NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 6 Application of Derivatives

# NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 6 Application of Derivatives

Edited By Ramraj Saini | Updated on Sep 14, 2023 08:10 PM IST | #CBSE Class 12th

## NCERT Application-Of-Derivatives Class 12 Questions And Answers

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 6 Application of Derivatives are comprehensively discussed here. These NCERT solutions are created by expert team at Careers360 keeping in mind of latest syllabus of CBSE 2023-24. In the previous chapter, you have already learnt the differentiation of inverse trigonometric functions, exponential functions, logarithmic functions, composite functions, implicit functions, etc. In this article you will get NCERT Class 12 maths solutions chapter 6 with in depth explanation that will help you in understanding application of derivatives class 12.

In class 12 chapter 6 questions are based on the topics like finding the rate of change of quantities, equations of tangent, and normal on a curve at a point are covered in the application of derivatives class 12 NCERT solutions. Also, check NCERT solutions for class 12 other subjects.

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## NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 6 Application of Derivatives - Important Formulae

>> Definition of Derivatives: Derivatives measure the rate of change of quantities.

Rate of Change of a Quantity:

The derivative is used to find the rate of change of one quantity concerning another. For a function y = f(x), the average rate of change in the interval [a, a+h] is:

(f(a + h) - f(a)) / h

Approximation:

Derivatives help in finding approximate values of functions. The linear approximation method, proposed by Newton, involves finding the equation of the tangent line.

Linear approximation equation: L(x) = f(a) + f'(a)(x - a)

Tangents and Normals:

A tangent to a curve touches it at a single point and has a slope equal to the derivative at that point.

Slope of tangent (m) = f'(x)

The equation of the tangent line is found using: m = (y2 - y1) / (x2 - x1)

The normal to a curve is perpendicular to the tangent.

The slope of normal (n) = -1 / f'(x)

The equation of the normal line is found using: -1 / m = (y2 - y1) / (x2 - x1)

Maxima, Minima, and Point of Inflection:

Maxima and minima are peaks and valleys of a curve. The point of inflection marks a change in the curve's nature (convex to concave or vice versa).

To find maxima, minima, and points of inflection, use the first derivative test:

• Find f'(c) = 0.

• Check the sign change of f'(x) on the interval.

• Maxima when f'(x) changes from +ve to -ve, f(c) is the maximum.

• Minima when f'(x) changes from -ve to +ve, f(c) is the minimum.

• Point of inflection when the sign of f'(x) doesn't change.

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Increasing and Decreasing Functions:

An increasing function tends to reach the upper corner of the x-y plane, while a decreasing function tends to reach the lower corner.

For a differentiable function f(x) in the interval (a, b):

• If f(x1) ≤ f(x2) when x1 < x2, it's increasing.

• If f(x1) < f(x2) when x1 < x2, it's strictly increasing.

• If f(x1) ≥ f(x2) when x1 < x2, it's decreasing.

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If f(x1) > f(x2) when x1 < x2, it's strictly decreasing.

## NCERT Application-Of-Derivatives Class 12 Questions And Answers (Intext Questions and Exercise)

NCERT class 12 maths chapter 6 question answer: Exercise - 6.1

Area of the circle (A) = $\pi r^{2}$
Rate of change of the area of a circle with respect to its radius r = $\frac{dA}{dr}$ = $\frac{d(\pi r^{2})}{dr}$ = $2 \pi r$
So, when r = 3, Rate of change of the area of a circle = $2 \pi (3)$ = $6 \pi$
Hence, Rate of change of the area of a circle with respect to its radius r when r = 3 is $6 \pi$

Area of the circle (A) = $\pi r^{2}$
Rate of change of the area of a circle with respect to its radius r = $\frac{dA}{dr}$ = $\frac{d(\pi r^{2})}{dr}$ = $2 \pi r$
So, when r = 4, Rate of change of the area of a circle = $2 \pi (4)$ = $8 \pi$
Hence, Rate of change of the area of a circle with respect to its radius r when r = 4 is $8 \pi$

The volume of the cube(V) = $x^{3}$ where x is the edge length of the cube
It is given that the volume of a cube is increasing at the rate of $8 cm^3 /s$

we can write $\frac{dV}{dt} = \frac{dV}{dx}.\frac{dx}{dt}$ ( By chain rule)

$\frac{dV}{dt} = 8 = \frac{dV}{dx}.\frac{dx}{dt}$

$\frac{dx^{3}}{dx}.\frac{dx}{dt} = 8$ $\Rightarrow 3x^{2}.\frac{dx}{dt} = 8$

$\frac{dx}{dt} = \frac{8}{3x^{2}}$ - (i)
Now, we know that the surface area of the cube(A) is $6x^{2}$

$\frac{dA}{dt} = \frac{dA}{dx}.\frac{dx}{dt} = \frac{d6x^{2}}{dx}.\frac{dx}{dt} = 12x. \frac{dx}{dt}$ - (ii)

from equation (i) we know that $\frac{dx}{dt} = \frac{8}{3x^{2}}$

put this value in equation (i)
We get,
$\frac{dA}{dt} = 12x. \frac{8}{3x^{2}} = \frac{32}{x}$
It is given in the question that the value of edge length(x) = 12cm
So,
$\frac{dA}{dt} = \frac{32}{12} = \frac{8}{3} cm^2/s$

Radius of a circle is increasing uniformly at the rate $\left ( \frac{dr}{dt} \right )$ = 3 cm/s
Area of circle(A) = $\pi r^{2}$
$\frac{dA}{dt} =\frac{dA}{dr}.\frac{dr}{dt}$ (by chain rule)
$\frac{dA}{dt} =\frac{d \pi r^{2}}{dr}.\frac{dr}{dt} = 2\pi r \times 3 = 6\pi r$
It is given that the value of r = 10 cm
So,
$\frac{dA}{dt} = 6\pi \times 10 = 60\pi \ cm^{2}/s$
Hence, the rate at which the area of the circle is increasing when the radius is 10 cm is $60\pi \ cm^{2}/s$

It is given that the rate at which edge of cube increase $\left ( \frac{dx}{dt} \right )$ = 3 cm/s
The volume of cube = $x^{3}$
$\frac{dV}{dt} = \frac{dV}{dx}.\frac{dx}{dt}$ (By chain rule)
$\frac{dV}{dt} = \frac{dx^{3}}{dx}.\frac{dx}{dt} = 3x^{2}.\frac{dx}{dt} = 3x^{2}\times 3 = 9x^{2} cm^{3}/s$
It is given that the value of x is 10 cm
So,
$\frac{dV}{dt} = 9(10)^{2} = 9\times 100 = 900 \ cm^{3}/s$
Hence, the rate at which the volume of the cube increasing when the edge is 10 cm long is $900 \ cm^{3}/s$

Given = $\frac{dr}{dt} = 5 \ cm/s$

To find = $\frac{dA}{dt}$ at r = 8 cm

Area of the circle (A) = $\pi r^{2}$
$\frac{dA}{dt} = \frac{dA}{dr}.\frac{dr}{dt}$ (by chain rule)
$\frac{dA}{dt} = \frac{d\pi r^{2}}{dr}.\frac{dr}{dt} = 2\pi r \times 5 = 10\pi r = 10\pi \times 8 = 80\pi \ cm^{2}/s$
Hence, the rate at which the area increases when the radius of the circular wave is 8 cm is $80\pi \ cm^{2}/s$

Given = $\frac{dr}{dt} = 0.7 \ cm/s$
To find = $\frac{dC}{dt}$ , where C is circumference
Solution :-

we know that the circumference of the circle (C) = $2\pi r$
$\frac{dC}{dt} = \frac{dC}{dr}.\frac{dr}{dt}$ (by chain rule)
$\frac{dC}{dt} = \frac{d2\pi r}{dr}.\frac{dr}{dt} = 2\pi \times 0.7 = 1.4\pi \ cm/s$
Hence, the rate of increase of its circumference is $1.4\pi \ cm/s$

Given = Length x of a rectangle is decreasing at the rate $(\frac{dx}{dt})$ = -5 cm/minute (-ve sign indicates decrease in rate)
the width y is increasing at the rate $(\frac{dy}{dt})$ = 4 cm/minute
To find = $\frac{dP}{dt}$ and at x = 8 cm and y = 6 cm , where P is perimeter
Solution:-

Perimeter of rectangle(P) = 2(x+y)
$\frac{dP}{dt} = \frac{d(2(x+y))}{dt} = 2\left ( \frac{dx}{dt} + \frac{dy}{dt} \right ) = 2(-5+4) = -2 \ cm/minute$
Hence, Perimeter decreases at the rate of $2 \ cm/minute$

Given same as previous question
Solution:-
Area of rectangle = xy
$\frac{dA}{dt} = \frac{d(xy)}{dt} = \left ( x\frac{dy}{dt} + y\frac{dx}{dt} \right ) = \left ( 8\times 4 + 6 \times (-5) \right ) = (32 -30) = 2 \ cm^{2}/minute$
Hence, the rate of change of area is $2 \ cm^{2}/minute$

Given = $\frac{dV}{dt} = 900 \ cm^{3}/s$
To find = $\frac{dr}{dt}$ at r = 15 cm
Solution:-

Volume of sphere(V) = $\frac{4}{3}\pi r^{3}$
$\frac{dV}{dt} = \frac{dV}{dr}.\frac{dr}{dt} = \frac{d(\frac{4}{3}\pi r^{3})} {dr}.\frac{dr}{dt} = \frac{4}{3}\pi\times 3r^{2} \times \frac{dr}{dt}$

$\frac{dV}{dt}= 4 \pi r^{2} \times \frac{dr}{dt}$
$\frac{dr}{dt} = \frac{\frac{dV}{dt}}{4\pi r^{2}} = \frac{900}{4\pi \times(15)^{2}} = \frac{900}{900\pi} = \frac{1}{\pi} \ cm/s$
Hence, the rate at which the radius of the balloon increases when the radius is 15 cm is $\frac{1}{\pi} \ cm/s$

We need to find the value of $\frac{dV}{dr}$ at r =10 cm
The volume of the sphere (V) = $\frac{4}{3}\pi r^{3}$
$\frac{dV}{dr} = \frac{d(\frac{4}{3}\pi r^{3})}{dr} = \frac{4}{3}\pi \times 3r^{2} = 4\pi r^{2} = 4\pi (10)^{2} = 4\pi \times 100 = 400\pi \ cm^{3}/s$
Hence, the rate at which its volume is increasing with the radius when the later is 10 cm is $400\pi \ cm^{3}/s$

Let h be the height of the ladder and x be the distance of the foot of the ladder from the wall
It is given that $\frac{dx}{dt} = 2 \ cm/s$
We need to find the rate at which the height of the ladder decreases $(\frac{dh}{dt})$
length of ladder(L) = 5m and x = 4m (given)
By Pythagoras theorem, we can say that
$h^{2}+x^{2} = L^{2}$
$h^{2} = L^{2} - x^{2}$
$h$ $= \sqrt{L^{2} - x^{2}}$
Differentiate on both sides w.r.t. t
$\frac{dh}{dt} = \frac{d(\sqrt{L^{2} -x^{2}})}{dx}.\frac{dx}{dt} = \frac{1}{2}\frac{-2x}{\sqrt{5^{2}-x^{2}}}.\frac{dx}{dt} = \frac{-x}{\sqrt{25-x^{2}}}\frac{dx}{dt}$
at x = 4

$\frac{dh}{dt} = \frac{-4}{\sqrt{25-16}}\times 2 = \frac{-4}{3} \times 2 =\frac{-8}{3} \ cm/s$
Hence, the rate at which the height of ladder decreases is $\frac{8}{3} \ cm/s$

We need to find the point at which $\frac{dy}{dt} = 8\frac{dx}{dt}$
Given the equation of curve = $6y = x^3 + 2$
Differentiate both sides w.r.t. t
$6\frac{dy}{dt} = \frac{d(x^{3})}{dx}.\frac{dx}{dt} +0$
$= 3x^{2}.\frac{dx}{dt}$
$\frac{dy}{dt} = 8\frac{dx}{dt}$ (required condition)
$6\times 8\frac{dx}{dt}= 3x^{2}.\frac{dx}{dt}$
$3x^{2}.\frac{dx}{dt} =48\frac{dx}{dt}$ $\Rightarrow x^{2} = \frac{48}{3} = 16$
$x = \pm 4$
when x = 4 , and
when x = -4 , So , the coordinates are
$(4,11) \ and \ (-4,\frac{-31}{3})$

It is given that $\frac{dr}{dt} = \frac{1}{2} \ cm/s$
We know that the shape of the air bubble is spherical
So, volume(V) = $\frac{4}{3}\pi r^{3}$
$\frac{dV}{dt} = \frac{dV}{dr}.\frac{dr}{dt} = \frac{d(\frac{4}{3}\pi r^{3})}{dr}.\frac{dr}{dt} = 4\pi r^{2}\times\frac{1}{2} = 2\pi r^{2} = 2\pi \times (1)^{2} = 2\pi \ cm^{3}/s$
Hence, the rate of change in volume is $2\pi \ cm^{3}/s$

Volume of sphere(V) = $\frac{4}{3}\pi r^{3}$
Diameter = $\frac{3}{2}(2x+1)$
So, radius(r) = $\frac{3}{4}(2x+1)$
$\frac{dV}{dx} = \frac{d(\frac{4}{3}\pi r^{3})}{dx} = \frac{d(\frac{4}{3}\pi (\frac{3}{4}(2x+1))^{3})}{dx} = \frac{4}{3}\pi\times 3\times\frac{27}{64}(2x+1)^{2}\times 2$
$= \frac{27}{8}\pi (2x+1)^{2}$

Given = $\frac{dV}{dt} = 12 \ cm^{3}/s$ and $h = \frac{1}{6}r$
To find = $\frac{dh}{dt}$ at h = 4 cm
Solution:-

Volume of cone(V) = $\frac{1}{3}\pi r^{2}h$
$\frac{dV}{dt} = \frac{dV}{dh}.\frac{dh}{dt} = \frac{d(\frac{1}{3}\pi (6h)^{2}h)}{dh}.\frac{dh}{dt} = \frac{1}{3}\pi\times36\times3h^{2}.\frac{dh}{dt} = 36\pi \times(4)^{2}.\frac{dh}{dt}$
$\frac{dV}{dt} = 576\pi.\frac{dh}{dt}$

Marginal cost (MC) = $\frac{dC}{dx}$
$C ( x) = 0.007 x^3 - 0.003 x^2 + 15 x + 4000$
$\frac{dC}{dx} = \frac{d(.007x^{3} - .003x^{2}+15x+400)}{dx} = 3\times .007x^{2} - 2\times.003x+15$
$= .021x^{2} - .006x + 15$
Now, at x = 17
MC $= .021(17)^{2} - .006(17) + 15$
$= 6.069 - .102 + 15$
$= 20.967$
Hence, marginal cost when 17 units are produced is 20.967

Marginal revenue = $\frac{dR}{dx}$
$R ( x) = 13 x^2 + 26 x + 15$
$\frac{dR}{dx} = \frac{d(13x^{2}+26x+15)}{dx} = 13\times2x+ 26 = 26(x+1)$
at x = 7
$\frac{dR}{dx} = 26(7+1) = 26\times8 = 208$
Hence, marginal revenue when x = 7 is 208

Area of circle(A) = $\pi r^{2}$
$\frac{dA}{dr} = \frac{d(\pi r^{2})}{dr} = 2\pi r$
Now, at r = 6cm
$\frac{dA}{dr}= 2\pi \times 6 = 12\pi cm^{2}/s$
Hence, the rate of change of the area of a circle with respect to its radius r at r = 6 cm is $12\pi cm^{2}/s$
Hence, the correct answer is B

Marginal revenue = $\frac{dR}{dx}$
$R ( x) = 3 x^2 + 36 x + 5$
$\frac{dR}{dx} = \frac{d(3x^{2}+36x+5)}{dx} = 3\times2x+ 36 = 6(x+6)$
at x = 15
$\frac{dR}{dx} = 6(15+6) = 6\times21 = 126$
Hence, marginal revenue when x = 15 is 126
Hence, the correct answer is D

NCERT class 12 maths chapter 6 question answer: Exercise: 6.2

Let $x_1 and x_2$ are two numbers in R
$x_1 < x_2 \Rightarrow 3x_1 < 3 x_2 \Rightarrow 3x_1 + 17 < 3x_2+17 \Rightarrow f(x_1)< f(x_2)$
Hence, f is strictly increasing on R

Let $x_1 \ and \ x_2$ are two numbers in R
$x_1 \ < \ x_2 \Rightarrow 2x_1 < 2x_2 \Rightarrow e^{2x_1} < e^{2x_2} \Rightarrow f(x_1) < f(x_2)$
Hence, the function $f(x) = e^{2x}$ is strictly increasing in R

Given f(x) = sinx
$f^{'}(x) = \cos x$
Since, $\cos x > 0 \ for \ each \ x\ \epsilon \left ( 0,\frac{\pi}{2} \right )$
$f^{'}(x) > 0$
Hence, f(x) = sinx is strictly increasing in $\left ( 0,\frac{\pi}{2} \right )$

f(x) = sin x
$f^{'}(x) = \cos x$
Since, $\cos x < 0$ for each $x \ \epsilon \left ( \frac{\pi}{2},\pi \right )$
So, we have $f^{'}(x) < 0$
Hence, f(x) = sin x is strictly decreasing in $\left ( \frac{\pi}{2},\pi \right )$

We know that sin x is strictly increasing in $\left ( 0,\frac{\pi}{2} \right )$ and strictly decreasing in $\left ( \frac{\pi}{2},\pi \right )$
So, by this, we can say that f(x) = sinx is neither increasing or decreasing in range $\left ( 0,\pi \right )$

$f ( x) = 2x ^2 - 3 x$
$f^{'}(x) = 4x - 3$
Now,
$f^{'}(x) = 0$
4x - 3 = 0
$x = \frac{3}{4}$
So, the range is $\left ( -\infty, \frac{3}{4} \right ) \ and \ \left ( \frac{3}{4}, \infty \right )$
So,
$f(x)< 0$ when $x \ \epsilon \left ( -\infty,\frac{3}{4} \right )$ Hence, f(x) is strictly decreasing in this range
and
$f(x) > 0$ when $x \epsilon \left ( \frac{3}{4},\infty \right )$ Hence, f(x) is strictly increasing in this range
Hence, $f ( x) = 2x ^2 - 3 x$ is strictly increasing in $x \epsilon \left ( \frac{3}{4},\infty \right )$

$f ( x) = 2x ^2 - 3 x$
$f^{'}(x) = 4x - 3$
Now,
$f^{'}(x) = 0$
4x - 3 = 0
$x = \frac{3}{4}$
So, the range is $\left ( -\infty, \frac{3}{4} \right ) \ and \ \left ( \frac{3}{4}, \infty \right )$
So,
$f(x)< 0$ when $x \ \epsilon \left ( -\infty,\frac{3}{4} \right )$ Hence, f(x) is strictly decreasing in this range
and
$f(x) > 0$ when $x \epsilon \left ( \frac{3}{4},\infty \right )$ Hence, f(x) is strictly increasing in this range
Hence, $f ( x) = 2x ^2 - 3 x$ is strictly decreasing in $x \epsilon \left ( -\infty ,\frac{3}{4}\right )$

It is given that
$f (x) = 2x^3 - 3x ^2 - 36 x + 7$
So,
$f^{'}(x)= 6x^{2} - 6x - 36$
$f^{'}(x)= 0$
$6x^{2} - 6x -36 =0 \Rightarrow 6 (x^{2} - x-6)$
$x^{2} - x-6 = 0$
$x^{2} - 3x+2x-6 = 0$
$x(x-3) + 2(x-3) = 0\\$
$(x+2)(x-3) = 0$
x = -2 , x = 3

So, three ranges are there $(-\infty,-2) , (-2,3) \ and \ (3,\infty)$
Function $f^{'}(x)= 6x^{2} - 6x - 36$ is positive in interval $(-\infty,-2) , (3,\infty)$ and negative in the interval (-2,3)
Hence, $f (x) = 2x^3 - 3x ^2 - 36 x + 7$ is strictly increasing in $(-\infty,-2) \cup (3,\infty)$
and strictly decreasing in the interval (-2,3)

We have $f ( x) = 2x ^3 - 3x ^2 - 36x + 7$

Differentiating the function with respect to x, we get :

$f' ( x) = 6x ^2 - 6x - 36$

or $= 6\left ( x-3 \right )\left ( x+2 \right )$

When $f'(x)\ =\ 0$ , we have :

$0\ = 6\left ( x-3 \right )\left ( x+2 \right )$

or $\left ( x-3 \right )\left ( x+2 \right )\ =\ 0$

So, three ranges are there $(-\infty,-2) , (-2,3) \ and \ (3,\infty)$
Function $f^{'}(x)= 6x^{2} - 6x - 36$ is positive in the interval $(-\infty,-2) , (3,\infty)$ and negative in the interval (-2,3)

So, f(x) is decreasing in (-2, 3)

f(x) = $x ^2 + 2x -5$
$f^{'}(x) = 2x + 2 = 2(x+1)$
Now,
$f^{'}(x) = 0 \\ 2(x+1) = 0\\ x = -1$

The range is from $(-\infty,-1) \ and \ (-1,\infty)$
In interval $(-\infty,-1)$ $f^{'}(x)= 2(x+1)$ is -ve
Hence, function f(x) = $x ^2 + 2x -5$ is strictly decreasing in interval $(-\infty,-1)$
In interval $(-1,\infty)$ $f^{'}(x)= 2(x+1)$ is +ve
Hence, function f(x) = $x ^2 + 2x -5$ is strictly increasing in interval $(-1,\infty)$

Given function is,
$f(x) = 10 - 6x - 2x^2$
$f^{'}(x) = -6 - 4x$
Now,
$f^{'}(x) = 0$
$6+4x= 0$
$x= -\frac{3}{2}$

So, the range is $(-\infty , -\frac{3}{2}) \ and \ (-\frac{3}{2},\infty)$
In interval $(-\infty , -\frac{3}{2})$ , $f^{'}(x) = -6 - 4x$ is +ve
Hence, $f(x) = 10 - 6x - 2x^2$ is strictly increasing in the interval $(-\infty , -\frac{3}{2})$
In interval $( -\frac{3}{2},\infty)$ , $f^{'}(x) = -6 - 4x$ is -ve
Hence, $f(x) = 10 - 6x - 2x^2$ is strictly decreasing in interval $( -\frac{3}{2},\infty)$

Given function is,
$f(x) = - 2 x^3 - 9x ^2 - 12 x + 1^{}$
$f^{'}(x) = - 6 x^2 - 18x - 12$
Now,
$f^{'}(x) = 0\\ - 6 x^2 - 18x - 12 = 0\\ -6(x^{2}+3x+2) = 0 \\ x^{2}+3x+2 = 0 \\x^{2} + x + 2x + 2 = 0\\ x(x+1) + 2(x+1) = 0\\ (x+2)(x+1) = 0\\ x = -2 \ and \ x = -1$

