^{3+}\, _{(aq)}+6Cl^{-}\, _{(aq)}+3H_{2(g)}

Option 1)

11.2\, L\, H_{2(g)}  at STP  is produced for every mole HCL_{(aq)}  consumed

Option 2)

6L\, HCl_{(aq)}  is consumed for ever 3L\, H_{2(g)}      produced

Option 3)

33.6 L\, H_{2(g)} is produced regardless of temperature and pressure for every mole Al that reacts

Option 4)

67.2\, L\, H_{2(g)} at STP is produced for every mole Al that reacts .

How many moles of magnesium phosphate, Mg_{3}(PO_{4})_{2} will contain 0.25 mole of oxygen atoms?

Option 1)


Option 2)

3.125 × 10-2

Option 3)

1.25 × 10-2

Option 4)

2.5 × 10-2

If we consider that 1/6, in place of 1/12, mass of carbon atom is taken to be the relative atomic mass unit, the mass of one mole of a substance will

Option 1)

decrease twice

Option 2)

increase two fold

Option 3)

remain unchanged

Option 4)

be a function of the molecular mass of the substance.

With increase of temperature, which of these changes?

Option 1)


Option 2)

Weight fraction of solute

Option 3)

Fraction of solute present in water

Option 4)

Mole fraction.

Number of atoms in 558.5 gram Fe (at. wt.of Fe = 55.85 g mol-1) is

Option 1)

twice that in 60 g carbon

Option 2)

6.023 × 1022

Option 3)

half that in 8 g He

Option 4)

558.5 × 6.023 × 1023

A pulley of radius 2 m is rotated about its axis by a force F = (20t - 5t2) newton (where t is measured in seconds) applied tangentially. If the moment of inertia of the pulley about its axis of rotation is 10 kg m2 , the number of rotations made by the pulley before its direction of motion if reversed, is

Option 1)

less than 3

Option 2)

more than 3 but less than 6

Option 3)

more than 6 but less than 9

Option 4)

more than 9

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