NCERT Class 12 Physics Chapter 6 Notes Electromagnetic Induction - Download PDF

# NCERT Class 12 Physics Chapter 6 Notes Electromagnetic Induction - Download PDF

Edited By Vishal kumar | Updated on Feb 02, 2024 05:06 PM IST

The chapter on Electromagnetic Induction in NCERT Class 12 Physics explores the fascinating phenomenon in which fluctuating magnetic fields generate electric currents. The accompanying notes provide a concise overview, focusing on key topics such as Magnetic Flux, Faraday's Law of Induction, Lenz's Law, Motional Electromotive Force, Eddy Currents, Inductance, and AC Generators.

These Electromagnetic Induction class 12 notes are an invaluable resource, presenting fundamental equations and concepts required for understanding electromagnetic induction. While derivations are not explicitly covered in the CBSE class 12 physics chapter 6 notes, the extensive coverage ensures a strong foundation in this area of study. Students can use the physics class 12 chapter 6 notes pdf to gain a thorough understanding of electromagnetic phenomena and their practical applications.

Also, students can refer,

## NCERT Class 12 Physics Chapter 6 Notes-

• Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) is the phenomenon of generating current or emf by changing the magnetic flux.
• Magnetic Flux:- The total number of magnetic lines of force travelling naturally through any surface equals the magnetic flux associated with it. It's a Scalar Quantity

## Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction

The First Law:

When the magnetic flux in a closed-loop or circuit varies, an emf is generated in the loop or circuit that lasts as long as the flux is changing.
Second Law:

The rate of change of magnetic flux in a closed loop or circuit is directly proportional to the induced emf in the closed-loop or circuit.

where the negative sign indicates that e is induced in the opposite direction of changing flux.

## Lenz’s Law:

The direction of induced emf is determined by Lenz's law.

According to this law, the direction of induced emf in a circuit opposes the change in magnetic flux responsible for its formation. The law of Lenz is based on the idea of energy conservation.

Fleming's right-hand rule:

Fleming's right-hand rule also determines the direction of induced emf or current in a conductor travelling in a magnetic field. According to this rule, if we stretch our right hand's forefinger, central finger, and thumb in mutually perpendicular directions, the forefinger will point in the direction of the field and the thumb will point in the direction of conductor motion, the central finger will point in the direction of induced current or emf.

Lenz's law is used in a variety of situations.

- When a bar magnet's north pole is shifted towards a coil, the current produced in the coil will be anticlockwise.

- When a bar magnet's north pole is moved away from the coil, the current produced in the coil rotates clockwise.

-The direction of current induced in a stationary coil changes as a current-carrying coil is pushed near it.
-The direction of current induced in a stationary coil changes when a current-carrying coil is moved away from it.

## Motional emf:-

The generated emf across the ends of a conducting rod of length l moving with a velocity v perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field B is.

Motional emf is the name for this type of emf.

The induced emf if the rod makes an angle with the field direction is.

When a length l conducting rod is rotated perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field B, the induced emf between the rod's ends is

The emf produced between the centre and rim of a conducting solid disc of radius r rotates with a uniform angular velocity w with its plane perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field B.

Eddy currents:

Eddy currents are currents induced in the body of a conductor as a result of a change in magnetic flux associated with the conductor.

• Lenz's law, often known as Fleming's right-hand rule, determines the direction of eddy currents.

• Eddy currents form in a metallic conductor in such a way that they oppose the change in magnetic flux associated with it, according to Lenz's law.

• Eddy currents cannot be completely removed, but they can be reduced by - laminating the core – taking the metallic core in the form of thin laminated sheets that are joined together.

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Electromagnetic dampers, induction furnaces, electric brakes, and speedometers all benefit from eddy currents.

## Inductor

A device for storing energy in a magnetic field is an inductor. Inductance is the common term for an inductor. In most cases, a coil or solenoid is used as an inductor.

Self-induction: As the current going through a coil or circuit varies, so does the magnetic flux associated with it.

As a result, an emf is generated in the coil or circuit, which opposes the change that is causing it.

Self-induction is the term for this occurrence, and the resulting emf is known as self-induced emf or reverse emf.

-When a current I flows through a coil and phi is the magnetic flux associated with the coil, then, the self-induced emf is given by-

.

where L is the coil's coefficient of self-induction.

- Henry (H) is the SI unit of L, and its dimensional formula is ML2T-2A-2

– A circular coil's self-inductance is

where R is the coil's radius and N is the number of turns.

Mutual induction:

As the current going through a coil or circuit varies, so does the magnetic flux coupled to a neighbouring coil or circuit.

As a result, an emf will be induced in the next coil or circuit.

Mutual induction is the term for this occurrence.

The primary coil or circuit is where current changes, while the secondary coil or circuit is where emf is created.

– Assume that at any given time, IP is the current flowing through the primary coil.

If ϕs is the flux connected to the secondary coil, then

where M is the mutual inductance coefficient of the two coils.

is the induced emf in the secondary coil.

- Henry (H) is the SI unit of M and its dimensional formula is ML2T-2A-2.