So, the range is $(-\infty , -2) \ , (-2,-1) \ and \ (-1,\infty)$
In interval $(-\infty , -2) \cup \ (-1,\infty)$ , $f^{'}(x) = - 6 x^2 - 18x - 12$ is -ve
Hence, $f(x) = - 2 x^3 - 9x ^2 - 12 x + 1^{}$ is strictly decreasing in interval $(-\infty , -2) \cup \ (-1,\infty)$
In interval (-2,-1) , $f^{'}(x) = - 6 x^2 - 18x - 12$ is +ve
Hence, $f(x) = - 2 x^3 - 9x ^2 - 12 x + 1^{}$ is strictly increasing in the interval (-2,-1)

Given function is,
$f(x) = 6- 9x - x ^2$
$f^{'}(x) = - 9 - 2x$
Now,
$f^{'}(x) = 0\\ - 9 - 2x = 0 \\ 2x = -9\\ x = -\frac{9}{2}$

So, the range is $(-\infty, - \frac{9}{2} ) \ and \ ( - \frac{9}{2}, \infty )$
In interval $(-\infty, - \frac{9}{2} )$ , $f^{'}(x) = - 9 - 2x$ is +ve
Hence, $f(x) = 6- 9x - x ^2$ is strictly increasing in interval $(-\infty, - \frac{9}{2} )$
In interval $( - \frac{9}{2},\infty )$ , $f^{'}(x) = - 9 - 2x$ is -ve
Hence, $f(x) = 6- 9x - x ^2$ is strictly decreasing in interval $( - \frac{9}{2},\infty )$

Given function is,
$f(x) = ( x+1) ^3 ( x-3) ^3$
$f^{'}(x) = 3( x+1) ^2(x-3)^{3} + 3( x-3) ^2(x+1)^3$
Now,
$f^{'}(x) = 0 \\ 3( x+1) ^2(x-3)^{3} + 3( x-3) ^2(x+1)^{3} \\ 3(x+1)^{2}(x-3)^{2}((x-3) + (x+1) ) = 0 \\ (x+1)(x-3) = 0 \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ or \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (2x-2) = 0\\ x=-1 \ and \ x = 3 \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ or \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x = 1$
So, the intervals are $(-\infty,-1), (-1,1), (1,3) \ and \ (3,\infty)$

Our function $f^{'}(x) = 3( x+1) ^2(x-3)^{3} + 3( x-3) ^2(x+1)^3$ is +ve in the interval $(1,3) \ and \ (3,\infty)$
Hence, $f(x) = ( x+1) ^3 ( x-3) ^3$ is strictly increasing in the interval $(1,3) \ and \ (3,\infty)$
Our function $f^{'}(x) = 3( x+1) ^2(x-3)^{3} + 3( x-3) ^2(x+1)^3$ is -ve in the interval $(-\infty,-1) \ and \ (-1,1)$
Hence, $f(x) = ( x+1) ^3 ( x-3) ^3$ is strictly decreasing in interval $(-\infty,-1) \ and \ (-1,1)$

Given function is,
$f(x)\Rightarrow y = \log( 1+ x ) - \frac{2 x }{2+x }$
$f^{'}(x)\Rightarrow \frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{1}{1+x} - \frac{2 (2+x) - (1)(2x)} {(2+x)^{2} } = \frac{1}{1+x} - \frac{4+2x-2x}{(2+x)^{2}}$
$= \frac{1}{1+x} - \frac{4}{(2+x)^2} = \frac{(2+x)^2 - 4(x+1)}{(x+1)(2+x)^{2}}$
$= \frac{4+x^{2} +4x -4x - 4}{(x+1)(2+x)^{2}} = \frac{x^{2} }{(x+1)(2+x)^{2}}$
$f^{'}(x) = \frac{x^{2}}{(x+1)(x+2)^2}$
Now, for $x > -1$ , is is clear that $f^{'}(x) = \frac{x^{2}}{(x+1)(x+2)^2} > 0$
Hence, $f(x)\Rightarrow y = \log( 1+ x ) - \frac{2 x }{2+x }$ strictly increasing when $x > -1$

Given function is,
$f(x)\Rightarrow y = [x(x-2)]^{2}$
$f^{'}(x)\Rightarrow \frac{dy}{dx} = 2[x(x-2)][(x-2)+x]$
$= 2(x^2-2x)(2x-2)$
$= 4x(x-2)(x-1)$
Now,
$f^{'}(x) = 0\\ 4x(x-2)(x-1) = 0\\ x=0 , x= 2 \ and \ x = 1$
So, the intervals are $(-\infty,0),(0,1),(1,2) \ and \ (2,\infty)$
In interval $(0,1)and \ (2,\infty)$ , $f^{'}(x)> 0$
Hence, $f(x)\Rightarrow y = [x(x-2)]^{2}$ is an increasing function in the interval $(0,1)\cup (2,\infty)$

Given function is,
$f(x) = y = \frac{4 \sin \theta }{(2+ \cos \theta )} - \theta$

$f^{'}(x) = \frac{dy}{d\theta} = \frac{4 \cos \theta(2+\cos \theta) - (-\sin \theta)4\sin \theta) }{(2+ \cos \theta )^2} - 1$
$= \frac{8 \cos \theta+4\cos^2 \theta + 4\sin^2 \theta - (2+ \cos \theta )^2 }{(2+ \cos \theta )^2}$
$= \frac{8 \cos \theta+4(\cos^2 \theta + \sin^2 \theta) - 4- \cos^2 \theta - 4\cos \theta }{(2+ \cos \theta )^2}$
$= \frac{8 \cos \theta+4 - 4- \cos^2 \theta - 4\cos \theta }{(2+ \cos \theta )^2}$
$= \frac{4 \cos \theta-\cos^2 \theta }{(2+ \cos \theta )^2}$
Now, for $\theta \ \epsilon \ [0,\frac{\pi}{2}]$
$\\ 4 \cos \theta \geq \cos^2 \theta\\ 4 \cos \theta - \cos^2 \geq 0\\ and \ (2+\cos \theta)^2 > 0$
So, $f^{'}(x) > 0 \ for \ \theta \ in \ [0,\frac{\pi}{2}]$
Hence, $f(x) = y = \frac{4 \sin \theta }{(2+ \cos \theta )} - \theta$ is increasing function in $\theta \ \epsilon \ [0,\frac{\pi}{2}]$

Let logarithmic function is log x
$f(x) = log x$
$f^{'}(x) = \frac{1}{x}$
Now, for all values of x in $( 0 , \infty )$ , $f^{'}(x) > 0$
Hence, the logarithmic function $f(x) = log x$ is increasing in the interval $( 0 , \infty )$

Given function is,
$f ( x) = x ^2 - x + 1$
$f^{'}(x) = 2x - 1$
Now, for interval $(-1,\frac{1}{2})$ , $f^{'}(x) < 0$ and for interval $(\frac{1}{2},1),f^{'}(x) > 0$
Hence, by this, we can say that $f ( x) = x ^2 - x + 1$ is neither strictly increasing nor decreasing in the interval (-1,1)

(A)
$f(x) = \cos x \\ f^{'}(x) = -\sin x$
$f^{'}(x) < 0$ for x in $(0,\frac{\pi}{2})$
Hence, $f(x) = \cos x$ is decreasing function in $(0,\frac{\pi}{2})$

(B)
$f(x) = \cos 2x \\ f^{'}(x) = -2\sin2 x$
Now, as
$0 < x < \frac{\pi}{2}\\ 0 < 2x < \pi$
$f^{'}(x) < 0$ for 2x in $(0,\pi)$
Hence, $f(x) = \cos 2x$ is decreasing function in $(0,\frac{\pi}{2})$

(C)
$f(x) = \cos 3x \\ f^{'}(x) = -3\sin3 x$
Now, as
$0 < x < \frac{\pi}{2}\\ 0 < 3x < \frac{3\pi}{2}$
$f^{'}(x) < 0$ for $x \ \epsilon \ \left ( 0,\frac{\pi}{3} \right )$ and $f^{'}(x) > 0 \ x \ \epsilon \ \left ( \frac{\pi}{3} , \frac{\pi}{2}\right )$
Hence, it is clear that $f(x) = \cos 3x$ is neither increasing nor decreasing in $(0,\frac{\pi}{2})$

(D)
$f(x) = \tan x\\ f^{'}(x) = \sec^{2}x$
$f^{'}(x) > 0$ for x in $(0,\frac{\pi}{2})$
Hence, $f(x) = \tan x$ is strictly increasing function in the interval $(0,\frac{\pi}{2})$

So, only (A) and (B) are decreasing functions in $(0,\frac{\pi}{2})$

(A) Given function is,
$f ( x) = x ^{100} + \sin x - 1$
$f^{'}(x) = 100x^{99} + \cos x$
Now, in interval (0,1)
$f^{'}(x) > 0$
Hence, $f ( x) = x ^{100} + \sin x - 1$ is increasing function in interval (0,1)

(B) Now, in interval $\left ( \frac{\pi}{2},\pi \right )$
$100x^{99} > 0 \ but \ \cos x < 0$
$100x^{99} > \cos x \\ 100x^{99} - \cos x > 0$ , $f^{'}(x) > 0$
Hence, $f ( x) = x ^{100} + \sin x - 1$ is increasing function in interval $\left ( \frac{\pi}{2},\pi \right )$

(C) Now, in interval $\left ( 0,\frac{\pi}{2} \right )$
$100x^{99} > 0 \ and \ \cos x > 0$
$100x^{99} > \cos x \\ 100x^{99} - \cos x > 0$ , $f^{'}(x) > 0$
Hence, $f ( x) = x ^{100} + \sin x - 1$ is increasing function in interval $\left ( 0,\frac{\pi}{2} \right )$

So, $f ( x) = x ^{100} + \sin x - 1$ is increasing for all cases
Hence, correct answer is (D) None of these

Given function is,
$f (x) = x^2 + ax + 1$
$f^{'}(x) = 2x + a$
Now, we can clearly see that for every value of $a > -2$
$f^{'}(x) = 2x + a$ $> 0$
Hence, $f (x) = x^2 + ax + 1$ is increasing for every value of $a > -2$ in the interval [1,2]

Given function is,
$f ( x) = x + 1/x$
$f^{'}(x) = 1 - \frac{1}{x^2}$
Now,
$f^{'}(x) = 0\\ 1 - \frac{1}{x^2} = 0\\ x^{2} = 1\\ x = \pm1$

So, intervals are from $(-\infty,-1), (-1,1) \ and \ (1,\infty)$
In interval $(-\infty,-1), (1,\infty)$ , $\frac{1}{x^2} < 1 \Rightarrow 1 - \frac{1}{x^2} > 0$
$f^{'}(x) > 0$
Hence, $f ( x) = x + 1/x$ is increasing in interval $(-\infty,-1)\cup (1,\infty)$
In interval (-1,1) , $\frac{1}{x^2} > 1 \Rightarrow 1 - \frac{1}{x^2} < 0$
$f^{'}(x) < 0$
Hence, $f ( x) = x + 1/x$ is decreasing in interval (-1,1)
Hence, the function f given by $f ( x) = x + 1/x$ is increasing on I disjoint from [–1, 1]

Given function is,
$f (x) = \log \sin x$
$f^{'}(x) = \frac{1}{\sin x}\cos x = \cot x$
Now, we know that cot x is+ve in the interval $\left ( 0 , \pi /2 \right )$ and -ve in the interval $\left ( \pi/2 , \pi \right )$
$f^{'}(x) > 0 \ in \ \left ( 0,\frac{\pi}{2} \right ) \ and \ f^{'}(x) < 0 \ in \ \left ( \frac{\pi}{2} , \pi \right )$
Hence, $f (x) = \log \sin x$ is increasing in the interval $\left ( 0 , \pi /2 \right )$ and decreasing in interval $\left ( \pi/2 , \pi \right )$

Given function is,
f(x) = log|cos x|
value of cos x is always +ve in both these cases
So, we can write log|cos x| = log(cos x)
Now,
$f^{'}(x) = \frac{1}{\cos x}(-\sin x) = -\tan x$
We know that in interval $\left ( 0,\frac{\pi}{2} \right )$ , $\tan x > 0 \Rightarrow -\tan x< 0$
$f^{'}(x) < 0$
Hence, f(x) = log|cos x| is decreasing in interval $\left ( 0,\frac{\pi}{2} \right )$

We know that in interval $\left ( \frac{3\pi}{2},2\pi \right )$ , $\tan x < 0 \Rightarrow -\tan x> 0$
$f^{'}(x) > 0$
Hence, f(x) = log|cos x| is increasing in interval $\left ( \frac{3\pi}{2},2\pi \right )$

Given function is,
$f (x) = x^3 - 3x^2 + 3x - 100$
$f^{'}(x) = 3x^2 - 6x + 3$
$= 3(x^2 - 2x + 1) = 3(x-1)^2$
$f^{'}(x) = 3(x-1)^2$
We can clearly see that for any value of x in R $f^{'}(x) > 0$
Hence, $f (x) = x^3 - 3x^2 + 3x - 100$ is an increasing function in R

Given function is,
$f(x) \Rightarrow y = x ^2 e ^{-x}$
$f^{'}(x) \Rightarrow \frac{dy}{dx} = 2x e ^{-x} + -e^{-x}(x^{2})$
$xe ^{-x}(2 -x)$
$f^{'}(x) = xe ^{-x}(2 -x)$
Now, it is clear that $f^{'}(x) > 0$ only in the interval (0,2)
So, $f(x) \Rightarrow y = x ^2 e ^{-x}$ is an increasing function for the interval (0,2)

NCERT application-of-derivatives class 12 solutions: Exercise: 6.3

Given curve is,
$y = 3 x ^4 - 4x$
Now, the slope of the tangent at point x =4 is given by
$\left ( \frac{dy}{dx} \right )_{x=4} = 12x^3 - 4$
$= 12(4)^3-4$
$= 12(64)-4 = 768 - 4 =764$

Given curve is,

$y = \frac{x-1}{x-2}$
The slope of the tangent at x = 10 is given by
$\left ( \frac{dy}{dx} \right )_{x=10}= \frac{(1)(x-2)-(1)(x-1)}{(x-2)^2} = \frac{x-2-x+1}{(x-2)^2} = \frac{-1}{(x-2)^2}$
at x = 10
$= \frac{-1}{(10-2)^2} = \frac{-1}{8^2} = \frac{-1}{64}$
hence, slope of tangent at x = 10 is $\frac{-1}{64}$

Given curve is,
$y = x ^3 - x +1$
The slope of the tangent at x = 2 is given by
$\left ( \frac{dy}{dx} \right )_{x=2} = 3x^2 - 1 = 3(2)^2 - 1= 3\times 4 - 1 = 12 - 1 = 11$
Hence, the slope of the tangent at point x = 2 is 11

Given curve is,
$y = x ^3 - 3x +2$
The slope of the tangent at x = 3 is given by
$\left ( \frac{dy}{dx} \right )_{x=3} = 3x^2 - 3 = 3(3)^2 - 3= 3\times 9 - 3 = 27 - 3 = 24$
Hence, the slope of tangent at point x = 3 is 24

The slope of the tangent at a point on a given curve is given by
$\left ( \frac{dy}{dx} \right )$
Now,
$\left ( \frac{dx}{d \theta} \right )_{\theta=\frac{\pi}{4}} = 3a\cos^2 \theta(-\sin \theta) = 3a(\frac{1}{\sqrt2})^2(-\frac{1}{\sqrt2}) = -\frac{3\sqrt2 a}{4}$
Similarly,
$\left ( \frac{dy}{d \theta} \right )_{\theta=\frac{\pi}{4}} = 3a\sin^2 \theta(\cos \theta) = 3a(\frac{1}{\sqrt2})^2(\frac{1}{\sqrt2}) = \frac{3\sqrt2 a}{4}$
$\left ( \frac{dy}{dx} \right ) = \frac{\left ( \frac{dy}{d\theta} \right )}{\left ( \frac{dx}{d\theta} \right )} = \frac{\frac{3\sqrt2 a}{4}}{-\frac{3\sqrt2 a}{4}} = -1$
Hence, the slope of the tangent at $\theta = \frac{\pi}{4}$ is -1
Now,
Slope of normal = $-\frac{1}{slope \ of \ tangent}$ = $-\frac{1}{-1} = 1$
Hence, the slope of normal at $\theta = \frac{\pi}{4}$ is 1

The slope of the tangent at a point on given curves is given by
$\left ( \frac{dy}{dx} \right )$
Now,
$\left ( \frac{dx}{d \theta} \right )_{\theta=\frac{\pi}{2}} = -a(\cos \theta)$
Similarly,
$\left ( \frac{dy}{d \theta} \right )_{\theta=\frac{\pi}{2}} = 2b\cos \theta(-\sin \theta)$
$\left ( \frac{dy}{dx} \right )_{x=\frac{\pi}{2}} = \frac{\left ( \frac{dy}{d\theta} \right )}{\left ( \frac{dx}{d\theta} \right )} = \frac{-2b\cos \theta \sin \theta}{-a\cos \theta} = \frac{2b\sin \theta}{a} = \frac{2b\times1}{a} = \frac{2b}{a}$
Hence, the slope of the tangent at $\theta = \frac{\pi}{2}$ is $\frac{2b}{a}$
Now,
Slope of normal = $-\frac{1}{slope \ of \ tangent}$ = $-\frac{1}{\frac{2b}{a}} = -\frac{a}{2b}$
Hence, the slope of normal at $\theta = \frac{\pi}{2}$ is $-\frac{a}{2b}$

We are given :

$y = x^3 - 3 x^2 - 9x +7$

Differentiating the equation with respect to x, we get :

$\frac{dy}{dx}\ =\ 3x^2\ -\ 6x\ -\ 9\ +\ 0$

or $=\ 3\left ( x^2\ -\ 2x\ -\ 3 \right )$

or $\frac{dy}{dx}\ =\ 3\left ( x+1 \right )\left ( x-3 \right )$

It is given that tangent is parallel to the x-axis, so the slope of the tangent is equal to 0.

So,

$\frac{dy}{dx}\ =\ 0$

or $0\ =\ 3\left ( x+1 \right )\left ( x-3 \right )$

Thus, Either x = -1 or x = 3

When x = -1 we get y = 12 and if x =3 we get y = -20

So the required points are (-1, 12) and (3, -20).

Points joining the chord is (2,0) and (4,4)
Now, we know that the slope of the curve with given two points is
$m = \frac{y_2-y_1}{x_2 - x_1} = \frac{4-0}{4-2} = \frac{4}{2} =2$
As it is given that the tangent is parallel to the chord, so their slopes are equal
i.e. slope of the tangent = slope of the chord
Given the equation of the curve is $y = ( x-2)^2$
$\therefore \frac{dy}{dx} = 2(x-2) = 2$
$(x-2) = 1\\ x = 1+2\\ x=3$
Now, when $x=3$ $y=(3- 2)^2 = (1)^2 = 1$
Hence, the coordinates are (3, 1)

We know that the equation of a line is y = mx + c
Know the given equation of tangent is
y = x - 11
So, by comparing with the standard equation we can say that the slope of the tangent (m) = 1 and value of c if -11
As we know that slope of the tangent at a point on the given curve is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$
Given the equation of curve is
$y = x^3 - 11x + 5$
$\frac{dy}{dx} = 3x^2 -11$
$3x^2 -11 = 1\\ 3x^2 = 12 \\ x^2 = 4 \\ x = \pm2$
When x = 2 , $y = 2^3 - 11(2) +5 = 8 - 22+5=-9$
and
When x = -2 , $y = (-2)^3 - 11(22) +5 = -8 + 22+5=19$
Hence, the coordinates are (2,-9) and (-2,19), here (-2,19) does not satisfy the equation y=x-11

Hence, the coordinate is (2,-9) at which the tangent is $y = x -11$

We know that the slope of the tangent of at the point of the given curve is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$

Given the equation of curve is
$y = \frac{1}{x-1}$
$\frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{-1}{(1-x)^2}$
It is given thta slope is -1
So,
$\frac{-1}{(1-x)^2} = -1 \Rightarrow (1-x)^2 = 1 = 1 - x = \pm 1 \\ \\ x = 0 \ and \ x = 2$
Now, when x = 0 , $y = \frac{1}{x-1} = \frac{1}{0-1} = -1$
and
when x = 2 , $y = \frac{1}{x-1} = \frac{1}{(2-1)} = 1$
Hence, the coordinates are (0,-1) and (2,1)
Equation of line passing through (0,-1) and having slope = -1 is
y = mx + c
-1 = 0 X -1 + c
c = -1
Now equation of line is
y = -x -1
y + x + 1 = 0
Similarly, Equation of line passing through (2,1) and having slope = -1 is
y = mx + c
1 = -1 X 2 + c
c = 3
Now equation of line is
y = -x + 3
y + x - 3 = 0

We know that the slope of the tangent of at the point of the given curve is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$

Given the equation of curve is
$y = \frac{1}{x-3}$
$\frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{-1}{(x-3)^2}$
It is given that slope is 2
So,
$\frac{-1}{(x-3)^2} = 2 \Rightarrow (x-3)^2 = \frac{-1}{2} = x-3 = \pm \frac{\sqrt-1}{\sqrt2} \\ \\$
So, this is not possible as our coordinates are imaginary numbers
Hence, no tangent is possible with slope 2 to the curve $y = \frac{1}{x-3}$

We know that the slope of the tangent at a point on the given curve is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$

Given the equation of the curve as
$y = \frac{1}{x^2 - 2x + 3}$
$\frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{-(2x-2)}{(x^2-2x+3)^2}$
It is given thta slope is 0
So,
$\frac{-(2x-2)}{(x^2 - 2x +3)^2} = 0 \Rightarrow 2x-2 = 0 = x = 1$
Now, when x = 1 , $y = \frac{1}{x^2-2x+3} = \frac{1}{1^2-2(1)+3} = \frac{1}{1-2+3} =\frac{1}{2}$

Hence, the coordinates are $\left ( 1,\frac{1}{2} \right )$
Equation of line passing through $\left ( 1,\frac{1}{2} \right )$ and having slope = 0 is
y = mx + c
1/2 = 0 X 1 + c
c = 1/2
Now equation of line is
$y = \frac{1}{2}$

Parallel to x-axis means slope of tangent is 0
We know that slope of tangent at a given point on the given curve is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$
Given the equation of the curve is
$\frac{x^2 }{9} + \frac{y^2 }{16} = 1 \Rightarrow 9y^2 = 144(1-16x^2)$
$18y\frac{dy}{dx} = -32x$
$\frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{(-32x)}{18y} = 0 \Rightarrow x = 0$
From this, we can say that $x = 0$
Now. when $x = 0$ , $\frac{0^2 }{9} + \frac{y^2 }{16} = 1\Rightarrow \frac{y^2}{16} = 1 \Rightarrow y = \pm 4$
Hence, the coordinates are (0,4) and (0,-4)

Parallel to y-axis means the slope of the tangent is $\infty$ , means the slope of normal is 0
We know that slope of the tangent at a given point on the given curve is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$
Given the equation of the curve is
$\frac{x^2 }{9} + \frac{y^2 }{16} = 1 \Rightarrow 9y^2 = 144(1-16x^2)$
$18y\frac{dy}{dx} = 144(1-32x)$
$\frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{-32x}{18y} = \infty$
Slope of normal = $-\frac{dx}{dy} = \frac{18y}{32x} = 0$
From this we can say that y = 0
Now. when y = 0, $\frac{x^2 }{9} + \frac{0^2 }{16} \Rightarrow 1 = x = \pm 3$
Hence, the coordinates are (3,0) and (-3,0)

We know that Slope of the tangent at a point on the given curve is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$
Given the equation of the curve
$y = x^4 - 6x^3 + 13x^2 - 10x + 5$
$\frac{dy}{dx}= 4x^3 - 18x^2 + 26x- 10$
at point (0,5)
$\frac{dy}{dx}= 4(0)^3 - 18(0)^2 + 26(0) - 10 = -10$
Hence slope of tangent is -10
Now we know that,
$slope \ of \ normal = \frac{-1}{slope \ of \ tangent} = \frac{-1}{-10} = \frac{1}{10}$
Now, equation of tangent at point (0,5) with slope = -10 is
$y = mx + c\\ 5 = 0 + c\\ c = 5$
equation of tangent is
$y = -10x + 5\\ y + 10x = 5$
Similarly, the equation of normal at point (0,5) with slope = 1/10 is
$\\y = mx + c \\5 = 0 + c \\c = 5$
equation of normal is
$\\y = \frac{1}{10}x+5 \\ 10y - x = 50$

We know that Slope of tangent at a point on given curve is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$
Given equation of curve
$y = x^4 - 6x^3 + 13x^2 - 10x + 5$
$\frac{dy}{dx}= 4x^3 - 18x^2 + 26x - 10$
at point (1,3)
$\frac{dy}{dx}= 4(1)^3 - 18(1)^2 + 26(1) - 10 = 2$
Hence slope of tangent is 2
Now we know that,
$slope \ of \ normal = \frac{-1}{slope \ of \ tangent} = \frac{-1}{2}$
Now, equation of tangent at point (1,3) with slope = 2 is
y = 2x + 1
y -2x = 1
Similarly, equation of normal at point (1,3) with slope = -1/2 is
y = mx + c
$3 = \frac{-1}{2}\times 1+ c$
$c = \frac{7}{2}$
equation of normal is
$y = \frac{-1}{2}x+\frac{7}{2} \\ 2y + x = 7$

We know that Slope of the tangent at a point on the given curve is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$
Given the equation of the curve
$y = x^3$
$\frac{dy}{dx}= 3x^2$
at point (1,1)
$\frac{dy}{dx}= 3(1)^2 = 3$
Hence slope of tangent is 3
Now we know that,
$slope \ of \ normal = \frac{-1}{slope \ of \ tangent} = \frac{-1}{3}$
Now, equation of tangent at point (1,1) with slope = 3 is
$y = mx + c\\ 1 = 1 \times 3 + c\\ c = 1 - 3 = -2$
equation of tangent is
$y - 3x + 2 = 0$
Similarly, equation of normal at point (1,1) with slope = -1/3 is
y = mx + c
$1 = \frac{-1}{3}\times 1+ c$
$c = \frac{4}{3}$
equation of normal is
$y = \frac{-1}{3}x+\frac{4}{3} \\ 3y + x = 4$

We know that Slope of the tangent at a point on the given curve is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$
Given the equation of the curve
$y = x^2$
$\frac{dy}{dx}= 2x$
at point (0,0)
$\frac{dy}{dx}= 2(0)^2 = 0$
Hence slope of tangent is 0
Now we know that,
$slope \ of \ normal = \frac{-1}{slope \ of \ tangent} = \frac{-1}{0} = -\infty$
Now, equation of tangent at point (0,0) with slope = 0 is
y = 0
Similarly, equation of normal at point (0,0) with slope = $-\infty$ is

$\\y = x \times -\infty + 0\\ x = \frac{y}{-\infty}\\ x=0$

We know that Slope of the tangent at a point on the given curve is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$
Given the equation of the curve
$x = \cos t , y = \sin t$
Now,
$\frac{dx}{dt} = -\sin t$ and $\frac{dy}{dt} = \cos t$
Now,
$\left ( \frac{dy}{dx} \right )_{t=\frac{\pi}{4}} = \frac{ \frac{dy}{dt}}{ \frac{dx}{dt}} = \frac{\cos t}{-\sin t} = -\cot t = =- \cot \frac{\pi}{4} = -1$
Hence slope of the tangent is -1
Now we know that,
$slope \ of \ normal = \frac{-1}{slope \ of \ tangent} = \frac{-1}{-1} = 1$
Now, the equation of the tangent at the point $t = \frac{\pi}{4}$ with slope = -1 is
$x= \cos \frac{\pi}{4} = \frac{1}{\sqrt2}$ and

$y= \sin \frac{\pi}{4} = \frac{1}{\sqrt2}$
equation of the tangent at

$t = \frac{\pi}{4}$ i.e. $\left ( \frac{1}{\sqrt2}, \frac{1}{\sqrt2}\right )$ is

$y- y_1 = m(x-x_1)\\ y-\frac{1}{\sqrt2} = -1(x- \frac{1}{\sqrt2})\\ \sqrt2y + \sqrt2x = 2\\ y + x = \sqrt2$
Similarly, the equation of normal at $t = \frac{\pi}{4}$ with slope = 1 is
$x= \cos \frac{\pi}{4} = \frac{1}{\sqrt2}$ and

$y= \sin \frac{\pi}{4} = \frac{1}{\sqrt2}$
equation of the tangent at

$t = \frac{\pi}{4}$ i.e. $\left ( \frac{1}{\sqrt2}, \frac{1}{\sqrt2}\right )$ is
$\\y- y_1 = m(x-x_1)\\ y-\frac{1}{\sqrt2} = 1(x- \frac{1}{\sqrt2})\\ \sqrt2y - \sqrt2x = 0\\ y - x = 0\\ x=y$

Parellel to line $2x - y + 9 = 0$ means slope of tangent and slope of line is equal
We know that the equation of line is
y = mx + c
on comparing with the given equation we get slope of line m = 2 and c = 9
Now, we know that the slope of tangent at a given point to given curve is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$
Given equation of curve is
$y = x^2 - 2x +7$
$\frac{dy}{dx} = 2x - 2 = 2\\ \\ x = 2$
Now, when x = 2 , $y = (2)^2 - 2(2) +7 =4 - 4 + 7 = 7$
Hence, the coordinates are (2,7)
Now, equation of tangent paasing through (2,7) and with slope m = 2 is
y = mx + c
7 = 2 X 2 + c
c = 7 - 4 = 3
So,
y = 2 X x+ 3
y = 2x + 3
So, the equation of tangent is y - 2x = 3

Perpendicular to line $5y - 15x = 13.\Rightarrow y = 3x + \frac{13}{5}$ means $slope \ of \ tangent = \frac{-1}{slope \ of \ line}$
We know that the equation of the line is
y = mx + c
on comparing with the given equation we get the slope of line m = 3 and c = 13/5
$slope \ of \ tangent = \frac{-1}{slope \ of \ line} = \frac{-1}{3}$
Now, we know that the slope of the tangent at a given point to given curve is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$
Given the equation of curve is
$y = x^2 - 2x +7$
$\frac{dy}{dx} = 2x - 2 = \frac{-1}{3}\\ \\ x = \frac{5}{6}$
Now, when $x = \frac{5}{6}$ , $y = (\frac{5}{6})^2 - 2(\frac{5}{6}) +7 = \frac{25}{36} - \frac{10}{6} + 7 = \frac{217}{36}$
Hence, the coordinates are $(\frac{5}{6} ,\frac{217}{36})$
Now, the equation of tangent passing through (2,7) and with slope $m = \frac{-1}{3}$ is
$y = mx+ c\\ \frac{217}{36}= \frac{-1}{3}\times \frac{5}{6} + c\\ c = \frac{227}{36}$
So,
$y = \frac{-1}{3}x+\frac{227}{36}\\ 36y + 12x = 227$
Hence, equation of tangent is 36y + 12x = 227

Slope of tangent = $\frac{dy}{dx} = 21x^2$
When x = 2
$\frac{dy}{dx} = 21x^2 = 21(2)^{2} = 21 \times4 = 84$
When x = -2
$\frac{dy}{dx} = 21x^2 = 21(-2)^{2} = 21 \times4 = 84$
Slope is equal when x= 2 and x = - 2
Hence, we can say that both the tangents to curve $y = 7x^3 + 11$ is parallel

Given equation of curve is $y = x ^3$
Slope of tangent = $\frac{dy}{dx} = 3x^2$
it is given that the slope of the tangent is equal to the y-coordinate of the point
$3x^2 = y$
We have $y = x ^3$
$3x^2 = x^3\\ 3x^2 - x^3=0\\ x^2(3-x)=0\\ x= 0 \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ and \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x = 3$
So, when x = 0 , y = 0
and when x = 3 , $y = x^3 = 3^3 = 27$

Hence, the coordinates are (3,27) and (0,0)

Tangent passes through origin so, (x,y) = (0,0)
Given equtaion of curve is $y = 4x ^ 3 - 2x ^5$
Slope of tangent =

$\frac{dy}{dx} = 12x^2 - 10x^4$
Now, equation of tangent is
$Y-y= m(X-x)$
at (0,0) Y = 0 and X = 0
$-y= (12x^3-10x^4)(-x)$
$y= 12x^3-10x^5$
and we have $y = 4x ^ 3 - 2x ^5$
$4x^3-2x^5= 12x^3-10x^5$
$8x^5 - 8x^3=0\\ 8x^3(x^2-1)=0\\ x=0\ \ \ \ \ \ and \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x = \pm1$
Now, when x = 0,

$y = 4(0) ^ 3 - 2(0) ^5 = 0$
when x = 1 ,

$y = 4(1) ^ 3 - 2(1) ^5 = 4-2=2$
when x= -1 ,

$y = 4(-1) ^ 3 - 2(-1) ^5 = -4-(-2)=-4+2=-2$
Hence, the coordinates are (0,0) , (1,2) and (-1,-2)

parellel to x-axis means slope is 0
Given equation of curve is
$x^2 + y^2 - 2x - 3 = 0$
Slope of tangent =
$-2y\frac{dy}{dx} = 2x -2\\ \frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{1-x}{y} = 0\\ x= 1$
When x = 1 ,

$-y^2 = x^2 -2x-3= (1)^2-2(1)-3 = 1-5=-4$
$y = \pm 2$
Hence, the coordinates are (1,2) and (1,-2)

Given equation of curve is
$ay ^2 = x ^3\Rightarrow y^2 = \frac{x^3}{a}$
Slope of tangent

$2y\frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{3x^2 }{a} \Rightarrow \frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{3x^2}{2ya}$
at point $( am^2 , am^3 )$
$\frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{3(am^2)^2}{2(am^3)a} = \frac{3a^2m^4}{2a^2m^3} = \frac{3m}{2}$
Now, we know that
$Slope \ of \ normal = \frac{-1}{Slope \ of \ tangent} = \frac{-2}{3m}$
equation of normal at point $( am^2 , am^3 )$ and with slope $\frac{-2}{3m}$
$y-y_1=m(x-x_1)\\ y-am^3 = \frac{-2}{3m}(x-am^2)\\ 3ym - 3am^4 = -2(x-am^2)\\ 3ym +2x= 3am^4+2am^2$
Hence, the equation of normal is $3ym +2x= 3am^4+2am^2$

Equation of given curve is
$y = x^3 + 2x + 6$
Parellel to line $x + 14y + 4 = 0 \Rightarrow y = \frac{-x}{14} -\frac{4}{14}$ means slope of normal and line is equal
We know that, equation of line
y= mx + c
on comparing it with our given equation. we get,
$m = \frac{-1}{14}$
Slope of tangent = $\frac{dy}{dx} = 3x^2+2$
We know that
$Slope \ of \ normal = \frac{-1}{Slope \ of \ tangent} = \frac{-1}{3x^2+2}$
$\frac{-1}{3x^2+2} = \frac{-1}{14}$
$3x^2+2 = 14\\ 3x^2 = 12 \\ x^2 = 4\\ x = \pm 2$
Now, when x = 2, $y = (2)^3 + 2(2) + 6 = 8+4+6 =18$
and
When x = -2 , $y = (-2)^3 + 2(-2) + 6 = -8-4+6 =-6$
Hence, the coordinates are (2,18) and (-2,-6)
Now, the equation of at point (2,18) with slope $\frac{-1}{14}$
$y-y_1=m(x-x_1)\\ y-18=\frac{-1}{14}(x-2)\\ 14y - 252 = -x + 2\\ x+14y = 254$
Similarly, the equation of at point (-2,-6) with slope $\frac{-1}{14}$

$y-y_1=m(x-x_1)\\ y-(-6)=\frac{-1}{14}(x-(-2))\\ 14y + 84 = -x - 2\\ x+14y + 86= 0$
Hence, the equation of the normals to the curve $y = x^3 + 2x + 6$ which are parallel
to the line $x + 14y + 4 = 0.$

are x +14y - 254 = 0 and x + 14y +86 = 0

Equation of the given curve is
$y ^2 = 4 ax$

Slope of tangent = $2y\frac{dy}{dx} = 4a \Rightarrow \frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{4a}{2y}$
at point $(at ^2, 2at).$
$\frac{dy}{dx}= \frac{4a}{2(2at)} = \frac{4a}{4at} = \frac{1}{t}$
Now, the equation of tangent with point $(at ^2, 2at).$ and slope $\frac{1}{t}$ is
$y-y_1=m(x-x_1)\\ y-2at=\frac{1}{t}(x-at^2)\\ yt - 2at^2 = x - at^2\\ x-yt +at^2 = 0$

We know that
$Slope \ of \ normal = \frac{-1}{Slope \ of \ tangent} = -t$
Now, the equation of at point $(at ^2, 2at).$ with slope -t
$y-y_1=m(x-x_1)\\ y-2at=(-t)(x-at^2)\\ y - 2at = -xt + at^3\\ xt+y -2at -at^3 = 0$
Hence, the equations of the tangent and normal to the parabola

$y ^2 = 4 ax$ at the point $(at ^2, 2at).$ are
$x-yt+at^2=0\ \ \ \ and \ \ \ \ xt+y -2at -at^3 = 0 \ \ respectively$

Let suppose, Curve $x = y^2$ and xy = k cut at the right angle
then the slope of their tangent also cut at the right angle
means,
$\left ( \frac{dy}{dx} \right )_a \times \left ( \frac{dy}{dx} \right )_b = -1$ -(i)
$2y\left ( \frac{dy}{dx} \right )_a = 1 \Rightarrow \left ( \frac{dy}{dx} \right )_a = \frac{1}{2y}$
$\left ( \frac{dy}{dx} \right )_b = \frac{-k}{x^2}$
Now these values in equation (i)
$\frac{1}{2y} \times \frac{-k}{x^2} = -1\\ -k = -2yx^2\\ k =2(xy)(x)\\ k = 2k(k^{\frac{2}{3}}) \ \ \ \ \left ( x = y^2 \Rightarrow y^2y = k \Rightarrow y = k^{\frac{1}{3}} \ and \ x = k^{\frac{2}{3}} \right ) \\ 2(k^{\frac{2}{3}}) = 1\\ \left ( 2(k^{\frac{2}{3}}) \right )^3 = 1^3\\ 8k^2 = 1$
Hence proved

Given equation is
$\frac{x^2 }{a^2} - \frac{y^2 }{b^2 }= 1 \Rightarrow y^2a^2 = x^2b^2 -a^2b^2$
Now ,we know that
slope of tangent = $2ya^2\frac{dy}{dx} = 2xb^2 \Rightarrow \frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{xb^2}{ya^2}$
at point $(x_0 , y_0 )$
$\frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{x_0b^2}{y_0a^2}$
equation of tangent at point $(x_0 , y_0 )$ with slope $\frac{xb^2}{ya^2}$
$y-y_1=m(x-x_1)\\ y-y_0=\frac{x_0b^2}{y_0a^2}(x-x_0)\\ yy_0a^2-y_0^2a^2 = xx_0b^2-x_0^2b^2\\ xx_0b^2 - yy_0a^2 = x_0^2b^2-y_0^2a^2$
Now, divide both sides by $a^2b^2$
$\frac{xx_0}{a^2} - \frac{yy_0}{b^2} = \left ( \frac{x_0^2}{a^2} - \frac{y_0^2}{b^2} \right )$
$=1 \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \left ( \because \frac{x_0^2}{a^2}-\frac{y_0^2}{b^2 } = 1\right )$
$\frac{xx_0}{a^2} - \frac{yy_0}{b^2} = 1$
Hence, the equation of tangent is

$\frac{xx_0}{a^2} - \frac{yy_0}{b^2} = 1$
We know that
$Slope \ of \ normal= \frac{-1}{slope \ of \ tangent } = -\frac{y_0a^2}{x_0b^2}$
equation of normal at the point $(x_0 , y_0 )$ with slope $-\frac{y_0a^2}{x_0b^2}$
$y-y_1=m(x-x_1)\\ y-y_0=-\frac{y_0a^2}{x_0b^2}(x-x_0)\\ \frac{y-y_0}{y_0a^2} + \frac{x-x_0}{x_0b^2} = 0$

Parellel to line $4x - 2y + 5 = 0 \Rightarrow y = 2x + \frac{5}{2}$ means the slope of tangent and slope of line is equal
We know that the equation of line is
y = mx + c
on comparing with the given equation we get the slope of line m = 2 and c = 5/2
Now, we know that the slope of the tangent at a given point to given curve is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$
Given the equation of curve is
$y = \sqrt{3x-2}$
$\frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{1}{2}.\frac{3}{\sqrt{3x-2}}=\frac{3}{2\sqrt{3x-2}}$
$\frac{3}{2\sqrt{3x-2}} = 2\\ 3^2 = (4\sqrt{3x-2})^2\\ 9 = 16(3x-2)\\ 3x-2=\frac{9}{16}\\ 3x = \frac{9}{16} +2\\ 3x= \frac{41}{16}\\ x = \frac{41}{48}$
Now, when

$x = \frac{41}{48}$ , $y = \sqrt{3x-2} \Rightarrow y = \sqrt{3\times\frac{41}{48}-2 } = \sqrt{\frac{41}{16}-2}=\sqrt\frac{9}{16 } = \pm \frac{3}{4}$

but y cannot be -ve so we take only positive value
Hence, the coordinates are

$\left ( \frac{41}{48},\frac{3}{4} \right )$
Now, equation of tangent paasing through

$\left ( \frac{41}{48},\frac{3}{4} \right )$ and with slope m = 2 is
$y - y_1=m(x-x_1)\\ y-\frac{3}{4}=2(x-\frac{41}{48})\\ 48y-36=2(48x-41)\\ 48x-24y=41-18\\ 48x-24y=23$
Hence, equation of tangent paasing through $\left ( \frac{41}{48},\frac{3}{4} \right )$ and with slope m = 2 is 48x - 24y = 23

Equation of the given curve is
$y = 2x ^2 + 3 \sin x$
Slope of tangent = $\frac{dy}{dx} = 4x +3 \cos x$
at x = 0
$\frac{dy}{dx} = 4(0) +3 \cos 0= 0 + 3$
$\frac{dy}{dx}= 3$
Now, we know that
$Slope \ of \ normal = \frac{-1}{\ Slope \ of \ tangent} = \frac{-1}{3}$
Hence, (D) is the correct option

The slope of the given line $y = x+1$ is 1
given curve equation is
$y^2 = 4 x$
If the line is tangent to the given curve than the slope of the tangent is equal to the slope of the curve
The slope of tangent = $2y\frac{dy}{dx} = 4 \Rightarrow \frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{2}{y}$
$\frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{2}{y} = 1\\ y = 2$
Now, when y = 2, $x = \frac{y^2}{4} = \frac{2^2}{4} = \frac{4}{4} = 1$
Hence, the coordinates are (1,2)

Hence, (A) is the correct answer

NCERT application-of-derivatives class 12 solutions: Exercise 6.4

Lets suppose $y = \sqrt x$ and let x = 25 and $\Delta x = 0.3$
Then,
$\Delta y = \sqrt{x+\Delta x} - \sqrt x$
$\Delta y = \sqrt{25+0.3} - \sqrt 25$
$\Delta y = \sqrt{25.3} - 5$
$\sqrt{25.3} = \Delta y +5$
Now, we can say that $\Delta y$ is approximate equals to dy
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}\Delta x\\ dy = \frac{1}{2\sqrt x}.(0.3) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = \sqrt x \ and \ \Delta x = 0.3)\\ dy = \frac{1}{2\sqrt 25}.(0.3)\\ dy = \frac{1}{10}.(0.3)\\ dy = 0.03$
Now,
$\sqrt{25.3} = \Delta y +5\\ \sqrt {25.3} = 0.03 + 5\\ \sqrt{25.3} = 5.03$
Hence, $\sqrt{25.3}$ is approximately equals to 5.03

Lets suppose $y = \sqrt x$ and let x = 49 and $\Delta x = 0.5$
Then,
$\Delta y = \sqrt{x+\Delta x} - \sqrt x$
$\Delta y = \sqrt{49+0.5} - \sqrt 49$
$\Delta y = \sqrt{49.5} - 7$
$\sqrt{49.5} = \Delta y +7$
Now, we can say that $\Delta y$ is approximately equal to dy
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}\Delta x\\ dy = \frac{1}{2\sqrt x}.(0.5) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = \sqrt x \ and \ \Delta x = 0.5)\\ dy = \frac{1}{2\sqrt 49}.(0.5)\\ dy = \frac{1}{14}.(0.5)\\ dy = 0.035$
Now,
$\sqrt{49.5} = \Delta y +7\\ \sqrt {49.5} = 0.035 + 7\\ \sqrt{49.5} = 7.035$
Hence, $\sqrt{49.5}$ is approximately equal to 7.035

Lets suppose $y = \sqrt x$ and let x = 1 and $\Delta x = -0.4$
Then,
$\Delta y = \sqrt{x+\Delta x} - \sqrt x$
$\Delta y = \sqrt{1+(-0.4)} - \sqrt 1$
$\Delta y = \sqrt{0.6} - 1$
$\sqrt{0.6} = \Delta y +1$
Now, we cam say that $\Delta y$ is approximately equals to dy
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}\Delta x\\ dy = \frac{1}{2\sqrt x}.(-0.4) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = \sqrt x \ and \ \Delta x = -0.4)\\ dy = \frac{1}{2\sqrt 1}.(-0.4)\\ dy = \frac{1}{2}.(-0.4)\\ dy = -0.2$
Now,
$\sqrt{0.6} = \Delta y +1\\ \sqrt {0.6} = (-0.2) + 1\\ \sqrt{0.6} = 0.8$
Hence, $\sqrt{0.6}$ is approximately equal to 0.8

Lets suppose $y = (x)^{\frac{1}{3}}$ and let x = 0.008 and $\Delta x = 0.001$
Then,
$\Delta y = ({x+\Delta x})^{\frac{1}{3}} - (x)^{\frac{1}{3}}$
$\Delta y = ({0.008+ 0.001})^{\frac{1}{3}} - (0.008)^{\frac{1}{3}}$
$\Delta y = ({0.009})^{\frac{1}{3}} - 0.2$
$({0.009})^{\frac{1}{3}} = \Delta y + 0.2$
Now, we cam say that $\Delta y$ is approximately equals to dy
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}\Delta x\\ dy = \frac{1}{3 (x)^{\frac{2}{3}}}.(0.001) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = (x)^{\frac{1}{3}} \ and \ \Delta x = 0.001)\\ dy = \frac{1}{3(0.008)^{\frac{2}{3}}}.(0.001)\\ dy = \frac{1}{0.12}.(0.001)\\ dy = 0.008$
Now,
$(0.009)^{\frac{1}{3}} = \Delta y +0.2\\ (0.009)^{\frac{1}{3}} = (0.008) + 0.2\\ (0.009)^{\frac{1}{3}} = 0.208$
Hence, $(0.009)^{\frac{1}{3}}$ is approximately equal to 0.208