Coefficient of coupling (K):

The coefficient of coupling of two coils is defined as

where L1 and L2 are the self-inductance coefficients of the two coils, and M is the mutual inductance coefficient of the two coils, respectively.

M is the mutual inductance coefficient of two long co-axial solenoids, each of length l, area of cross-section A, wound on air core, where N1, N2 are the total number of turns of the two solenoids.

Inductance combination – Two self-inductance inductors L1 and L2 are kept so far apart that their mutual inductance is zero.

These are linked together in a series.

L=L1+L2is the equivalent inductance.

– Self-inductance L1 and L2 inductors are coupled in series and have mutual inductance M.

The combination's equivalent inductance is hence

– The plus sign appears when the windings in the two coils are in the same direction, whereas the minus sign appears when the windings are in the opposite direction.

– Inductors L1 and L2 of self-inductors are connected in parallel.

The mutual inductance of the inductors is insignificant because they are so far away.

The equivalent inductance is then

Energy stored in an inductor: The energy stored in an inductor is given by when a current I flows through it.

Magnetic energy is the form of energy stored in an inductor.

## AC Generator

• An electrical generator turns mechanical energy into electrical energy.

• The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction is used to generate alternating currents (ac).

• An emf is induced in the coil whenever the magnetic flux changes.

• A device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy is known as an AC generator (alternating currents).

• By altering the magnetic field and area vector, an AC generator can induce an emf or current in a loop.

Principle:-

• A change in the loop's orientation or effective area causes current to flow through it.

• Modifying the area vector or changing the induced emf produces induced emf.

• Fleming's right-hand rule determines the direction of the current.

• The up and down movement of the loops changes the direction of the current in the circuit.

It based on The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction asserts that whenever the magnetic flux associated with a conductor (or coil) changes, an emf is induced in the coil.

If E is the induced emf in the coil, then

E0=NBAω is the induced EMF's maximum or peak value.

## Significance of NCERT Class 12 Physics Chapter 6 Notes-

Comprehensive Revision: The electromagnetic Induction notes class 12 provide a concise summary of the chapter's main topics, making them ideal for quick revision before exams.

Core Themes Coverage: These CBSE class 12 Physics ch 6 notes effectively encapsulate the core themes of the Physics Syllabus for Class 12, ensuring that students understand fundamental concepts such as electromagnetic induction.

Preparation for Competitive Exams: Students preparing for competitive exams such as VITEEE, BITSAT, JEE Main, NEET, and others will benefit from these ch 6 physics class 12 notes because they provide a solid foundation in electromagnetic induction, which is frequently tested in such exams.

Offline Study Material: The availability of Physics class 12 chapter 6 notes pdf format makes offline study easier, allowing students to access and review the material even without an internet connection. This is especially useful for students who prefer to study offline or require materials for use in areas with limited internet access.

## NCERT Class 12 Notes Chapterwise

 NCERT Class 12 Physics Chapter 1 Notes NCERT Class 12 Physics Chapter 2 Notes NCERT Class 12 Physics Chapter 3 Notes NCERT Class 12 Physics Chapter 4 Notes NCERT Class 12 Physics Chapter 5 Notes NCERT Class 12 Physics Chapter 6 Notes NCERT Class 12 Physics Chapter 7 Notes NCERT Class 12 Physics Chapter 8 Notes NCERT Class 12 Physics Chapter 9 Notes NCERT Class 12 Physics Chapter 10 Notes NCERT Class 12 Physics Chapter 11 Notes NCERT Class 12 Physics Chapter 12 Notes NCERT Class 12th Physics Chapter 13 Notes NCERT Class 12th Physics Chapter 14 Notes

## NCERT Books and Syllabus

 NCERT Book for Class 12 NCERT Syllabus for Class 12

1. Are all the main derivations covered in the Class 12 Physics chapter 6 notes?

No, the NCERT notes for Class 12 Physics chapter 6 do not include all of the important derivations. This NCERT note summarises the chapter's important points and equations and can be used to review electromagnetic induction.

2. What do you mean by eddy currents?

Changing magnetic fields can cause current loops in surrounding metal bodies, which are dissipated as heat. Eddy currents are the name for these types of currents.

3. How important is the chapter for the CBSE board exam and how this Class 12 Electromagnetic Induction notes would help?

Students can expect 4 to 6 marks questions from the notes for Class 12 Physics chapter 6  and students can refer to this note for the quick revision purpose which would help them to increase their marks.

4. What is Lenz’s Law?

According to Lenz's law, the polarity of an induced emf tends to produce a current that opposes the change in magnetic flux that caused it.  The opposition is represented by the negative symbol.

5. What Is an inductor?

Inductor:-A device for storing energy in a magnetic field is an inductor.

Inductance is the common term for an inductor.

6. What are Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction?

The First Law

When the magnetic flux in a closed-loop or circuit varies, an emf is generated in the loop or circuit that lasts as long as the flux is changing.
Second Law

The rate of change of magnetic flux in a closed-loop or circuit is directly proportional to the induced emf in the closed-loop or circuit.

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