Lets suppose $y = (x)^{\frac{1}{10}}$ and let x = 1 and $\Delta x = -0.001$
Then,
$\Delta y = ({x+\Delta x})^{\frac{1}{10}} - (x)^{\frac{1}{10}}$
$\Delta y = ({1 - 0.001})^{\frac{1}{10}} - (1)^{\frac{1}{10}}$
$\Delta y = ({0.999})^{\frac{1}{10}} - 1$
$({0.999})^{\frac{1}{10}} = \Delta y + 1$
Now, we cam say that $\Delta y$ is approximately equals to dy
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}\Delta x\\ dy = \frac{1}{10 (x)^{\frac{9}{10}}}.(-0.001) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = (x)^{\frac{1}{10}} \ and \ \Delta x = -0.001)\\ dy = \frac{1}{10(1)^{\frac{9}{10}}}.(-0.001)\\ dy = \frac{1}{10}.(-0.001)\\ dy = -0.0001$
Now,
$(0.999)^{\frac{1}{10}} = \Delta y +1\\ (0.999)^{\frac{1}{10}} = (-0.0001) + 1\\ (0.999)^{\frac{1}{10}} = 0.9999 = 0.999 \ upto \ three\ decimal \ place$
Hence, $(0.999)^{\frac{1}{10}}$ is approximately equal to 0.999 (because we need to answer up to three decimal place)

Let's suppose $y = (x)^{\frac{1}{4}}$ and let x = 16 and $\Delta x = -1$
Then,
$\Delta y = ({x+\Delta x})^{\frac{1}{4}} - (x)^{\frac{1}{4}}$
$\Delta y = ({16 - 1})^{\frac{1}{4}} - (16)^{\frac{1}{4}}$
$\Delta y = ({15})^{\frac{1}{4}} - 2$
$({15})^{\frac{1}{4}} = \Delta y + 2$
Now, we can say that $\Delta y$ is approximately equal to dy
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}\Delta x\\ dy = \frac{1}{4 (x)^{\frac{3}{4}}}.(-1) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = (x)^{\frac{1}{4}} \ and \ \Delta x = -1)\\ dy = \frac{1}{4(16)^{\frac{3}{4}}}.(-1)\\ dy = \frac{1}{4\times 8}.(-1)\\dy = \frac{1}{32}.(-1) \\dy = -0.031$
Now,
$(15)^{\frac{1}{4}} = \Delta y +2\\ (15)^{\frac{1}{4}} = (-0.031) + 2\\ (15)^{\frac{1}{4}} = 1.969$
Hence, $(15)^{\frac{1}{4}}$ is approximately equal to 1.969

Lets suppose $y = (x)^{\frac{1}{3}}$ and let x = 27 and $\Delta x = -1$
Then,
$\Delta y = ({x+\Delta x})^{\frac{1}{3}} - (x)^{\frac{1}{3}}$
$\Delta y = ({27 - 1})^{\frac{1}{3}} - (27)^{\frac{1}{3}}$
$\Delta y = ({26})^{\frac{1}{3}} - 3$
$({26})^{\frac{1}{3}} = \Delta y + 3$
Now, we can say that $\Delta y$ is approximately equal to dy
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}\Delta x\\ dy = \frac{1}{3 (x)^{\frac{2}{3}}}.(-1) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = (x)^{\frac{1}{3}} \ and \ \Delta x = -1)\\ dy = \frac{1}{3(27)^{\frac{2}{3}}}.(-1)\\ dy = \frac{1}{3\times 9}.(-1)\\dy = \frac{1}{27}.(-1) \\dy = -0.037$
Now,
$(27)^{\frac{1}{3}} = \Delta y +3\\ (27)^{\frac{1}{3}} = (-0.037) + 3\\ (27)^{\frac{1}{3}} = 2.963$
Hence, $(27)^{\frac{1}{3}}$ is approximately equal to 2.963

Let's suppose $y = (x)^{\frac{1}{4}}$ and let x = 256 and $\Delta x = -1$
Then,
$\Delta y = ({x+\Delta x})^{\frac{1}{4}} - (x)^{\frac{1}{4}}$
$\Delta y = ({256 - 1})^{\frac{1}{4}} - (256)^{\frac{1}{4}}$
$\Delta y = ({255})^{\frac{1}{4}} - 4$
$({255})^{\frac{1}{4}} = \Delta y + 4$
Now, we can say that $\Delta y$ is approximately equal to dy
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}\Delta x\\ dy = \frac{1}{4 (x)^{\frac{3}{4}}}.(-1) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = (x)^{\frac{1}{4}} \ and \ \Delta x = -1)\\ dy = \frac{1}{4(256)^{\frac{3}{4}}}.(-1)\\ dy = \frac{1}{4\times 64}.(-1)\\dy = \frac{1}{256}.(-1) \\dy = -0.003$
Now,
$(255)^{\frac{1}{4}} = \Delta y +4\\ (255)^{\frac{1}{4}} = (-0.003) + 4\\ (255)^{\frac{1}{4}} = 3.997$
Hence, $(255)^{\frac{1}{4}}$ is approximately equal to 3.997

Let's suppose $y = (x)^{\frac{1}{4}}$ and let x = 81 and $\Delta x = 1$
Then,
$\Delta y = ({x+\Delta x})^{\frac{1}{4}} - (x)^{\frac{1}{4}}$
$\Delta y = ({81 + 1})^{\frac{1}{4}} - (81)^{\frac{1}{4}}$
$\Delta y = ({82})^{\frac{1}{4}} - 3$
$({82})^{\frac{1}{4}} = \Delta y + 3$
Now, we can say that $\Delta y$ is approximately equal to dy
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}\Delta x\\ dy = \frac{1}{4 (x)^{\frac{3}{4}}}.(1) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = (x)^{\frac{1}{4}} \ and \ \Delta x = 1)\\ dy = \frac{1}{4(81)^{\frac{3}{4}}}.(1)\\ dy = \frac{1}{4\times 27}.(1)\\dy = \frac{1}{108}.(1) \\dy = .009$
Now,
$(82)^{\frac{1}{4}} = \Delta y +3\\ (82^{\frac{1}{4}} = (0.009) + 3\\ (82)^{\frac{1}{4}} = 3.009$
Hence, $(82)^{\frac{1}{4}}$ is approximately equal to 3.009

Let's suppose $y = (x)^{\frac{1}{2}}$ and let x = 400 and $\Delta x = 1$
Then,
$\Delta y = ({x+\Delta x})^{\frac{1}{2}} - (x)^{\frac{1}{2}}$
$\Delta y = ({400 + 1})^{\frac{1}{2}} - (400)^{\frac{1}{2}}$
$\Delta y = ({401})^{\frac{1}{2}} - 20$
$({401})^{\frac{1}{2}} = \Delta y + 20$
Now, we can say that $\Delta y$ is approximately equal to dy
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}\Delta x\\ dy = \frac{1}{2 (x)^{\frac{1}{2}}}.(1) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = (x)^{\frac{1}{2}} \ and \ \Delta x = 1)\\ dy = \frac{1}{2(400)^{\frac{1}{2}}}.(1)\\ dy = \frac{1}{2\times 20}.(1)\\dy = \frac{1}{40}.(1) \\dy = 0.025$
Now,
$(401)^{\frac{1}{2}} = \Delta y +20\\ (401)^{\frac{1}{2}} = (0.025) + 20\\ (401)^{\frac{1}{2}} = 20.025$
Hence, $(401)^{\frac{1}{2}}$ is approximately equal to 20.025

Lets suppose $y = (x)^{\frac{1}{2}}$ and let x = 0.0036 and $\Delta x = 0.0001$
Then,
$\Delta y = ({x+\Delta x})^{\frac{1}{2}} - (x)^{\frac{1}{2}}$
$\Delta y = ({0.0036 + 0.0001})^{\frac{1}{2}} - (0.0036)^{\frac{1}{2}}$
$\Delta y = ({0.0037})^{\frac{1}{2}} - 0.06$
$({0.0037})^{\frac{1}{2}} = \Delta y + 0.06$
Now, we can say that $\Delta y$ is approximately equal to dy
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}\Delta x\\ dy = \frac{1}{2 (x)^{\frac{1}{2}}}.(0.0001) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = (x)^{\frac{1}{2}} \ and \ \Delta x = 0.0001)\\ dy = \frac{1}{2(0.0036)^{\frac{1}{2}}}.(0.0001)\\ dy = \frac{1}{2\times 0..06}.(0.0001)\\dy = \frac{1}{0.12}.(0.0001) \\dy = 0.0008$
Now,
$(0.0037)^{\frac{1}{2}} = \Delta y +0.06\\ (0.0037)^{\frac{1}{2}} = (0.0008) + 0.06\\ (0.0037)^{\frac{1}{2}} = 0.0608$
Hence, $(0.0037)^{\frac{1}{2}}$ is approximately equal to 0.060 (because we need to take up to three decimal places)

Lets suppose $y = (x)^{\frac{1}{3}}$ and let x = 27 and $\Delta x = -0.43$
Then,
$\Delta y = ({x+\Delta x})^{\frac{1}{3}} - (x)^{\frac{1}{3}}$
$\Delta y = ({27 - 0.43})^{\frac{1}{3}} - (27)^{\frac{1}{3}}$
$\Delta y = ({26.57})^{\frac{1}{3}} - 3$
$({26.57})^{\frac{1}{3}} = \Delta y + 3$
Now, we cam say that $\Delta y$ is approximately equals to dy
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}\Delta x\\ dy = \frac{1}{3 (x)^{\frac{2}{3}}}.(-0.43) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = (x)^{\frac{1}{3}} \ and \ \Delta x = -0.43)\\ dy = \frac{1}{3(27)^{\frac{2}{3}}}.(-0.43)\\ dy = \frac{1}{3\times 9}.(-0.43)\\dy = \frac{1}{27}.(-0.43) \\dy = -0.0159 = -0.016 (approx.)$
Now,
$(26.57)^{\frac{1}{3}} = \Delta y +3\\ (26.57)^{\frac{1}{3}} = (-0.016) + 3\\ (26.57)^{\frac{1}{3}} = 2.984$
Hence, $(0.0037)^{\frac{1}{2}}$ is approximately equal to 0.060 (because we need to take up to three decimal places)

Lets suppose $y = (x)^{\frac{1}{4}}$ and let x = 81 and 0.5
Then,
$\Delta y = ({x+\Delta x})^{\frac{1}{4}} - (x)^{\frac{1}{4}}$
$\Delta y = ({81 + 0.5})^{\frac{1}{4}} - (81)^{\frac{1}{4}}$
$\Delta y = ({81.5})^{\frac{1}{4}} - 3$
$({81.5})^{\frac{1}{4}} = \Delta y + 3$
Now, we can say that $\Delta y$ is approximately equal to dy
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}\Delta x\\ dy = \frac{1}{4 (x)^{\frac{3}{4}}}.(0.5) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = (x)^{\frac{1}{4}} \ and \ \Delta x = 0.5)\\ dy = \frac{1}{4(81)^{\frac{3}{4}}}.(0.5)\\ dy = \frac{1}{4\times 27}.(0.5)\\dy = \frac{1}{108}.(0.5) \\dy = .004$
Now,
$(81.5)^{\frac{1}{4}} = \Delta y +3\\ (82^{\frac{1}{4}} = (0.004) + 3\\ (82)^{\frac{1}{4}} = 3.004$
Hence, $(81.5)^{\frac{1}{4}}$ is approximately equal to 3.004

Let's suppose $y = (x)^{\frac{3}{2}}$ and let x = 4 and $\Delta x = -0.032$
Then,
$\Delta y = ({x+\Delta x})^{\frac{3}{2}} - (x)^{\frac{3}{2}}$
$\Delta y = ({4 - 0.032})^{\frac{3}{2}} - (4)^{\frac{3}{2}}$
$\Delta y = ({3.968})^{\frac{3}{2}} - 8$
$({3.968})^{\frac{3}{2}} = \Delta y + 8$
Now, we can say that $\Delta y$ is approximately equal to dy
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}\Delta x\\ dy = \frac{3 (x)^{\frac{1}{2}}}{2}.(-0.032) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = (x)^{\frac{3}{2}} \ and \ \Delta x = -0.032)\\ dy = \frac{3 (4)^{\frac{1}{2}}}{2}.(-0.032)\\ dy = \frac{3\times 2}{2}.(-0.032)\\\\dy = -0.096$
Now,
$(3.968)^{\frac{3}{2}} = \Delta y +8\\ (3.968)^{\frac{3}{2}} = (-0.096) + 8\\ (3.968)^{\frac{3}{2}} = 7.904$
Hence, $(3.968)^{\frac{3}{2}}$ is approximately equal to 7.904

Lets suppose $y = (x)^{\frac{1}{5}}$ and let x = 32 and $\Delta x = 0.15$
Then,
$\Delta y = ({x+\Delta x})^{\frac{1}{5}} - (x)^{\frac{1}{5}}$
$\Delta y = ({32 + 0.15})^{\frac{1}{5}} - (32)^{\frac{1}{5}}$
$\Delta y = ({32.15})^{\frac{1}{5}} - 2$
$({32.15})^{\frac{1}{5}} = \Delta y + 2$
Now, we can say that $\Delta y$ is approximately equal to dy
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}\Delta x\\ dy = \frac{1}{5 (x)^{\frac{4}{5}}}.(0.15) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = (x)^{\frac{1}{5}} \ and \ \Delta x = 0.15)\\ dy = \frac{1 }{5 (32)^{\frac{4}{5}}}.(0.15)\\ dy = \frac{1}{5\times16}.(0.15)\\\\dy = \frac{0.15}{80}\\ dy = 0.001$
Now,
$(32.15)^{\frac{1}{5}} = \Delta y +2\\ (32.15)^{\frac{1}{5}} = (0.001) + 2\\ (32.15)^{\frac{1}{5}} = 2.001$
Hence, $(32.15)^{\frac{1}{5}}$ is approximately equal to 2.001

Let x = 2 and $\Delta x = 0.01$
$f(x+\Delta x) = 4(x+\Delta x)^2 +5(x+\Delta x)+2$
$\Delta y = f(x+\Delta x) - f(x)\\ f(x+\Delta x) = \Delta y + f(x)$
We know that $\Delta y$ is approximately equal to dy
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}.\Delta x\\ dy = (8x+5).(0.01) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = f(x) = 4x^2+5x+2 \ and \ \Delta x = 0.01)\\ dy = 0.08x+0.05$
$f(x+\Delta x) = \Delta y + f(x)\\ f(x+\Delta x) = 0.08x + 0.05 + 4x^2 + 5x +2\\ f(x+\Delta x) = 0.08(2)+0.05+4(2)^2+5(2)+2\\ f(x+\Delta x) = 0.16 + 0.05 + 16 + 10 + 2\\ f(x+\Delta x) = 28.21$
Hence, the approximate value of f (2.01), where $f (x) = 4x^2 + 5x + 2.$ is 28.21

Let x = 5 and $\Delta x = 0.001$
$f(x+\Delta x) =(x+\Delta x)^3 - 7(x+\Delta x)^2 +15$
$\Delta y = f(x+\Delta x) - f(x)\\ f(x+\Delta x) = \Delta y + f(x)$
We know that $\Delta y$ is approximately equal to dy
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}.\Delta x\\ dy = (3x^2 - 14x).(0.001) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = f(x) = x^3-7x^2+15 \ and \ \Delta x = 0.001)\\ dy =0.003x^2 -0.014x$
$f(x+\Delta x) = \Delta y + f(x)\\ f(x+\Delta x) = 0.003x^2 - 0.014x + x^3 - 7x^2 +15\\ f(x+\Delta x) =0.003(5)^2-0.014(5)+(5)^3-7(5)^2+15\\ f(x+\Delta x) = 0.075-0.07+125-175+15\\ f(x+\Delta x) = -34.995$
Hence, the approximate value of f (5.001), where $f (x) = x^3 - 7x^2 + 15\ is \ -34.995$

Side of cube increased by 1% = 0.01x m
Volume of cube = $x^3 \ m^3$
we know that $\Delta y$ is approximately equal to dy
So,
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}.\Delta x\\ dy =3x^2(0.01x) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = x^3 \ and \ \Delta x = 0.01x)\\ dy = 0.03x^3$
Hence, the approximate change in volume V of a cube of side x metres caused by increasing the side by 1% is $0.03x^3 \ m^3$

Side of cube decreased by 1% $(\Delta x)$ = -0.01x m
The surface area of cube = $6a^2 \ m^2$
We know that, $(\Delta y)$ is approximately equal to dy

$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}.\Delta x\\ dy = 12a(-0.01x) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = 6a^2 \ and \ \Delta x = -0.01x)\\ dy = 12x(-0.01x)\\ dy=-0.12x^2 \ m^2$
Hence, the approximate change in the surface area of a cube of side x metres
caused by decreasing the side by 1%. is $-0.12x^2 \ m^2$

Error in radius of sphere $(\Delta r)$ = 0.02 m
Volume of sphere = $\frac{4}{3}\pi r^3$
Error in volume $(\Delta V)$
$dV = \frac{dV}{dr}.\Delta r\\ dV = 4\pi r^2 .\Delta r \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because V = \frac{4}{3}\pi r^3, r =7 \ and \ \Delta r = 0.02 )\\ dV = 4\pi (7)^2 (0.02)\\ dV= 4\pi (49) (0.02)\\ dV = 3.92\pi$
Hence, the approximate error in its volume is $3.92\pi \ m^3$

Error in radius of sphere $(\Delta r)$ = 0.03 m
The surface area of sphere = $4\pi r^2$
Error in surface area $(\Delta A)$
$dA = \frac{dA}{dr}.\Delta r\\ dA = 8\pi r .\Delta r \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because A = 4\pi r^2, r =9 \ and \ \Delta r = 0.03 )\\ dA = 8\pi (9) (0.03)\\ dA= 2.16\pi$
Hence, the approximate error in its surface area is $2.16\pi \ m^2$

Let x = 3 and $\Delta x = 0.02$
$f(x+\Delta x) = 3(x+\Delta x)^2 +15(x+\Delta x)+5$
$\Delta y = f(x+\Delta x) - f(x)\\ f(x+\Delta x) = \Delta y + f(x)$
We know that $\Delta y$ is approximately equal to dy
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}.\Delta x\\ dy = (6x+15).(0.02) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = f(x) = 3x^2+15x+5 \ and \ \Delta x = 0.02)\\ dy = 0.12x+0.3$
$f(x+\Delta x) = \Delta y + f(x)\\ f(x+\Delta x) = 0.12x + 0.3 + 3x^2 + 15x +5\\ f(x+\Delta x) = 0.12(3)+0.3+3(3)^2+15(3)+5\\ f(x+\Delta x) = 0.36+ 0.3 + 27 + 45 + 5\\ f(x+\Delta x) = 77.66$
Hence, the approximate value of f (3.02) is 77.66
Hence, (D) is the correct answer

Side of cube increased by 3% = 0.03x m
The volume of cube = $x^3 \ m^3$
we know that $\Delta y$ is approximately equal to dy
So,
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}.\Delta x\\ dy =3x^2(0.03x) \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = x^3 \ and \ \Delta x = 0.03x)\\ dy = 0.09x^3$
Hence, the approximate change in volume V of a cube of side x metres caused by increasing the side by 3% is $0.09x^3 \ m^3$
Hence, (C) is the correct answer

NCERT application-of-derivatives class 12 solutions: Exercise: 6.5

Given function is,
$f (x) = (2x - 1)^2 + 3$
$(2x - 1)^2 \geq 0\\ (2x-1)^2+3\geq 3$
Hence, minimum value occurs when
$(2x-1)=0\\ x = \frac{1}{2}$
Hence, the minimum value of function $f (x) = (2x - 1)^2 + 3$ occurs at $x = \frac{1}{2}$
and the minimum value is
$f(\frac{1}{2}) = (2.\frac{1}{2}-1)^2+3\\$
$= (1-1)^2+3 \Rightarrow 0+3 = 3$
and it is clear that there is no maximum value of $f (x) = (2x - 1)^2 + 3$

Given function is,
$f (x) = 9x^ 2 + 12x + 2$
add and subtract 2 in given equation
$f (x) = 9x^ 2 + 12x + 2 + 2- 2\\ f(x)= 9x^2 +12x+4-2\\ f(x)= (3x+2)^2 - 2$
Now,
$(3x+2)^2 \geq 0\\ (3x+2)^2-2\geq -2$ for every $x \ \epsilon \ R$
Hence, minimum value occurs when
$(3x+2)=0\\ x = \frac{-2}{3}$
Hence, the minimum value of function $f (x) = 9x^2+12x+2$ occurs at $x = \frac{-2}{3}$
and the minimum value is
$f(\frac{-2}{3}) = 9(\frac{-2}{3})^2+12(\frac{-2}{3})+2=4-8+2 =-2 \\$

and it is clear that there is no maximum value of $f (x) = 9x^2+12x+2$

Given function is,
$f (x) = - (x -1) ^2 + 10$
$-(x-1)^2 \leq 0\\ -(x-1)^2+10\leq 10$ for every $x \ \epsilon \ R$
Hence, maximum value occurs when
$(x-1)=0\\ x = 1$
Hence, maximum value of function $f (x) = - (x -1) ^2 + 10$ occurs at x = 1
and the maximum value is
$f(1) = -(1-1)^2+10=10 \\$

and it is clear that there is no minimum value of $f (x) = 9x^2+12x+2$

Given function is,
$g(x) = x^3 + 1$
value of $x^3$ varies from $-\infty < x^3 < \infty$
Hence, function $g(x) = x^3 + 1$ neither has a maximum or minimum value

Given function is
$f (x) = |x + 2| - 1$
$|x+2| \geq 0\\ |x+2| - 1 \geq -1$ $x \ \epsilon \ R$
Hence, minimum value occurs when |x + 2| = 0
x = -2
Hence, minimum value occurs at x = -2
and minimum value is
$f(-2) = |-2+2| - 1 = -1$
It is clear that there is no maximum value of the given function $x \ \epsilon \ R$

Given function is
$g(x) = - | x + 1| + 3$
$-|x+1| \leq 0\\ -|x+1| + 3 \leq 3$ $x \ \epsilon \ R$
Hence, maximum value occurs when -|x + 1| = 0
x = -1
Hence, maximum value occurs at x = -1
and maximum value is
$g(-1) = -|-1+1| + 3 = 3$
It is clear that there is no minimum value of the given function $x \ \epsilon \ R$

Given function is
$h(x) = \sin(2x) + 5$
We know that value of sin 2x varies from
$-1 \leq sin2x \leq 1$
$-1 + 5 \leq sin2x +5\leq 1 +5\\ 4 \leq sin2x +5\leq 6$
Hence, the maximum value of our function $h(x) = \sin(2x) + 5$ is 6 and the minimum value is 4

Given function is
$f (x) = | \sin 4x + 3|$
We know that value of sin 4x varies from
$-1 \leq sin4x \leq 1$
$-1 + 3 \leq sin4x +3\leq 1 +3\\ 2 \leq sin4x +3\leq 4\\ 2\leq | sin4x +3| \leq 4$
Hence, the maximum value of our function $f (x) = | \sin 4x + 3|$ is 4 and the minimum value is 2

Given function is
$h(x) = x + 1$
It is given that the value of $x \ \epsilon (-1,1)$
So, we can not comment about either maximum or minimum value
Hence, function $h(x) = x + 1$ has neither has a maximum or minimum value

Given function is
$f ( x) = x^2\\ f^{'}(x) = 2x\\ f^{'}(x) = 0 \Rightarrow 2x = 0 \Rightarrow x = 0$
So, x = 0 is the only critical point of the given function
$f^{'}(0) = 0\\$ So we find it through the 2nd derivative test
$f^{''}(x) = 2\\ f^{''}(0) = 2\\ f^{''}(0)> 0$
Hence, by this, we can say that 0 is a point of minima
and the minimum value is
$f(0) = (0)^2 = 0$

Given function is
$g(x) = x ^3 - 3x\\ g^{'}(x) = 3x^2 - 3\\ g^{'}(x)=0\Rightarrow 3x^2-3 =0 \Rightarrow x = \pm 1\\$
Hence, the critical points are 1 and - 1
Now, by second derivative test
$g^{''}(x)=6x$
$g^{''}(1)=6 > 0$
Hence, 1 is the point of minima and the minimum value is
$g(1) = (1)^3 - 3(1) = 1 - 3 = -2$
$g^{''}(-1)=-6 < 0$
Hence, -1 is the point of maxima and the maximum value is
$g(1) = (-1)^3 - 3(-1) = -1 + 3 = 2$

Given function is
$h(x) = \sin x + \cos x\\ h^{'}(x)= \cos x - \sin x\\ h^{'}(x)= 0\\ \cos x - \sin x = 0\\ \cos x = \sin x\\ x = \frac{\pi}{4} \ \ \ \ \ \ as \ x \ \epsilon \ \left ( 0,\frac{\pi}{2} \right )$
Now, we use the second derivative test
$h^{''}(x)= -\sin x - \cos x\\ h^{''}(\frac{\pi}{4}) = -\sin \frac{\pi}{4} - \cos \frac{\pi}{4}\\ h^{''}(\frac{\pi}{4}) = -\frac{1}{\sqrt2}-\frac{1}{\sqrt2}\\ h^{''}(\frac{\pi}{4})= -\frac{2}{\sqrt2} = -\sqrt2 < 0$
Hence, $\frac{\pi}{4}$ is the point of maxima and the maximum value is $h\left ( \frac{\pi}{4} \right )$ which is $\sqrt2$

Given function is
$h(x) = \sin x - \cos x\\ h^{'}(x)= \cos x + \sin x\\ h^{'}(x)= 0\\ \cos x + \sin x = 0\\ \cos x = -\sin x\\ x = \frac{3\pi}{4} \ \ \ \ \ \ as \ x \ \epsilon \ \left ( 0,2\pi \right )$
Now, we use second derivative test
$h^{''}(x)= -\sin x + \cos x\\ h^{''}(\frac{3\pi}{4}) = -\sin \frac{3\pi}{4} + \cos \frac{3\pi}{4}\\ h^{''}(3\frac{\pi}{4}) = -(\frac{1}{\sqrt2})-\frac{1}{\sqrt2}\\ h^{''}(\frac{\pi}{4})=- \frac{2}{\sqrt2} = -\sqrt2 < 0$
Hence, $\frac{\pi}{4}$ is the point of maxima and maximum value is $h\left ( \frac{3\pi}{4} \right )$ which is $\sqrt2$

Givrn function is
$f (x) = x^3 - 6x^2 + 9x + 15\\ f^{'}(x) = 3x^2 - 12x + 9\\ f^{'}(x)= 0\\ 3x^2 - 12x + 9 = 0\\ 3(x^2-4x+3)=0\\ x^2-4x+3 = 0\\ x^2 - x -3x + 3=0\\ x(x-1)-3(x-1) = 0\\ (x-1)(x-3) = 0\\ x=1 \ \ \ \ \ \ and \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x = 3$
Hence 1 and 3 are critical points
Now, we use the second derivative test
$f^{''}(x) = 6x - 12\\ f^{''}(1) = 6 - 12 = -6 < 0$
Hence, x = 1 is a point of maxima and the maximum value is
$f (1) = (1)^3 - 6(1)^2 + 9(1) + 15 = 1-6+9+15 = 19$
$f^{''}(x) = 6x - 12\\ f^{''}(3) = 18 - 12 = 6 > 0$
Hence, x = 1 is a point of minima and the minimum value is
$f (3) = (3)^3 - 6(3)^2 + 9(3) + 15 = 27-54+27+15 = 15$

Given function is
$g ( x) = \frac{x}{2} + \frac{2}{x}\\ g^{'}(x) = \frac{1}{2}-\frac{2}{x^2}\\ g^{'}(x) = 0\\ \frac{1}{2}-\frac{2}{x^2} = 0\\ x^2 = 4\\ x = \pm 2$ ( but as $x > 0$ we only take the positive value of x i.e. x = 2)
Hence, 2 is the only critical point
Now, we use the second derivative test
$g^{''}(x) = \frac{4}{x^3}\\ g^{''}(2) = \frac{4}{2^3} =\frac{4}{8} = \frac{1}{2}> 0$
Hence, 2 is the point of minima and the minimum value is
$g ( x) = \frac{x}{2} + \frac{2}{x} \\ g(2) = \frac{2}{2} + \frac{2}{2} = 1 + 1 = 2$

Gien function is
$g (x) = \frac{1}{x^2 + 2}\\ g^{'}(x) = \frac{-2x}{(x^2+2)^2}\\ g^{'}(x) = 0\\ \frac{-2x}{(x^2+2)^2} = 0\\ x = 0$
Hence., x = 0 is only critical point
Now, we use the second derivative test
$g^{''}(x) = -\frac{-2(x^2+2)^2-(-2x){2(x^2+2)(2x)}}{((x^2+2)^2)^2} \\ g^{''}(0) = \frac{-2\times4}{(2)^4} = \frac{-8}{16} = -\frac{1}{2}< 0$
Hence, 0 is the point of local maxima and the maximum value is
$g (0) = \frac{1}{0^2 + 2} = \frac{1}{2}$

Given function is
$f (x) = x \sqrt{ 1-x }$
$f ^{'}(x) = \sqrt{1-x} + \frac{x(-1)}{2\sqrt{1-x}}$
$= \sqrt{1-x} - \frac{x}{2\sqrt{1-x}} \Rightarrow \frac{2-3x}{2\sqrt{1-x}}\\ f^{'}(x) = 0\\ \frac{2-3x}{2\sqrt{1-x}} = 0\\ 3x = 2\\ x = \frac{2}{3}$
Hence, $x = \frac{2}{3}$ is the only critical point
Now, we use the second derivative test
$f^{''}(x)= \frac{(-1)(2\sqrt{1-x})-(2-x)(2.\frac{-1}{2\sqrt{1-x}}(-1))}{(2\sqrt{1-x})^2}$
$= \frac{-2\sqrt{1-x}-\frac{2}{\sqrt{1-x}}+\frac{x}{\sqrt{1-x}}}{4(1-x)}$
$= \frac{3x}{4(1-x)\sqrt{1-x}}$
$f^{"}(\frac{2}{3}) > 0$
Hence, it is the point of minima and the minimum value is
$f (x) = x \sqrt{ 1-x }\\ f(\frac{2}{3}) = \frac{2}{3}\sqrt{1-\frac{2}{3}}\\ f(\frac{2}{3}) = \frac{2}{3}\sqrt{\frac{1}{3}}\\ f(\frac{2}{3}) = \frac{2}{3\sqrt3}\\ f(\frac{2}{3}) = \frac{2\sqrt3}{9}$

Given function is
$f (x) = e ^x$
$f^{'}(x) = e^x\\ f^{'}(x) = 0\\ e^x=0\\$
But exponential can never be 0
Hence, the function $f (x) = e ^x$ does not have either maxima or minima

Given function is
$g(x) = \log x$
$g^{'}(x) = \frac{1}{x}\\ g^{'}(x) = 0\\ \frac{1}{x}= 0\\$
Since log x deifne for positive x i.e. $x > 0$
Hence, by this, we can say that $g^{'}(x)> 0$ for any value of x
Therefore, there is no $c \ \epsilon \ R$ such that $g^{'}(c) = 0$
Hence, the function $g(x) = \log x$ does not have either maxima or minima

Given function is
$h(x) = x^3 + x^2 + x +1$
$h^{'}(x) = 3x^2+2x+1\\ h^{'}(x) = 0\\ 3x^2+2x+1 = 0\\ 2x^2+x^2+2x+1 = 0\\ 2x^2 + (x+1)^2 = 0\\$
But, it is clear that there is no $c \ \epsilon \ R$ such that $f^{'}(c) = 0$
Hence, the function $h(x) = x^3 + x^2 + x +1$ does not have either maxima or minima

Given function is
$f(x) = x^3$
$f^{'}(x) = 3x^2\\ f^{'}(x) = 0\\ 3x^2 = 0\Rightarrow x = 0$
Hence, 0 is the critical point of the function $f(x) = x^3$
Now, we need to see the value of the function $f(x) = x^3$ at x = 0 and as $x \ \epsilon \ [-2,2]$ we also need to check the value at end points of given range i.e. x = 2 and x = -2
$f(0) = (0)^3 = 0\\ f(2= (2)^3 = 8\\ f(-2)= (-2)^3 = -8$
Hence, maximum value of function $f(x) = x^3$ occurs at x = 2 and value is 8
and minimum value of function $f(x) = x^3$ occurs at x = -2 and value is -8

Given function is
$f(x) = \sin x + \cos x$
$f^{'}(x) = \cos x - \sin x\\ f^{'}(x)= 0\\ \cos x- \sin x= 0\\ \cos = \sin x\\ x = \frac{\pi}{4}$ as $x \ \epsilon \ [0,\pi]$
Hence, $x = \frac{\pi}{4}$ is the critical point of the function $f(x) = \sin x + \cos x$
Now, we need to check the value of function $f(x) = \sin x + \cos x$ at $x = \frac{\pi}{4}$ and at the end points of given range i.e. $x = 0 \ and \ x = \pi$
$f(\frac{\pi}{4}) = \sin \frac{\pi}{4} + \cos \frac{\pi}{4}\\$
$=\frac{1}{\sqrt2}+\frac{1}{\sqrt2} = \frac{2}{\sqrt2} = \sqrt2$
$f(0) = \sin 0 + \cos 0 = 0 + 1 = 1$
$f(\pi) = \sin \pi + \cos \pi = 0 +(-1) = -1$
Hence, the absolute maximum value of function $f(x) = \sin x + \cos x$ occurs at $x = \frac{\pi}{4}$ and value is $\sqrt2$
and absolute minimum value of function $f(x) = \sin x + \cos x$ occurs at $x = \pi$ and value is -1

Given function is
$f(x) =4x - \frac{1}{2}x^2$
$f^{'}(x) = 4 - x \\ f^{'}(x)= 0\\ 4-x= 0\\ x=4$
Hence, x = 4 is the critical point of function $f(x) =4x - \frac{1}{2}x^2$
Now, we need to check the value of function $f(x) =4x - \frac{1}{2}x^2$ at x = 4 and at the end points of given range i.e. at x = -2 and x = 9/2
$f(4) =4(4) - \frac{1}{2}(4)^2$
$=16-\frac{1}{2}.16 = 16-8 = 8$
$f(-2) = 4(-2)-\frac{1}{2}.(-2)^2 = -8-2 = -10$
$f(\frac{9}{2}) =4(\frac{9}{2})-\frac{1}{2}.\left ( \frac{9}{2} \right )^2 = 18-\frac{81}{8} = \frac{63}{8}$
Hence, absolute maximum value of function $f(x) =4x - \frac{1}{2}x^2$ occures at x = 4 and value is 8
and absolute minimum value of function $f(x) =4x - \frac{1}{2}x^2$ occures at x = -2 and value is -10

Given function is
$f(x) = (x-1)^2+3$
$f^{'}(x) =2(x-1) \\ f^{'}(x)= 0\\ 2(x-1)= 0\\ x=1$
Hence, x = 1 is the critical point of function $f(x) = (x-1)^2+3$
Now, we need to check the value of function $f(x) = (x-1)^2+3$ at x = 1 and at the end points of given range i.e. at x = -3 and x = 1
$f(1) = (1-1)^2+3 = 0^2+3 = 3$

$f(-3) = (-3-1)^2+3= (-4)^2+3 = 16+3= 19$
$f(1) = (1-1)^2+3 = 0^2+3 = 3$
Hence, absolute maximum value of function $f(x) = (x-1)^2+3$ occurs at x = -3 and value is 19
and absolute minimum value of function $f(x) = (x-1)^2+3$ occurs at x = 1 and value is 3

Profit of the company is given by the function
$p(x) = 41 - 72x - 18x ^2$
$p^{'}(x)= -72-36x\\ p^{'}(x) = 0\\ -72-36x= 0\\ x = -2$
x = -2 is the only critical point of the function $p(x) = 41 - 72x - 18x ^2$
Now, by second derivative test
$p^{''}(x)= -36< 0$
At x = -2 $p^{''}(x)< 0$
Hence, maxima of function $p(x) = 41 - 72x - 18x ^2$ occurs at x = -2 and maximum value is
$p(-2) = 41 - 72(-2) - 18(-2) ^2=41+144-72 = 113$
Hence, the maximum profit the company can make is 113 units

Given function is
$f(x)=3x^4 - 8x^3 + 12x^2 - 48x + 25^{}$
$f^{'}(x)=12x^3 - 24x^2 +24x - 48 \\ f^{'}(x)=0\\ 12(x^3-2x^2+2x-4) = 0\\ x^3-2x^2+2x-4=0\\$
Now, by hit and trial let first assume x = 2
$(2)^3-2(2)^2+2(2)-4\\ 8-8+4-4=0$
Hence, x = 2 is one value
Now,
$\frac{x^3-2x^2+2x-4}{x-2} = \frac{(x^2+2)(x-2)}{(x-2)} = (x^2+2)$
$x^2 = - 2$ which is not possible
Hence, x = 2 is the only critical value of function $f(x)=3x^4 - 8x^3 + 12x^2 - 48x + 25^{}$
Now, we need to check the value at x = 2 and at the end points of given range i.e. x = 0 and x = 3
$=3\times16 - 8\times 8 + 12\times 4 - 96 + 25 = 48-64+48-96+25 = -39$

$f(3)=3(3)^4 - 8(3)^3 + 12(3)^2 - 48(3) + 25\\ =3\times81-8\times27+12\times9-144+25 \\ =243-216+108-144+25 = 16$

$f(0)=3(0)^4 - 8(0)^3 + 12(0)^2 - 48(0) + 25 = 25$
Hence, maximum value of function $f(x)=3x^4 - 8x^3 + 12x^2 - 48x + 25^{}$ occurs at x = 0 and vale is 25
and minimum value of function $f(x)=3x^4 - 8x^3 + 12x^2 - 48x + 25^{}$ occurs at x = 2 and value is -39

Given function is
$f(x) = \sin 2x$
$f^{'}(x) = 2\cos 2x\\ f^{'}(x) = 0\\ 2\cos 2x = 0\\ as \ x \ \epsilon [0,2\pi]\\ 0 < x < 2\pi\\ 0< 2x < 4\pi\\ \cos 2x = 0 \ at \ 2x = \frac{\pi}{2},2x = \frac{3\pi}{2},2x=\frac{5\pi}{2}and 2x= \frac{7\pi}{2}\\$
So, values of x are
$x = \frac{\pi}{4},x = \frac{3\pi}{4},x=\frac{5\pi}{4} \ and \ x= \frac{7\pi}{4}\\$ These are the critical points of the function $f(x) = \sin 2x$
Now, we need to find the value of the function $f(x) = \sin 2x$ at $x = \frac{\pi}{4},x = \frac{3\pi}{4},x=\frac{5\pi}{4} \ and \ x= \frac{7\pi}{4}\\$ and at the end points of given range i.e. at x = 0 and $x = \pi$

$f(x) = \sin 2x\\ f(\frac{\pi}{4}) = \sin 2\left ( \frac{\pi}{4} \right ) = \sin \frac{\pi}{2} = 1$

$f(x) = \sin 2x\\ f(\frac{3\pi}{4}) = \sin 2\left ( \frac{3\pi}{4} \right ) = \sin \frac{3\pi}{2} = -1$

$f(x) = \sin 2x\\ f(\frac{5\pi}{4}) = \sin 2\left ( \frac{5\pi}{4} \right ) = \sin \frac{5\pi}{2} = 1$

$f(x) = \sin 2x\\ f(\frac{7\pi}{4}) = \sin 2\left ( \frac{7\pi}{4} \right ) = \sin \frac{7\pi}{2} = -1$

$f(x) = \sin 2x\\ f(\pi) = \sin 2(\pi)= \sin 2\pi = 0$

$f(x) = \sin 2x\\ f(0) = \sin 2(0)= \sin 0 = 0$

Hence, at $x =\frac{\pi}{4} \ and \ x = \frac{5\pi}{4}$ function $f(x) = \sin 2x$ attains its maximum value i.e. in 1 in the given range of $x \ \epsilon \ [0,2\pi]$

Given function is
$f(x) = \sin x + \cos x$
$f^{'}(x) = \cos x - \sin x\\ f^{'}(x)= 0\\ \cos x- \sin x= 0\\ \cos = \sin x\\ x = 2n\pi+\frac{\pi}{4} \ where \ n \ \epsilon \ I$
Hence, $x = 2n\pi+\frac{\pi}{4}$ is the critical point of the function $f(x) = \sin x + \cos x$
Now, we need to check the value of the function $f(x) = \sin x + \cos x$ at $x = 2n\pi+\frac{\pi}{4}$
Value is same for all cases so let assume that n = 0
Now
$f(\frac{\pi}{4}) = \sin \frac{\pi}{4} + \cos \frac{\pi}{4}\\$
$=\frac{1}{\sqrt2}+\frac{1}{\sqrt2} = \frac{2}{\sqrt2} = \sqrt2$

Hence, the maximum value of the function $f(x) = \sin x + \cos x$ is $\sqrt2$

Given function is
$f(x) = 2x^3-24x+107$
$f^{'}(x)=6x^2 - 24 \\ f^{'}(x)=0\\ 6(x^2-4) = 0\\ x^2-4=0\\ x^{2} = 4\\ x = \pm2$ we neglect the value x =- 2 because $x \ \epsilon \ [1,3]$
Hence, x = 2 is the only critical value of function $f(x) = 2x^3-24x+107$
Now, we need to check the value at x = 2 and at the end points of given range i.e. x = 1 and x = 3
$f(2) = 2(2)^3-24(2)+107\\ = 2\times 8 - 48+107\\ =16-48+107 = 75$

$f(3) = 2(3)^3-24(3)+107\\ = 2\times 27 - 72+107\\ =54-72+107 = 89$

$f(1) = 2(1)^3-24(1)+107\\ = 2\times 1 - 24+107\\ =2-24+107 = 85$
Hence, maximum value of function $f(x) = 2x^3-24x+107$ occurs at x = 3 and vale is 89 when $x \ \epsilon \ [1,3]$
Now, when $x \ \epsilon \ [-3,-1]$
we neglect the value x = 2
Hence, x = -2 is the only critical value of function $f(x) = 2x^3-24x+107$
Now, we need to check the value at x = -2 and at the end points of given range i.e. x = -1 and x = -3
$f(-1) = 2(-1)^3-24(-1)+107\\ = 2\times (-1) + 24+107\\ =-2+24+107 = 129$

$f(-2) = 2(-2)^3-24(-2)+107\\ = 2\times (-8) + 48+107\\ =-16+48+107 = 139$

$f(-3) = 2(-3)^3-24(-3)+107\\ = 2\times (-27) + 72+107\\ =-54+72+107 = 125$
Hence, the maximum value of function $f(x) = 2x^3-24x+107$ occurs at x = -2 and vale is 139 when $x \ \epsilon \ [-3,-1]$

Given function is
$f(x) =x ^4 - 62x^2 + ax + 9$
Function $f(x) =x ^4 - 62x^2 + ax + 9$ attains maximum value at x = 1 then x must one of the critical point of the given function that means
$f^{'}(1)=0$
$f^{'}(x) = 4x^3-124x+a\\ f^{'}(1) = 4(1)^3-124(1)+a\\ f^{'}(1)=4-124+a = a - 120\\$
Now,
$f^{'}(1)=0\\ a - 120=0\\ a=120$
Hence, the value of a is 120

Given function is
$f(x) =x+ \sin 2x$
$f^{'}(x) =1+ 2\cos 2x\\ f^{'}(x) = 0\\ 1+2\cos 2x = 0\\ as \ x \ \epsilon \ [0,2\pi]\\ 0 < x < 2\pi\\ 0< 2x < 4\pi\\ \cos 2x = \frac{-1}{2} \ at \ 2x = 2n\pi \pm \frac{2\pi}{3} \ where \ n \ \epsilon \ Z\\ x = n\pi \pm \frac{\pi}{3}\\ x = \frac{\pi}{3},\frac{2\pi}{3},\frac{4\pi}{3},\frac{5\pi}{3} \ as \ x \ \epsilon \ [0,2\pi]$
So, values of x are
$x = \frac{\pi}{3},\frac{2\pi}{3},\frac{4\pi}{3},\frac{5\pi}{3}$ These are the critical points of the function $f(x) = x+\sin 2x$
Now, we need to find the value of the function $f(x) = x+\sin 2x$ at $x = \frac{\pi}{3},\frac{2\pi}{3},\frac{4\pi}{3},\frac{5\pi}{3}$ and at the end points of given range i.e. at x = 0 and $x = 2\pi$

$f(x) =x+ \sin 2x\\ f(\frac{\pi}{3}) = \frac{\pi}{3}+\sin 2\left ( \frac{\pi}{3} \right ) = \frac{\pi}{3}+\sin \frac{2\pi}{3} = \frac{\pi}{3}+\frac{\sqrt3}{2}$

$f(x) =x+ \sin 2x\\ f(\frac{2\pi}{3}) = \frac{2\pi}{3}+\sin 2\left ( \frac{2\pi}{3} \right ) = \frac{2\pi}{3}+\sin \frac{4\pi}{3} = \frac{2\pi}{3}-\frac{\sqrt3}{2}$

$f(x) =x+ \sin 2x\\ f(\frac{4\pi}{3}) = \frac{4\pi}{3}+\sin 2\left ( \frac{4\pi}{3} \right ) = \frac{4\pi}{3}+\sin \frac{8\pi}{3} = \frac{4\pi}{3}+\frac{\sqrt3}{2}$

$f(x) =x+ \sin 2x\\ f(\frac{5\pi}{3}) = \frac{5\pi}{3}+\sin 2\left ( \frac{5\pi}{3} \right ) = \frac{5\pi}{3}+\sin \frac{10\pi}{3} = \frac{5\pi}{3}-\frac{\sqrt3}{2}$

$f(x) = x+\sin 2x\\ f(2\pi) = 2\pi+\sin 2(2\pi)= 2\pi+\sin 4\pi = 2\pi$

$f(x) = x+\sin 2x\\ f(0) = 0+\sin 2(0)= 0+\sin 0 = 0$

Hence, at $x = 2\pi$ function $f(x) = x+\sin 2x$ attains its maximum value and value is $2\pi$ in the given range of $x \ \epsilon \ [0,2\pi]$
and at x= 0 function $f(x) = x+\sin 2x$ attains its minimum value and value is 0

Let x and y are two numbers
It is given that
x + y = 24 , y = 24 - x
and product of xy is maximum
let $f(x) = xy=x(24-x)=24x-x^2\\ f^{'}(x) = 24-2x\\ f^{'}(x)=0\\ 24-2x=0\\ x=12$
Hence, x = 12 is the only critical value
Now,
$f^{''}(x) = -2< 0$
at x= 12 $f^{''}(x) < 0$
Hence, x = 12 is the point of maxima
Noe, y = 24 - x
= 24 - 12 = 12
Hence, the value of x and y are 12 and 12 respectively

It is given that
x + y = 60 , x = 60 -y
and $xy^3$ is maximum
let $f(y) = (60-y)y^3 = 60y^3-y^4$
Now,
$f^{'}(y) = 180y^2-4y^3\\ f^{'}(y) = 0\\ y^2(180-4y)=0\\ y= 0 \ and \ y = 45$

Now,
$f^{''}(y) = 360y-12y^2\\ f^{''}(0) = 0\\$
hence, 0 is neither point of minima or maxima
$f^{''}(y) = 360y-12y^2\\ f^{''}(45) = 360(45)-12(45)^2 = -8100 < 0$
Hence, y = 45 is point of maxima
x = 60 - y
= 60 - 45 = 15
Hence, values of x and y are 15 and 45 respectively

It is given that
x + y = 35 , x = 35 - y
and $x^2 y^5$ is maximum
Therefore,
$let \ f (y )= (35-y)^2y^5\\ = (1225-70y+y^2)y^5\\ f(y)=1225y^5-70y^6+y^7$
Now,
$f^{'}(y) = 6125y^4-420y^5+7y^6\\ f^{'}(y)=0\\ y^4(6125-420y+7y^2) = 0 \\y =0 \ and \ (y-25)(y-35)\Rightarrow y = 25 , y=35$
Now,
$f^{''}(y)= 24500y^3-2100y^4+42y^5$

$f^{''}(35)= 24500(35)^3-2100(35)^4+42(35)^5\\ = 105043750 > 0$
Hence, y = 35 is the point of minima

$f^{''}(0)= 0\\$
Hence, y= 0 is neither point of maxima or minima

$f^{''}(25)= 24500(25)^3-2100(25)^4+42(25)^5\\ = -27343750 < 0$
Hence, y = 25 is the point of maxima
x = 35 - y
= 35 - 25 = 10
Hence, the value of x and y are 10 and 25 respectively

let x an d y are positive two numbers
It is given that
x + y = 16 , y = 16 - x
and $x^3 + y^3$ is minimum
$f(x) = x^3 + (16-x)^3$
Now,
$f^{'}(x) = 3x^2 + 3(16-x)^2(-1)$
$f^{'}(x) = 0\\ 3x^2 - 3(16-x)^2 =0\\ 3x^2-3(256+x^2-32x) = 0\\ 3x^2 -3x^2+96x-768= 0\\ 96x = 768\\ x = 8\\$
Hence, x = 8 is the only critical point
Now,
$f^{''}(x) = 6x - 6(16-x)(-1) = 6x + 96 - 6x = 96\\ f^{''}(x) = 96$
$f^{''}(8) = 96 > 0$
Hence, x = 8 is the point of minima
y = 16 - x
= 16 - 8 = 8
Hence, values of x and y are 8 and 8 respectively

It is given that the side of the square is 18 cm
Let assume that the length of the side of the square to be cut off is x cm
So, by this, we can say that the breath of cube is (18-2x) cm and height is x cm
Then,
Volume of cube $\left ( V(x) \right )$ = $x(18-2x)^2$
$V^{'}(x) = (18-2x)^2+(x)2(18-2x)(-2)$
$V^{'}(x) = 0\\ (18-2x)^2-4x(18-2x)=0\\ 324 + 4x^2 - 72x - 72x + 8x^2 = 0\\ 12x^2-144x+324 = 0\\ 12(x^2-12x+27) = 0\\ x^2-9x-3x+27=0\\ (x-3)(x-9)=0\\ x = 3 \ and \ x = 9$ But the value of x can not be 9 because then the value of breath become 0 so we neglect value x = 9
Hence, x = 3 is the critical point
Now,
$V^{''}(x) = 24x -144\\ V^{''}(3) = 24\times 3 - 144\\ . \ \ \ \ \ \ \ = 72 - 144 = -72\\ V^{''}(3) < 0$
Hence, x = 3 is the point of maxima
Hence, the length of the side of the square to be cut off is 3 cm so that the volume of the box is the maximum possible

It is given that the sides of the rectangle are 45 cm and 24 cm
Let assume the side of the square to be cut off is x cm
Then,
Volume of cube $V(x) = x(45-2x)(24-2x)$
$V^{'}(x) = (45-2x)(24-2x) + (-2)(x)(24-2x)+(-2)(x)(45-2x)\\$
$1080 + 4x^2 - 138x - 48x + 4x^2 - 90x +4x^2\\ 12x^2 - 276x + 1080$
$V^{'}(x) = 0\\ 12(x^2 - 23x+90)=0\\ x^2-23x+90 = 0\\ x^2-18x-5x+23=0\\ (x-18)(x-5)=0\\ x =18 \ and \ x = 5$
But x cannot be equal to 18 because then side (24 - 2x) become negative which is not possible so we neglect value x= 18
Hence, x = 5 is the critical value
Now,
$V^{''}(x)=24x-276\\ V^{''}(5)=24\times5 - 276\\ V^{''}(5)= -156 < 0$
Hence, x = 5 is the point of maxima
Hence, the side of the square to be cut off is 5 cm so that the volume of the box is maximum

Let assume that length and breadth of rectangle inscribed in a circle is l and b respectively
and the radius of the circle is r
Now, by Pythagoras theorem
$a = \sqrt{l^2+b^2}\\$
a = 2r
$4r^2 = l^2+b^2\\ l = \sqrt{4r^2 - b^2}$
Now, area of reactangle(A) = l $\times$ b
$A(b) = b(\sqrt{4r^2-b^2})$
$A^{'}(b) = \sqrt{4r^2-b^2}+b.\frac{(-2b)}{2\sqrt{4r^2-b^2}}\\ = \frac{4r^2-b^2-b^2}{\sqrt{4r^2-b^2}} = \frac{4r^2-2b^2}{\sqrt{4r^2-b^2}}$
$A^{'}(b) = 0 \\ \frac{4r^2-2b^2}{\sqrt{4r^2-b^2}} = 0\\ 4r^2 = 2b^2\\ b = \sqrt2r$
Now,
$A^{''}(b) = \frac{-4b(\sqrt{4r^2-b^2})-(4r^2-2b^2).\left ( \frac{-1}{2(4r^2-b^2)^\frac{3}{2}}.(-2b) \right )}{(\sqrt{4r^2-b^2})^2}\\ A^{''}(\sqrt2r) = \frac{(-4b)\times\sqrt2r}{(\sqrt2r)^2} = \frac{-2\sqrt2b}{r}< 0$
Hence, $b = \sqrt2r$ is the point of maxima
$l = \sqrt{4r^2-b^2}=\sqrt{4r^2-2r^2}= \sqrt2r$
Since, l = b we can say that the given rectangle is a square
Hence, of all the rectangles inscribed in a given fixed circle, the square has the maximum area

Let r be the radius of the base of cylinder and h be the height of the cylinder
we know that the surface area of the cylinder $(A) = 2\pi r(r+h)$
$h = \frac{A-2\pi r^2}{2\pi r}$
Volume of cylinder
$(V) = \pi r^2 h\\ = \pi r^2 \left ( \frac{A-2\pi r^2}{2\pi r} \right ) = r \left ( \frac{A-2\pi r^2}{2 } \right )$
$V^{'}(r)= \left ( \frac{A-2\pi r^2}{2} \right )+(r).(-2\pi r)\\ = \frac{A-2\pi r^2 -4\pi r^2}{2} = \frac{A-6\pi r^2}{2}$
$V^{'}(r)= 0 \\ \frac{A-6\pi r^2}{2} = 0\\ r = \sqrt{\frac{A}{6\pi}}$
Hence, $r = \sqrt{\frac{A}{6\pi}}$ is the critical point
Now,
$V^{''}(r) = -6\pi r\\ V^{''}(\sqrt{\frac{A}{6\pi}}) = - 6\pi . \sqrt{\frac{A}{6\pi}} = - \sqrt{A6\pi} < 0$
Hence, $r = \sqrt{\frac{A}{6\pi}}$ is the point of maxima
$h = \frac{A-2\pi r^2}{2\pi r} = \frac{2-2\pi \frac{A}{6\pi}}{2\pi \sqrt \frac{A} {6\pi}} = \frac{4\pi \frac{A}{6\pi}}{2\pi \sqrt \frac{A} {6\pi}} = 2\pi \sqrt \frac{A} {6\pi} = 2r$
Hence, the right circular cylinder of given surface and maximum volume is such that its height is equal to the diameter(D = 2r) of the base

Let r be the radius of base and h be the height of the cylinder
The volume of the cube (V) = $\pi r^2 h$
It is given that the volume of cylinder = 100 $cm^3$
$\pi r^2 h = 100\Rightarrow h = \frac{100}{\pi r^2}$
Surface area of cube(A) = $2\pi r(r+h)$
$A(r)= 2\pi r(r+\frac{100}{\pi r^2})$
$= 2\pi r ( \frac{\pi r^3+100}{\pi r^2}) = \frac{2\pi r^3+200}{ r} = 2\pi r^2+\frac{200}{r}$
$A^{'}(r) = 4\pi r + \frac{(-200)}{r^2} \\ A^{'}(r)= 0\\ 4\pi r^3 = 200\\ r^3 = \frac{50}{\pi}\\ r = \left ( \frac{50}{\pi} \right )^{\frac{1}{3}}$
Hence, $r = (\frac{50}{\pi})^\frac{1}{3}$ is the critical point
$A^{''}(r) = 4\pi + \frac{400r}{r^3}\\ A^{''}\left ( (\frac{50}{\pi})^\frac{1}{3} \right )= 4\pi + \frac{400}{\left ( (\frac{50}{\pi})^\frac{1}{3} \right )^2} > 0$
Hence, $r = (\frac{50}{\pi})^\frac{1}{3}$ is the point of minima
$h = \frac{100}{\pi r^2} = \frac{100}{\pi \left ( (\frac{50}{\pi})^\frac{1}{3} \right )^2} = 2.(\frac{50}{\pi})^\frac{1}{3}$
Hence, $r = (\frac{50}{\pi})^\frac{1}{3}$ and $h = 2.(\frac{50}{\pi})^\frac{1}{3}$ are the dimensions of the can which has the minimum surface area

Area of the square (A) = $a^2$
Area of the circle(S) = $\pi r^2$
Given the length of wire = 28 m
Let the length of one of the piece is x m
Then the length of the other piece is (28 - x) m
Now,
$4a = x\Rightarrow a = \frac{x}{4}$
and
$2 \pi r = (28-x) \Rightarrow r= \frac{28-x}{2\pi}$
Area of the combined circle and square $f(x)$ = A + S
$=a^2 + \pi r^2 = (\frac{x}{4})^2+\pi (\frac{28-x}{2\pi})^2$
$f^{'}(x) = \frac{2x}{16}+\frac{(28-x)(-1)}{2\pi} \\ f^{'}(x) = \frac{x\pi+4x-112}{8\pi}\\ f^{'}(x) = 0\\ \frac{x\pi+4x-112}{8\pi} = 0\\ x(\pi+4) = 112\\ x = \frac{112}{\pi + 4}$
Now,
$f^{''}(x) = \frac{1}{8}+ \frac{1}{2\pi}\\ f^{''}(\frac{112}{\pi+4}) = \frac{1}{8}+ \frac{1}{2\pi} > 0$
Hence, $x = \frac{112}{\pi+4}$ is the point of minima
Other length is = 28 - x
= $28 - \frac{112}{\pi+4} = \frac{28\pi+112-112}{\pi+4} = \frac{28\pi}{\pi+4}$
Hence, two lengths are $\frac{28\pi}{\pi+4}$ and $\frac{112}{\pi+4}$

Volume of cone (V) = $\frac{1}{3}\pi R^2h$
Volume of sphere with radius r = $\frac{4}{3}\pi r^3$
By pythagoras theorem in $\Delta ADC$ we ca say that
$OD^2 = r^2 - R^2 \\ OD = \sqrt{r^2 - R^2}\\ h = AD = r + OD = r + \sqrt{r^2 - R^2}$
V = $\frac{1}{3}\pi R^2 (r + \sqrt{r^2+R^2})\\ = \frac{1}{3}\pi R^2r + \frac{1}{3}\pi R^2 \sqrt{r^2+R^2}$
$\frac{1}{3}\pi R^2 (r + \sqrt{r^2-R^2})\\ V^{'}(R)= \frac{2}{3}\pi Rr + \frac{2}{3}\pi R \sqrt{r^2-R^2}+\frac{1}{3}\pi R^2.\frac{-2R}{2\sqrt{r^2-R^2}}\\ V^{'}(R) = 0\\ \frac{1}{3}\pi R \left ( 2r + 2\sqrt{r^2-R^2} - \frac{R^2}{\sqrt{r^2-R^2}} \right ) = 0\\ \frac{1}{3}\pi R \left ( \frac{2r\sqrt{r^2-R^2} + 2r^2-2R^2 -R^2}{\sqrt{r^2-R^2}} \right ) = 0\\ R \neq 0 \ So, \\ 2r\sqrt{r^2-R^2} = 3R^2 - 2r^2\\ Square \ both \ sides\\ 4r^4-4r^2R^2 = 9R^4 + 4r^4 - 12R^2r^2\\ 9R^4-8R^2r^2 = 0\\ R^2(9R^2-8r^2) = 0\\ R \neq 0 \ So, 9R^2 = 8r^2\\ R = \frac{2\sqrt2r}{3}$
Now,
$V^{''}(R)= \frac{2}{3}\pi r + \frac{2}{3}\pi \sqrt{r^2-R^2}+\frac{2}{3}\pi R.\frac{-2R}{2\sqrt{r^2-R^2}}-\frac{3\pi R^2}{\sqrt{r^2-R^2}} - \frac{(-1)(-2R)}{(r^2+R^2)\frac{3}{2}}\\ V^{''}(\frac{2\sqrt2r}{3}) < 0$
Hence, point $R = \frac{2\sqrt2r}{3}$ is the point of maxima
$h = r + \sqrt{r^2-R^2} = r + \sqrt{r^2-\frac{8r^2}{9}} = r + \frac{r}{3} = \frac{4r}{3}$
Hence, the altitude of the right circular cone of maximum volume that can be inscribed in a sphere of radius r is $\frac{4r}{3}$
Volume = $= \frac{1}{3}\pi R^2h = \frac{1}{3}\pi \frac{8r^2}{9}.\frac{4r}{3} = \frac{8}{27}.\frac{4}{3}\pi r^3 = \frac{8}{27}\times \ volume \ of \ sphere$
Hence proved

Volume of cone(V)

$\frac{1}{3}\pi r^2h \Rightarrow h = \frac{3V}{\pi r^2}$
curved surface area(A) = $\pi r l$
$l^2 = r^2 + h^2\\ l = \sqrt{r^2+\frac{9V^2}{\pi^2r^4}}$
$A = \pi r \sqrt{r^2+\frac{9V^2}{\pi^2r^4}} = \pi r^2 \sqrt{1+\frac{9V^2}{\pi^2r^6}}$

$\frac{dA}{dr} = 2\pi r \sqrt{1+\frac{9V^2}{\pi^2r^6}}+ \pi r^2.\frac{1}{2\sqrt{1+\frac{9V^2}{\pi^2r^6}}}.\frac{(-6r^5)9V^2}{\pi^2r^7}\\ \frac{dA}{dr} = 0\\ 2\pi r \sqrt{1+\frac{9V^2}{\pi^2r^6}}+ \pi r^2.\frac{1}{2\sqrt{1+\frac{9V^2}{\pi^2r^6}}}.\frac{(-6)9V^2}{\pi^2r^7} = 0 \\ 2\pi^2r^6\left ( 1+\frac{9V^2}{\pi^2r^6} \right ) = {27V^2}\\ 2\pi^2r^6\left ( \frac{\pi^2r^6+9V^2}{\pi^2r^6} \right ) = {27V^2}\\ 2\pi^2r^6 + 18V^2 = 27V^2\\ 2\pi^2r^6 = 9V^2\\ r^6 = \frac{9V^2}{2\pi^2}$
Now , we can clearly varify that
$\frac{d^2A}{dr^2} > 0$
when $r^6 =\frac{9V^2}{2\pi^2}$
Hence, $r^6 =\frac{9V^2}{2\pi^2}$ is the point of minima
$V = \frac{\sqrt2\pi r^3}{3}$
$h = \frac{3V}{\pi r^2} = \frac{3.\frac{\sqrt2\pi r^3}{3}}{\pi r^2} = \sqrt2 r$
Hence proved that the right circular cone of least curved surface and given volume has an altitude equal to $\sqrt 2$ time the radius of the base

Let a be the semi-vertical angle of cone
Let r , h , l are the radius , height , slent height of cone
Now,
$r = l\sin a \ and \ h=l\cos a$
we know that
Volume of cone (V) = $\frac{1}{3}\pi r^2 h = \frac{1}{3}\pi (l\sin a)^2(l\cos a) = \frac{\pi l^3\sin^2 a\cos a}{3}$
Now,
$\frac{dV}{da}= \frac{\pi l^3}{3}\left ( 2\sin a\cos a.\cos a+\sin^2a.(-\sin a)\right )= \frac{\pi l^3}{3}\left ( 2\sin a\cos^2a-\sin^3a \right )$
$\frac{dV}{da}=0\\ \frac{\pi l^3}{3}\left ( 2\sin a\cos^2a-\sin^3a \right ) = 0\\ 2\sin a\cos^2a-\sin^3a= 0\\ 2\sin a\cos^2a=\sin^3a\\ \tan^2 a = 2\\ a = \tan^{-1}\sqrt 2$
Now,
$\frac{d^2V}{da^2}= \frac{\pi l^3}{3}\left ( 2\cos a\cos^2a+2\cos a(-2\cos a\sin a+3\sin^2a\cos a) \right )$
Now, at $a= \tan ^{-1}\sqrt 2$
$\frac{d^2V}{dx^2}< 0$
Therefore, $a= \tan ^{-1}\sqrt 2$ is the point of maxima
Hence proved

Let r, l, and h are the radius, slant height and height of cone respectively
Now,
$r = l\sin a \ and \ h =l\cos a$
Now,
we know that
The surface area of the cone (A) = $\pi r (r+l)$
$A= \pi l\sin a l(\sin a+1)\\ \\ l^2 = \frac{A}{\pi \sin a(\sin a+1)}\\ \\ l = \sqrt{\frac{A}{\pi \sin a(\sin a+1)}}$
Now,
Volume of cone(V) =

$\frac{1}{3}\pi r^2h = \frac{1}{3}\pi l^3 \sin^2 a\cos a= \frac{\pi}{3}.\left ( \frac{A}{\pi\sin a(\sin a+1)} \right )^\frac{3}{2}.\sin^2 a\cos a$
On differentiate it w.r.t to a and after that
$\frac{dV}{da}= 0$
we will get
$a = \sin^{-1}\frac{1}{3}$
Now, at $a = \sin^{-1}\frac{1}{3}$
$\frac{d^2V}{da^2}<0$
Hence, we can say that $a = \sin^{-1}\frac{1}{3}$ is the point if maxima
Hence proved

Given curve is
$x^2 = 2y$
Let the points on curve be $\left ( x, \frac{x^2}{2} \right )$
Distance between two points is given by
$f(x)= \sqrt{(x_2-x_1)^2+(y_2-y_1)^2}$
$= \sqrt{(x-0)^2+(\frac{x^2}{2}-5)^2} = \sqrt{x^2+ \frac{x^4}{4}-5x^2+25} = \sqrt{ \frac{x^4}{4}-4x^2+25}$
$f^{'}(x) = \frac{x^3-8x}{2\sqrt{\frac{x^4}{4}-4x^2+25}}\\ f^{'}(x)= 0\\ \frac{x^3-8x}{2\sqrt{\frac{x^4}{4}-4x^2+25}} =0\\ x(x^2 - 8)=0\\x=0 \ and \ x^2 = 8\Rightarrow x = 2\sqrt2$
$f^{''}(x) = \frac{1}{2}\left (\frac{(3x^2-8)(\sqrt{\frac{x^4}{4}-4x^2+25} - (x^3-8x).\frac{(x^3-8x)}{2\sqrt{\frac{x^4}{4}-4x^2+25}}}{(\sqrt{\frac{x^4}{4}-4x^2+25})^2}) \right )$
$f^{''}(0) = -8 < 0$
Hence, x = 0 is the point of maxima
$f^{''}(2\sqrt2) > 0$
Hence, the point $x = 2\sqrt2$ is the point of minima
$x^2 = 2y\Rightarrow y = \frac{x^2}{2} = \frac{8}{2}=4$
Hence, the point $(2\sqrt2,4)$ is the point on the curve $x^2 = 2y$ which is nearest to the point (0, 5)
Hence, the correct answer is (A)

Given function is
$f(x)= \frac{1- x + x^2 }{1+ x +x^2}$
$f^{'}(x)= \frac{(-1+2x)(1+x+x^2)-(1-x+x^2)(1+2x)}{(1+ x +x^2)^2}$
$= \frac{-1-x-x^2+2x+2x^2+2x^3-1-2x+x+2x^2-x^2-2x^3}{(1+ x +x^2)^2} = \frac{-2+2x^2}{(1+ x +x^2)^2}$
$f^{'}(x)=0\\ \frac{-2+2x^2}{(1+ x +x^2)^2} = 0\\ x^2 = 1\\ x= \pm 1$
Hence, x = 1 and x = -1 are the critical points
Now,
$f^{''}(x)= \frac{4x(1+ x +x^2)^2-(-2+2x^2)2(1+x+x^2)(2x+1)}{(1+ x +x^2)^4} \\ f^{''}(1) = \frac{4\times(3)^2}{3^4} = \frac{4}{9} > 0$
Hence, x = 1 is the point of minima and the minimum value is
$f(1)= \frac{1- 1 + 1^2 }{1+ 1 +1^2} = \frac{1}{3}$

$f^{''}(-1) =-4 < 0$
Hence, x = -1 is the point of maxima
Hence, the minimum value of
$\frac{1- x + x^2 }{1+ x +x^2}$ is $\frac{1}{3}$
Hence, (D) is the correct answer

Given function is
$f(x) = [ x ( x-1)+ 1 ] ^{1/3 }$
$f^{'}(x) = \frac{1}{3}.[(x-1)+x].\frac{1}{[x(x-1)+1]^\frac{2}{3}} = \frac{2x-1}{3[x(x-1)+1]^\frac{2}{3}}$
$f^{'}(x) = 0\\ \frac{2x-1}{3[x(x-1)+1]^\frac{2}{3}} = 0\\ x =\frac{1}{2}$
Hence, x = 1/2 is the critical point s0 we need to check the value at x = 1/2 and at the end points of given range i.e. at x = 1 and x = 0
$f(\frac{1}{2}) = [ \frac{1}{2} ( \frac{1}{2}-1)+ 1 ] ^{1/3 } = \left ( \frac{3}{4} \right )^\frac{1}{3}$
$f(0) = [ 0 ( 0-1)+ 1 ] ^{1/3 } = \left ( 1 \right )^\frac{1}{3} = 1$
$f(1) = [ 1 ( 1-1)+ 1 ] ^{1/3 } = \left ( 1 \right )^\frac{1}{3} = 1$
Hence, by this we can say that maximum value of given function is 1 at x = 0 and x = 1

option c is correct

Application-of-derivatives class 12 NCERT solutions - Miscellaneous Exercise

Let $y = x^\frac{1}{4}$ and $x = \frac{16}{81} \ and \ \Delta x = \frac{1}{81}$
$\Delta y = (x+\Delta x)^\frac{1}{4}-x^\frac{1}{4}$
$= (\frac{16}{81}+\frac{1}{81})^\frac{1}{4}-(\frac{16}{81})^\frac{1}{4}$
$(\frac{17}{81})^\frac{1}{4} = \Delta y + \frac{2}{3}$
Now, we know that $\Delta y$ is approximate equals to dy
So,
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}.\Delta x \\ = \frac{1}{4x^\frac{3}{4}}.\frac{1}{81} \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = x^\frac{1}{4} \ and \ \Delta x = \frac{1}{81})\\ = \frac{1}{4(\frac{16}{81})^\frac{3}{4}}.\frac{1}{81} = \frac{27}{4\times 8}.\frac{1}{81} = \frac{1}{96}$
Now,
$(\frac{17}{81})^\frac{1}{4} = \Delta y + \frac{2}{3} = \frac{1}{96}+\frac{2}{3} = \frac{65}{96} = 0.677$
Hence, $(\frac{17}{81})^\frac{1}{4}$ is approximately equal to 0.677

Let $y = x^\frac{-1}{5}$ and $x = 32 \ and \ \Delta x = 1$
$\Delta y = (x+\Delta x)^\frac{-1}{5}-x^\frac{-1}{5}$
$= (32+1)^\frac{-1}{5}-(32)^\frac{-1}{5}$
$(33)^\frac{-1}{4} = \Delta y + \frac{1}{2}$
Now, we know that $\Delta y$ is approximately equals to dy
So,
$dy = \frac{dy}{dx}.\Delta x \\ = \frac{-1}{5x^\frac{6}{5}}.1 \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y = x^\frac{-1}{5} \ and \ \Delta x = 1)\\ = \frac{-1}{5(32)^\frac{6}{5}}.1 = \frac{-1}{5\times 64}.1= \frac{-1}{320}$
Now,
$(33)^\frac{-1}{5} = \Delta y + \frac{1}{2} = \frac{-1}{320}+\frac{1}{2} = \frac{159}{320} = 0.497$
Hence, $(33)^\frac{-1}{5}$ is approximately equals to 0.497

Given function is
$f ( x ) = \frac{\log x}{x}$
$f^{'}(x) = \frac{1}{x}.\frac{1}{x} + log x\frac{-1}{x^2} = \frac{1}{x^2}(1-\log x)$
$f^{'}(x) =0 \\ \frac{1}{x^2}(1-\log x) = 0\\ \frac{1}{x^2} \neq 0 \ So \ log x = 1\Rightarrow x = e$
Hence, x =e is the critical point
Now,
$f^{''}(x) = \frac{-2x}{x^3}(1-\log x)+\frac{1}{x^2}(-\frac{1}{x}) = \frac{1}{x^3}(-2x+2xlog x-1)\\ f^{''(e)} = \frac{-1}{e^3} < 0$
Hence, x = e is the point of maxima

It is given that the base of the triangle is b
and let the side of the triangle be x cm , $\frac{dx}{dt} = -3 cm/s$
We know that the area of the triangle(A) = $\frac{1}{2}bh$
now, $h = \sqrt{x^2-(\frac{b}{2})^2}$
$A= \frac{1}{2}b \sqrt{x^2-(\frac{b}{2})^2}$
$\frac{dA}{dt}=\frac{dA}{dx}.\frac{dx}{dt}= \frac{1}{2}b\frac{2x}{2\sqrt{x^2-(\frac{b}{2})^2}}.(-3)$
Now at x = b
$\frac{dA}{dx} = \frac{1}{2}b\frac{2b}{\frac{\sqrt3b}{2}}.(-3)=-\sqrt3b$
Hence, the area decreasing when the two equal sides are equal to the base is $\sqrt3b$ $cm^2/s$

Given the equation of the curve
$x^2 = 4 y$
We know that the slope of the tangent at a point on the given curve is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$
$4\frac{dy}{dx} = 2x \\\ \frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{x}{2}$
We know that
$Slope \ of \ normal = \frac{-1}{Slope \ of \ tangent } = \frac{-1}{\frac{x}{2}} = \frac{-2}{x}$
At point (a,b)
$Slope = \frac{-2}{a}$
Now, the equation of normal with point (a,b) and $Slope = \frac{-2}{a}$

$y-y_1=m(x-x_1)\\ y-b=\frac{-2}{a}(x-a)$
It is given that it also passes through the point (1,2)
Therefore,
$2-b=\frac{-2}{a}(1-a)\\ 2a -ba = 2a -2\\ ba = 2\\b =\frac{2}{a}$ -(i)
It also satisfies equation $x^2 = 4 y\Rightarrow b = \frac{a^2}{4}$ -(ii)
By comparing equation (i) and (ii)
$\frac{2}{a} = \frac{a^2}{4}\\ a^3 = 8\\ a = 2$
$b = \frac{2}{a} = \frac{2}{2} = 1$
$Slope = \frac{-2}{a} = \frac{-2}{2} = -1$

Now, equation of normal with point (2,1) and slope = -1

$y-y_1=m(x-x_1)\\ y-1=-1(x-2)\\ y+x=3$
Hence, equation of normal is x + y - 3 = 0

We know that the slope of tangent at any point is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$
Given equations are
$x = a \cos \theta + a \theta \sin \theta , y = a \sin \theta - a\theta \cos\theta$
$\frac{dx}{d\theta} = -a\sin \theta + a\sin \theta -a\theta\cos \theta = -a\theta\cos \theta$
$\frac{dy}{d\theta} =a\cos \theta -a\cos \theta +a\theta (-\sin \theta) = -a\theta\sin \theta$
$\frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{\frac{dy}{d\theta}}{\frac{dx}{d\theta}} = \frac{-a\theta\sin \theta}{-a\theta \cos \theta} = \tan \theta$
We know that
$Slope \ of \ normal = \frac{-1}{Slope \ of \ tangent} = \frac{-1}{\tan \theta}$
equation of normal with given points and slope
$y_2-y_1=m(x_2-x_1)\\ y - a\sin \theta + a\theta\cos\theta = \frac{-1}{\tan \theta}(x-a\cos\theta-a\theta\sin\theta)\\ y\sin\theta - a\sin^2 \theta + a\theta\cos\theta\sin\theta = -x\cos\theta+a\cos^2\theta+a\theta\sin\theta\cos\theta\\ y\sin\theta + x\cos\theta = a$
Hence, the equation of normal is $y\sin\theta + x\cos\theta = a$
Now perpendicular distance of normal from the origin (0,0) is
$D = \frac{|(0)\sin\theta+(0)\cos\theta-a|}{\sqrt{\sin^2\theta+\cos^2\theta}} = |-a| = a = \ constant \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \\\ (\because \sin^2x+\cos^2x=1)$
Hence, by this, we can say that

the normal at any point $\theta$ to the curve $x = a \cos \theta + a \theta \sin \theta , y = a \sin \theta - a\theta \cos\theta$

is at a constant distance from the origin

Given function is
$f (x) = \frac{4 \sin x - 2x - x \cos x }{2 + \cos x }$
$f^{'}(x) = \frac{(4\cos x - 2-\cos x+x\sin x)(2+\cos x)-(4\sin x - 2x - x\cos x )(-\sin x)}{(2+\cos x)^2}$
$=\frac{4\cos x - \cos^2x}{2+\cos x}$
$f^{'}(x)=0\\ \frac{4\cos x - \cos^2x}{2+\cos x} =0\\ \cos x(4-\cos x) = 0\\ \cos x = 0 \ \ \ \ \ \ \ and \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \cos x =4$
But $\cos x \neq 4$
So,
$\cos x = 0 \\ x = \frac{\pi}{2} \ and \ \frac{3\pi}{2}$
Now three ranges are there $\left ( 0,\frac{\pi}{2} \right ),\left ( \frac{\pi}{2},\frac{3\pi}{2} \right ) \ and \ \left ( \frac{3\pi}{2},2\pi \right )$
In interval $\left ( 0,\frac{\pi}{2} \right ) \ and \ \left ( \frac{3\pi}{2},2\pi \right )$ , $f^{'}(x) > 0$

Hence, the given function $f (x) = \frac{4 \sin x - 2x - x \cos x }{2 + \cos x }$ is increasing in the interval $\left ( 0,\frac{\pi}{2} \right ) \ and \ \left ( \frac{3\pi}{2},2\pi \right )$
in interval $,\left ( \frac{\pi}{2},\frac{3\pi}{2} \right ), f^{'}(x) < 0$ so function is decreasing in this inter

Given function is
$f (x) = \frac{4 \sin x - 2x - x \cos x }{2 + \cos x }$
$f^{'}(x) = \frac{(4\cos x - 2-\cos x+x\sin x)(2+\cos x)-(4\sin x - 2x - x\cos x )(-\sin x)}{(2+\cos x)^2}$
$=\frac{4\cos x - \cos^2x}{2+\cos x}$
$f^{'}(x)=0\\ \frac{4\cos x - \cos^2x}{2+\cos x} =0\\ \cos x(4-\cos x) = 0\\ \cos x = 0 \ \ \ \ \ \ \ and \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \cos x =4$
But $\cos x \neq 4$
So,
$\cos x = 0 \\ x = \frac{\pi}{2} \ and \ \frac{3\pi}{2}$
Now three ranges are there $\left ( 0,\frac{\pi}{2} \right ),\left ( \frac{\pi}{2},\frac{3\pi}{2} \right ) \ and \ \left ( \frac{3\pi}{2},2\pi \right )$
In interval $\left ( 0,\frac{\pi}{2} \right ) \ and \ \left ( \frac{3\pi}{2},2\pi \right )$ , $f^{'}(x) > 0$

Hence, given function $f (x) = \frac{4 \sin x - 2x - x \cos x }{2 + \cos x }$ is increasing in interval $\left ( 0,\frac{\pi}{2} \right ) \ and \ \left ( \frac{3\pi}{2},2\pi \right )$
in interval $,\left ( \frac{\pi}{2},\frac{3\pi}{2} \right ), f^{'}(x) < 0$
Hence, given function $f (x) = \frac{4 \sin x - 2x - x \cos x }{2 + \cos x }$ is decreasing in interval $,\left ( \frac{\pi}{2},\frac{3\pi}{2} \right )$

Given function is
$f (x) = x ^3 + \frac{1}{x^3}$
$f^{'} (x) = 3x ^2 + \frac{-3x^2}{x^4}\\ f^{'}(x) = 0\\ 3x ^2 + \frac{-3x^2}{x^4} = 0\\ x^4 = 1\\ x = \pm1$
Hence, three intervals are their $(-\infty,-1),(-1,1) \ and (1,\infty)$
In interval $(-\infty,-1) \ and \ (1,\infty) , f^{'})x > 0$
Hence, given function $f (x) = x ^3 + \frac{1}{x^3}$ is increasing in interval $(-\infty,-1) \ and \ (1,\infty)$
In interval (-1,1) , $f^{'}(x)< 0$
Hence, given function $f (x) = x ^3 + \frac{1}{x^3}$ is decreasing in interval (-1,1)

Given function is
$f (x) = x ^3 + \frac{1}{x^3}$
$f^{'} (x) = 3x ^2 + \frac{-3x^2}{x^4}\\ f^{'}(x) = 0\\ 3x ^2 + \frac{-3x^2}{x^4} = 0\\ x^4 = 1\\ x = \pm1$
Hence, three intervals are their $(-\infty,-1),(-1,1) \ and (1,\infty)$
In interval $(-\infty,-1) \ and \ (1,\infty) , f^{'})x > 0$
Hence, given function $f (x) = x ^3 + \frac{1}{x^3}$ is increasing in interval $(-\infty,-1) \ and \ (1,\infty)$
In interval (-1,1) , $f^{'}(x)< 0$
Hence, given function $f (x) = x ^3 + \frac{1}{x^3}$ is decreasing in interval (-1,1)

Given the equation of the ellipse
$\frac{x ^2 }{a^2}+ \frac{y^2}{b^2 } = 1$
Now, we know that ellipse is symmetrical about x and y-axis. Therefore, let's assume coordinates of A = (-n,m) then,
Now,
Put(-n,m) in equation of ellipse
we will get
$m = \pm \frac{b}{a}.\sqrt{a^2-n^2}$
Therefore, Now
Coordinates of A = $\left ( -n,\frac{b}{a}.\sqrt{a^2-n^2} \right )$
Coordinates of B = $\left ( -n,-\frac{b}{a}.\sqrt{a^2-n^2} \right )$
Now,
Length AB(base) = $2\frac{b}{a}.\sqrt{a^2-n^2}$
And height of triangle ABC = (a+n)
Now,
Area of triangle = $\frac{1}{2}bh$
$A = \frac{1}{2}.\frac{2b}{a}.\sqrt{a^2-n^2}.(a+n)= ab\sqrt{a^2-n^2}+bn\sqrt{a^2-n^2}$
Now,
$\frac{dA}{dn} = \frac{-abn}{\sqrt{a^2-n^2}}+n\sqrt{a^2-n^2}-\frac{bn^2}{\sqrt{a^2-n^2}}$
Now,
$\frac{dA}{dn} =0\\ \frac{-abn}{\sqrt{a^2-n^2}}+n\sqrt{a^2-n^2}-\frac{bn^2}{\sqrt{a^2-n^2}} =0\\ -abn + n(a^2-n^2)-bn^2 = 0\\ \Rightarrow n = -a,\frac{a}{2}$
but n cannot be zero
therefore, $n = \frac{a}{2}$
Now, at $n = \frac{a}{2}$
$\frac{d^2A}{dn^2}< 0$
Therefore, $n = \frac{a}{2}$ is the point of maxima
Now,
$b = 2\frac{b}{a}.\sqrt{a^2- (\frac{a}{2})^2}= \sqrt3b$
$h = (a+ n ) = a+ \frac{ a}{2} = \frac{ 3a}{2}$
Now,
Therefore, Area (A) $= \frac{1}{2}bh = \frac{1}{2}\sqrt3 b \frac{3a}{2} = \frac{3\sqrt3ab}{4}$

Let l , b and h are length , breath and height of tank
Then, volume of tank = l X b X h = 8 $m^3$
h = 2m (given)
lb = 4 = $l = \frac{4}{b}$
Now,
area of base of tank = l X b = 4
area of 4 side walls of tank = hl + hl + hb + hb = 2h(l + b)
Total area of tank (A) = 4 + 2h(l + b)
$A(b) = 4 + 2h(\frac{4}{b}+b)$
$A^{'}(b) = 2h(\frac{-4}{b^2}+1)\\ A^{'}(b)=0\\ 2h(\frac{-4}{b^2}+1) = 0\\ b^2= 4\\ b = 2$
Now,
$A^{''}(b) = 2h(\frac{-4\times-2b}{b^3})\\ A^{''}(2) = 8 > 0$
Hence, b = 2 is the point of minima
$l = \frac{4}{b} = \frac{4}{2} = 2$
So, l = 2 , b = 2 and h = 2 m
Area of base = l X B = 2 X 2 = $4 \ m^2$
building of tank costs Rs 70 per sq metres for the base
Therefore, for $4 \ m^2$ Rs = 4 X 70 = 280 Rs
Area of 4 side walls = 2h(l + b)
= 2 X 2(2 + 2) = $16 \ m^2$
building of tank costs Rs 45 per square metre for sides
Therefore, for $16 \ m^2$ Rs = 16 X 45 = 720 Rs
Therefore, total cost for making the tank is = 720 + 280 = 1000 Rs

It is given that
the sum of the perimeter of a circle and square is k = $2\pi r + 4a = k\Rightarrow a = \frac{k - 2\pi r}{4}$
Let the sum of the area of a circle and square(A) = $\pi r^2 + a^2$
$A = \pi r^2 + (\frac{k-2\pi r}{4})^2$
$A^{'}(r) = 2\pi r + 2(\frac{k-2\pi r}{16})(- 2\pi)\\ A^{'}(r) = 0\\ 2\pi (\frac{8r-k-2\pi r}{8}) = 0\\ r = \frac{k}{8-2\pi}$
Now,
$A^{''}(r) = 2\pi (\frac{8-2\pi }{8}) = 0\\ A^{''}(\frac{k}{8-2\pi}) > 0$
Hence, $r= \frac{k}{8-2\pi}$ is the point of minima
$a = \frac{k-2\pi r}{4} = \frac{k-2\pi \frac{k}{8-2\pi}}{4}=2 \frac{k}{8-2\pi} = 2r$
Hence proved that the sum of their areas is least when the side of the square is double the radius of the circle

Let l and bare the length and breadth of rectangle respectively and r will be the radius of circle $(r = \frac{l}{2})$
The total perimeter of window = perimeter of rectangle + perimeter of the semicircle

= $l+2b + \pi \frac{l}{2}$

$l+2b + \pi \frac{l}{2} = 10\\ l = \frac{2(10-2b)}{2+\pi}$
Area of window id given by (A) = $lb + \frac{\pi}{2}\left ( \frac{l}{2} \right )^2$
$= \frac{2(10-2b)}{2+\pi}b + \frac{\pi}{2}\left ( \frac{10-2b}{2+\pi} \right )^2\\$
$A^{'}(b) = \frac{20-8b}{2+\pi}+\frac{\pi}{2}.2(\frac{10-2b}{2+\pi}).\frac{(-2)}{2+\pi}$
$= \frac{20-8b}{2+\pi}-2\pi(\frac{10-2b}{(2+\pi)^2})\\ A^{'}(b) = 0\\ \frac{20-8b}{2+\pi}=2\pi(\frac{10-2b}{(2+\pi)^2})\\ 40 + 20\pi -16b -8\pi b = 20\pi - 4\pi b\\ 40 = 4b(\pi+4)\\b = \frac{10}{\pi+4}$
Now,
$A^{''}(b) = \frac{-8}{2+\pi}+\frac{4\pi}{(2+\pi)^2} = \frac{-16-8\pi+4\pi}{(2+\pi)^2} = \frac{-16-4\pi}{(2+\pi)^2} \\ A^{''}(\frac{10}{\pi+4}) < 0$
Hence, b = 5/2 is the point of maxima
$l = \frac{2(10-2b)}{2+\pi} = \frac{2(10-2.\frac{10}{4+\pi})}{2+\pi} = \frac{20}{4+\pi}$
$r= \frac{l}{2}= \frac{20}{2(4+\pi)}=\frac{10}{4+\pi}$
Hence, these are the dimensions of the window to admit maximum light through the whole opening

It is given that
A point on the hypotenuse of a triangle is at a distance a and b from the sides of the triangle

Let the angle between AC and BC is $\theta$
So, the angle between AD and ED is also $\theta$
Now,
CD = $b \ cosec\theta$
And
AD = $a \sec\theta$
AC = H = AD + CD
= $a \sec\theta$ + $b \ cosec\theta$
$\frac{dH}{d\theta} = a \sec\theta\tan\theta - b\cot\theta cosec \theta\\ \frac{dH}{d\theta} = 0\\ a \sec\theta\tan\theta - b\cot\theta cosec \theta =0\\ a \sec\theta\tan\theta = b\cot\theta cosec \theta\\ a\sin^3\theta = b\cos^3\theta\\ \tan^3\theta = \frac{b}{a} \\ \tan\theta = \left ( \frac{b}{a} \right )^\frac{1}{3}$
Now,
$\frac{d^2H}{d\theta^2} > 0$
When $\tan\theta = \left ( \frac{b}{a} \right )^\frac{1}{3}$
Hence, $\tan\theta = \left ( \frac{b}{a} \right )^\frac{1}{3}$ is the point of minima
$\sec \theta = \frac{a\sqrt{a^\frac{2}{3}+b^\frac{2}{3}}}{a^\frac{1}{3}}$ and $cosec \theta = \frac{b\sqrt{a^\frac{2}{3}+b^\frac{2}{3}}}{b^\frac{1}{3}}$

AC = $\frac{a\sqrt{a^\frac{2}{3}+b^\frac{2}{3}}}{a^\frac{1}{3}} +$ $\frac{b\sqrt{a^\frac{2}{3}+b^\frac{2}{3}}}{b^\frac{1}{3}}$ = $(a^\frac{2}{3}+b^\frac{2}{3})^\frac{3}{2}$
Hence proved

Given function is
$f(x) = (x-2)^4(x+1)^3$
$f^{'}(x) = 4(x-2)^3(x+1)^3 + 3(x+1)^2(x-2)^4\\ f^{'}(x)= 0\\ 4(x-2)^3(x+1)^3 + 3(x+1)^2(x-2)^4=0\\ (x-2)^3(x+1)^2(4(x+1) + 3(x-2))\\ x = 2 , x = -1 \ and \ x = \frac{2}{7}$
Now, for value x close to $\frac{2}{7}$ and to the left of $\frac{2}{7}$ , $f^{'}(x) > 0$ ,and for value close to $\frac{2}{7}$ and to the right of $\frac{2}{7}$ $f^{'}(x) < 0$
Thus, point x = $\frac{2}{7}$ is the point of maxima
Now, for value x close to 2 and to the Right of 2 , $f^{'}(x) > 0$ ,and for value close to 2 and to the left of 2 $f^{'}(x) < 0$
Thus, point x = 2 is the point of minima
There is no change in the sign when the value of x is -1
Thus x = -1 is the point of inflexion

$f (x) = \cos ^2 x + \sin x$
$f^{'} (x) = 2\cos x(-\sin x) + \cos x \\ f^{'}(x) = 0\\ -2\cos x\sin x + \cos x=0\\ \cos x(1-2\sin x) = 0\\ either\\ \cos x = 0 \ \ \ \ \ \ and \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \sin x = \frac{1}{2} \\ x = \frac{\pi}{2} \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ and \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x = \frac{\pi}{6} \ \ \ \ \ as \ x \ \epsilon [0,\pi]$
Now,
$f^{''} (x) = -2(-\sin x)\sin x - 2\cos x\cos x + (-\sin x) \\ f^{''}(x)= 2\sin^2x - 2\cos^2x - \sin x\\ f^{''}(\frac{\pi}{6}) = \frac{-3}{2} < 0$
Hence, the point $x = \frac{\pi}{6}$ is the point of maxima and the maximum value is
$f (\frac{\pi}{6}) = \cos ^2 \frac{\pi}{6} + \sin \frac{\pi}{6} = \frac{3}{4}+\frac{1}{2} = \frac{5}{4}$
And
$f^{''}(\frac{\pi}{2}) = 1 > 0$
Hence, the point $x = \frac{\pi}{2}$ is the point of minima and the minimum value is
$f (\frac{\pi}{2}) = \cos ^2 \frac{\pi}{2} + \sin \frac{\pi}{2} =0 + 1 = 1$

The volume of a cone (V) = $\frac{1}{3}\pi R^2h$
The volume of the sphere with radius r = $\frac{4}{3}\pi r^3$
By Pythagoras theorem in $\Delta ADC$ we ca say that
$OD^2 = r^2 - R^2 \\ OD = \sqrt{r^2 - R^2}\\ h = AD = r + OD = r + \sqrt{r^2 - R^2}$
V = $\frac{1}{3}\pi R^2 (r + \sqrt{r^2+R^2})\\ = \frac{1}{3}\pi R^2r + \frac{1}{3}\pi R^2 \sqrt{r^2+R^2}$
$\frac{1}{3}\pi R^2 (r + \sqrt{r^2-R^2})\\ V^{'}(R)= \frac{2}{3}\pi Rr + \frac{2}{3}\pi R \sqrt{r^2-R^2}+\frac{1}{3}\pi R^2.\frac{-2R}{2\sqrt{r^2-R^2}}\\ V^{'}(R) = 0\\ \frac{1}{3}\pi R \left ( 2r + 2\sqrt{r^2-R^2} - \frac{R^2}{\sqrt{r^2-R^2}} \right ) = 0\\ \frac{1}{3}\pi R \left ( \frac{2r\sqrt{r^2-R^2} + 2r^2-2R^2 -R^2}{\sqrt{r^2-R^2}} \right ) = 0\\ R \neq 0 \ So, \\ 2r\sqrt{r^2-R^2} = 3R^2 - 2r^2\\ Square \ both \ sides\\ 4r^4-4r^2R^2 = 9R^4 + 4r^4 - 12R^2r^2\\ 9R^4-8R^2r^2 = 0\\ R^2(9R^2-8r^2) = 0\\ R \neq 0 \ So, 9R^2 = 8r^2\\ R = \frac{2\sqrt2r}{3}$
Now,
$V^{''}(R)= \frac{2}{3}\pi r + \frac{2}{3}\pi \sqrt{r^2-R^2}+\frac{2}{3}\pi R.\frac{-2R}{2\sqrt{r^2-R^2}}-\frac{3\pi R^2}{\sqrt{r^2-R^2}} - \frac{(-1)(-2R)}{(r^2+R^2)\frac{3}{2}}\\ V^{''}(\frac{2\sqrt2r}{3}) < 0$
Hence, the point $R = \frac{2\sqrt2r}{3}$ is the point of maxima
$h = r + \sqrt{r^2-R^2} = r + \sqrt{r^2-\frac{8r^2}{9}} = r + \frac{r}{3} = \frac{4r}{3}$
Hence, the altitude of the right circular cone of maximum volume that can be inscribed in a sphere of radius r is $\frac{4r}{3}$

Let's do this question by taking an example
suppose
$f(x)= x^3 > 0 , (a.b)$
Now, also
$f{'}(x)= 3x^2 > 0 , (a,b)$
Hence by this, we can say that f is an increasing function on (a, b)

The volume of the cylinder (V) = $\pi r^2 h$
By Pythagoras theorem in $\Delta OAB$
$OA = \sqrt{R^2-r^2}$
h = 2OA
$h = 2\sqrt{R^2-r^2}$
$V = 2\pi r^2\sqrt{R^2-r^2}$
$V^{'}(r) = 4\pi r\sqrt{R^2-r^2}+2\pi r^2 . \frac{-2r}{2\sqrt{R^2-r^2}}\\ V^{'}(r) = 0\\ 4\pi r\sqrt{R^2-r^2}- \frac{2\pi r^3}{\sqrt{R^2-r^2}} = 0\\ 4\pi r (R^2-r^2 ) - 2\pi r^3 = 0\\ 6\pi r^3 = 4\pi rR^2\\ r =\frac{\sqrt6R}{3}$
Now,
$V^{''}(r) = 4\pi \sqrt{R^2-r^2}+4\pi r.\frac{-2r}{2\sqrt{R^2-r^2}}- \frac{6\pi r^2}{\sqrt{R^2-r^2}}.\frac{(-1)-2r}{2(R^2-r^2)\frac{3}{2}}\\ V^{''}(\frac{\sqrt6R}{3}) < 0$
Hence, the point $r = \frac{\sqrt6R}{3}$ is the point of maxima
$h = 2\sqrt{R^2-r^2} = = 2\sqrt{R^2 - \frac{2R^2}{3}} =\frac{2R}{\sqrt3}$
Hence, the height of the cylinder of maximum volume that can be inscribed in a sphere of radius R is $\frac{2 R }{\sqrt 3 }$
and maximum volume is
$V = \pi r^2 h = \pi \frac{2R^2}{3}.\frac{2R}{\sqrt3} = \frac{4\pi R^3}{3\sqrt3}$

Let's take radius and height of cylinder = r and h ' respectively
Let's take radius and height of cone = R and h respectively

Volume of cylinder = $\pi r^2 h'$
Volume of cone = $\frac{1}{3}\pi R^2 h$
Now, we have
$R = h\tan a$
Now, since $\Delta AOG \and \Delta CEG$ are similar
$\frac{OA}{OG} = \frac{CE}{EG}$
$\frac{h}{R} = \frac{h'}{R-r}$
$h'=\frac{h(R-r)}{R}$
$h'=\frac{h(h\tan a-r)}{h\tan a} = \frac{h\tan a- r}{\tan a}$
Now,
$V = \pi r^ 2 h' = \pi r^2 .\frac{h\tan a-r}{\tan a} = \pi r^2 h - \frac{\pi r^3}{\tan a}$
Now,
$\frac{dV}{dr}= 2\pi rh- \frac{3\pi r^2}{\tan a} \\ \frac{dV}{dr}=0\\ 2\pi rh- \frac{3\pi r^2}{\tan a} = 0\\ 2\pi rh = \frac{3\pi r^2}{\tan a}\\ r = \frac{2h\tan a}{3}$
Now,
$\frac{d^2V}{dr^2}= 2\pi h- \frac{6\pi r}{\tan a}$
at $r = \frac{2h\tan a}{3}$
$\frac{d^2V}{dr^2} = 2\pi h- 4\pi h < 0$
Hence, $r = \frac{2h\tan a}{3}$ is the point of maxima
$h' = \frac{h\tan a-r}{\tan a} = \frac{h\tan a- \frac{2h\tan a}{3}}{\tan a}= \frac{1}{3}h$
Hence proved
Now, Volume (V) at $h' = \frac{1}{3}h$ and $r = \frac{2h\tan a}{3}$ is
$V = \pi r^2 h' = \pi \left ( \frac{2h\tan a}{3} \right )^2.\frac{h}{3}= \frac{4}{27}.\pi h^3\tan^2 a$
hence proved

It is given that
$\frac{dV}{dt} = 314 \ m^3/h$
Volume of cylinder (V) = $\pi r^2 h = 100\pi h \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because r = 10 m)$
$\frac{dV}{dt} = 100\pi \frac{dh}{dt}\\ 314 = 100\pi \frac{dh}{dt}\\ \frac{dh}{dt} = \frac{3.14}{\pi} = 1 \ m/h$

Given curves are
$x = t^2 + 3t - 8 \ and \ y = 2t^2 - 2t - 5$
At point (2,-1)
$t^2 + 3t - 8 = 2\\ t^2+3t-10=0\\ t^2+5t-2t-10=0\\ (t+5)(t-2) = 0\\ t = 2 \ and \ t = 5$
Similarly,
$2t^2-2t-5 = -1\\ 2t^2-2t-4=0\\ 2t^2-4t+2t-4=0\\ (2t+2)(t-2)=0\\ t = -1 \ and \ t = 2$
The common value between two is t = 2
Hence, we find the slope of the tangent at t = 2
We know that the slope of the tangent at a given point is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$
$\frac{dy}{dt} = 4t - 2$
$\frac{dx}{dt} = 2t + 3$
$\left ( \frac{dy}{dx} \right )_{t=2} = \frac{\frac{dy}{dt}}{\frac{dx}{dt}} = \frac{4t-2}{2t+3} = \frac{8-2}{4+3} = \frac{6}{7}$
Hence, (B) is the correct answer

Standard equation of the straight line
y = mx + c
Where m is lope and c is constant
By comparing it with equation , y = mx + 1
We find that m is the slope
Now,
we know that the slope of the tangent at a given point on the curve is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$
Given the equation of the curve is
$y^2 = 4x$
$2y\frac{dy}{dx} = 4\\ \frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{2}{y}$
Put this value of m in the given equation
$y = \frac{2}{y}.\frac{y^2}{4}+1 \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (\because y^2 = 4x \ and \ m =\frac{2}{y})\\ y = \frac{y}{2}+1\\ \frac{y}{2} = 1\\ y = 2$
$m = \frac{2}{y} = \frac{2}{2} = 1$
Hence, value of m is 1

Given the equation of the curve
$2y + x ^2 = 3$
We know that the slope of the tangent at a point on the given curve is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$
$2\frac{dy}{dx} = -2x\\ \frac{dy}{dx} = -x$
We know that
$Slope \ of \ normal = \frac{-1}{Slope \ of \ tangent } = \frac{-1}{-x} = \frac{1}{x}$
At point (1,1)
$Slope = \frac{1}{1} = 1$
Now, the equation of normal with point (1,1) and slope = 1

$y-y_1=m(x-x_1)\\ y-1=1(x-1)\\ x-y = 0$
Hence, the correct answer is (B)

Given the equation of the curve
$x^2 = 4 y$
We know that the slope of the tangent at a point on the given curve is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$
$4\frac{dy}{dx} = 2x \\\ \frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{x}{2}$
We know that
$Slope \ of \ normal = \frac{-1}{Slope \ of \ tangent } = \frac{-1}{\frac{x}{2}} = \frac{-2}{x}$
At point (a,b)
$Slope = \frac{-2}{a}$
Now, the equation of normal with point (a,b) and $Slope = \frac{-2}{a}$

?
It is given that it also passes through the point (1,2)
Therefore,
$2-b=\frac{-2}{a}(1-a)\\ 2a -ba = 2a -2\\ ba = 2\\b =\frac{2}{a}$ -(i)
It also satisfies equation $x^2 = 4 y\Rightarrow b = \frac{a^2}{4}$ -(ii)
By comparing equation (i) and (ii)
$\frac{2}{a} = \frac{a^2}{4}\\ a^3 = 8\\ a = 2$
$b = \frac{2}{a} = \frac{2}{2} = 1$
$Slope = \frac{-2}{a} = \frac{-2}{2} = -1$

Now, equation of normal with point (2,1) and slope = -1

$y-y_1=m(x-x_1)\\ y-1=-1(x-2)\\ y+x=3$

Given the equation of the curve
$9 y^2 = x ^3$
We know that the slope of the tangent at a point on a given curve is given by $\frac{dy}{dx}$
$18y\frac{dy}{dx} = 3x^2\\ \frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{x^2}{6y}$
We know that
$Slope \ of \ normal = \frac{-1}{Slope \ of \ tangent } = \frac{-1}{\frac{x^2}{6y}} = \frac{-6y}{x^2}$
At point (a,b)
$Slope = \frac{-6b}{a^2}$
Now, the equation of normal with point (a,b) and $Slope = \frac{-6b}{a^2}$

$y-y_1=m(x-x_1)\\ y-b=\frac{-6b}{a^2}(x-a)\\ ya^2 - ba^2 = -6bx +6ab\\ ya^2+6bx=6ab+a^2b\\ \frac{y}{\frac{6b+ab}{a}}+\frac{x}{\frac{6a+a^2}{6}} = 1$
It is given that normal to the curve makes equal intercepts with the axes
Therefore,
$\frac{6b+ab}{a}=\frac{6a+a^2}{6} \\ 6b(6 + a) =a^2( 6+a)\\ a^2 = 6b$
point(a,b) also satisfy the given equation of the curve
$9 b^2 = a ^3\\ 9(\frac{a^2}{6})^2 = a^3\\ 9.\frac{a^4}{36} = a^3\\ a = 4$
$9b^2 = 4^3\\ 9b^2 =64\\ b = \pm\frac{8}{3}$
Hence, The points on the curve $9 y^2 = x ^3$ , where the normal to the curve makes equal intercepts with the axes are $\left ( 4,\pm\frac{8}{3} \right )$
Hence, the correct answer is (A)

If you are looking for application of derivatives class 12 ncert solution of exercises then they are listed below.

### More about class 12 application-of-derivatives ncert solutions

If you are good at differentiation, NCERT Class 12 maths chapter 6 alone has 11% weightage in 12 board final examinations, which means you can score very easily with basic knowledge of maths and basic differentiation. After going through class 12 maths ch 6, you can build your concepts to score well in exams.

Class 12 maths chapter 6 seems to be very easy but there are chances of silly mistakes as it requires knowledge of other chapters also. So, practice all the NCERT questions on your own, you can take help of these NCERT solutions for class 12 maths chapter 6 application of derivatives. There are five exercises with 102 questions in chapter 6 class 12 maths. All these questions are explained in this Class 12 maths chapter 6 NCERT solutions article.

What is the derivative?

The derivative is the rate of change of distance(S) with respect to the time(t). In a similar manner, whenever one quantity (y) varies with another quantity (x), and also satisfy ,then or represents the rate of change of y with respect to x and or represents the rate of change of y with respect to x at . Let's take an example of a derivative

 Example- Find the rate of change of the area of a circle per second with respect to its radius r when r = 5 cm. Solution- The area A of a circle with radius r is given by . Therefore, the rate of change of the area (A) with respect to its radius(r) is given by - When Thus, the area of the circle is changing at the rate of

## Application-Of-Derivatives Class 12 NCERT solutions - Topics

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Rate of Change of Quantities

6.3 Increasing and Decreasing Functions

6.4 Tangents and Normals

6.5 Approximations

6.6 Maxima and Minima

6.6.1 Maximum and Minimum Values of a Function in a Closed Interval

## NCERT solutions for class 12 maths - Chapter wise

 Chapter 1 NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 1 Relations and Functions Chapter 2 NCERT solutions for class 12 maths chapter 2 Inverse Trigonometric Functions Chapter 3 NCERT solutions for class 12 maths chapter 3 Matrices Chapter 4 NCERT solutions for class 12 maths chapter 4 Determinants Chapter 5 NCERT solutions for class 12 maths chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability Chapter 6 NCERT solutions for class 12 maths chapter 6 Application of Derivatives Chapter 7 NCERT solutions for class 12 maths chapter 7 Integrals Chapter 8 NCERT solutions for class 12 maths chapter 8 Application of Integrals Chapter 9 NCERT solutions for class 12 maths chapter 9 Differential Equations chapter 10 NCERT solutions for class 12 maths chapter 10 Vector Algebra chapter 11 NCERT solutions for class 12 maths chapter 11 Three Dimensional Geometry chapter 12 NCERT solutions for class 12 maths chapter 12 Linear Programming chapter 13 NCERT solutions for class 12 maths chapter 13 Probability

## NCERT solutions for class 12 subject wise

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## NCERT solutions class wise

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 maths chapter 6 PDFs are very helpful for the preparation of this chapter. Here are some tips to get command on this application of derivatives solutions.

### NCERT Class 12 maths chapter 6 Tips

• First cover the differentials and then go for its applications.

• Solve the NCERT problems first with examples, NCERT Solutions for Class 12 maths chapter 6 PDF will help in this.

• Try to make figures first and label it, if required. This will help in solving the problem easily.

## NCERT Books and NCERT Syllabus

1. What are the Important Topics Covered in NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 6?

NCERT maths chapter 6 class 12 solutions outlines the crucial uses of derivatives. The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 6 covers concepts such as utilizing derivatives to calculate the rate of change of quantities, determining ranges, and finding the equation of tangent and normal lines to a curve at a particular point. The ultimate goal of these solutions is to encourage students to practice and enhance their mathematical skills, aiding their overall academic progress.

2. Where can I find the complete solutions of NCERT Class 12 maths chapter 6?

you can directly download by clicking on the given link NCERT solutions for class 12 Maths. you can also get these solutions freely from careers360 official website. these solutions are make you comfortable with applications of derivative's problems and build your confidence that help you in exam to score well.

3. Can you provide a brief summary of class 12 maths chapter 6 solutions?

maths chapter 6 class 12 ncert solutions includes six main topics and a miscellaneous section with questions and answers at the end. The topics covered in this chapter are:

• 6.1 - Introduction

• 6.2 - Rate of Change of Quantities

• 6.3 - Increasing and Decreasing Functions

• 6.4 - Tangents and Normals

• 6.5 - Approximations

• 6.6 - Maxima and Minima

ch 6 maths class 12 ncert solutions are very important to get good hold in these topics.

4. What is the weightage of the chapter Application of Derivatives for CBSE board exam?

Application of derivatives has 11% weightage in the CBSE 12th board final exam. Having good weightage this chapter become more important for board as well as some premiere exams like JEE Main and JEE Advance. Therefor it is advise to students to make good hold on the concepts of this chapter.

5. Why should I consider using Careers360 class 12 maths ncert solutions chapter 6?

There are several compelling reasons to get the maths chapter 6 class 12 ncert solutions, created by the specialists at Careers360. Firstly, the CBSE board suggests students consult the NCERT textbooks, as they are among the top study resources for exams. Secondly, chapter 6 class 12 maths ncert solutions serve a critical function as all the answers to the questions in the NCERT textbook can be found in one location. Finally, the subject experts and teachers at Careers360 present these class 12 maths ch 6 question answer in a succinct way to aid students in achieving high marks in their board exams.

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### Questions related to CBSE Class 12th

Have a question related to CBSE Class 12th ?

Here are some options you can explore to get admission in a good school even though admissions might be closed for many:

• Waitlist: Many schools maintain waitlists after their initial application rounds close.  If a student who secured a seat decides not to join, the school might reach out to students on the waitlist.  So, even if the application deadline has passed,  it might be worth inquiring with schools you're interested in if they have a waitlist and if they would consider adding you to it.

• Schools with ongoing admissions: Some schools, due to transfers or other reasons, might still have seats available even after the main admission rush.  Reach out to the schools directly to see if they have any open seats in 10th grade.

• Consider other good schools: There might be other schools in your area that have a good reputation but weren't on your initial list. Research these schools and see if they have any seats available.

• Focus on excelling in your current school: If you can't find a new school this year, focus on doing well in your current school. Maintain good grades and get involved in extracurricular activities. This will strengthen your application for next year if you decide to try transferring again.

In India, the design and coding fields offer exciting career options that can leverage your interest in both. Here's how you can navigate this path:

• Graphic Design Focus: Consider a Bachelor's degree in Graphic Design or a design diploma. Build a strong portfolio showcasing your creative skills. Learn the basics of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript to understand web development better. Many online resources and bootcamps offer these introductory courses.

• Coding Focus: Pursue a Computer Science degree or a coding bootcamp in India. These programs are intensive but can equip you with strong coding skills quickly. While building your coding prowess, take online courses in graphic design principles and UI/UX design.

Engineering Subjects (for a Degree):

• Information Technology (IT): This offers a good mix of web development, networking, and database management, all valuable for web design/development roles.

• Human-Computer Interaction (HCI): This is a specialized field that bridges the gap between design and computer science, focusing on how users interact with technology. It's a perfect choice if you're interested in both aspects.

• Passing NIOS in October 2024 will make you eligible for NIT admissions in 2025 . NIT admissions are based on your performance in entrance exams like JEE Main, which typically happen in January and April. These exams consider the previous year's Class 12th board results (or equivalent exams like NIOS).

Here's why 2025 is more likely:

• JEE Main 2024 Admissions: The application process for NITs through JEE Main 2024 is likely complete by now (May 2024). They consider your 2023 Class 12th marks (CBSE in this case).
• NIOS Results: Since NIOS results typically come out after the NIT admission process, your October 2024 NIOS marks wouldn't be available for JEE Main 2024.

• Focus on JEE Main: Since you have a computer science background, focus on preparing for JEE Main 2025. This exam tests your knowledge in Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics, crucial for engineering programs at NITs.
• NIOS Preparation: Utilize the time between now and October 2024 to prepare for your NIOS exams.
• Eligibility Criteria: Remember, NITs typically require a minimum of 75% marks in Class 12th (or equivalent) for general category students (65% for SC/ST). Ensure you meet this criteria in your NIOS exams.

Yes, scoring above 99.9 percentile in CAT significantly increases your chances of getting a call from IIM Bangalore,  with your academic background. Here's why:

• High CAT Score: A score exceeding  99.9 percentile is exceptional and puts you amongst the top candidates vying for admission. IIM Bangalore prioritizes  CAT scores heavily in the shortlisting process.

• Strong Academics: Your 96% in CBSE 12th and a B.Tech degree demonstrate a solid academic foundation, which IIM Bangalore also considers during shortlisting.

However, the shortlisting process is multifaceted:

• Other Factors: IIM Bangalore considers other factors beyond CAT scores, such as your work experience (if any), XAT score (if you appear for it), academic diversity, gender diversity, and performance in the interview and Written Ability Test (WAT) stages (if shortlisted).

Here's what you can do to strengthen your application:

• Focus on WAT and PI: If you receive a shortlist, prepare extensively for the Written Ability Test (WAT) and Personal Interview (PI). These stages assess your communication, soft skills, leadership potential, and suitability for the program.

• Work Experience (if applicable): If you have work experience, highlight your achievements and how they align with your chosen IIM Bangalore program.

Overall, with a stellar CAT score and a strong academic background, you have a very good chance of getting a call from IIM Bangalore. But remember to prepare comprehensively for the other stages of the selection process.

hello,

Yes you can appear for the compartment paper again since CBSE gives three chances to a candidate to clear his/her exams so you still have two more attempts. However, you can appear for your improvement paper for all subjects but you cannot appear for the ones in which you have failed.

Good Luck

A block of mass 0.50 kg is moving with a speed of 2.00 ms-1 on a smooth surface. It strikes another mass of 1.00 kg and then they move together as a single body. The energy loss during the collision is

 Option 1) Option 2) Option 3) Option 4)

A person trying to lose weight by burning fat lifts a mass of 10 kg upto a height of 1 m 1000 times.  Assume that the potential energy lost each time he lowers the mass is dissipated.  How much fat will he use up considering the work done only when the weight is lifted up ?  Fat supplies 3.8×107 J of energy per kg which is converted to mechanical energy with a 20% efficiency rate.  Take g = 9.8 ms−2 :

 Option 1) 2.45×10−3 kg Option 2)  6.45×10−3 kg Option 3)  9.89×10−3 kg Option 4) 12.89×10−3 kg

An athlete in the olympic games covers a distance of 100 m in 10 s. His kinetic energy can be estimated to be in the range

 Option 1) Option 2) Option 3) Option 4)

A particle is projected at 600   to the horizontal with a kinetic energy . The kinetic energy at the highest point

 Option 1) Option 2) Option 3) Option 4)

In the reaction,

 Option 1)   at STP  is produced for every mole   consumed Option 2)   is consumed for ever      produced Option 3) is produced regardless of temperature and pressure for every mole Al that reacts Option 4) at STP is produced for every mole Al that reacts .

How many moles of magnesium phosphate, will contain 0.25 mole of oxygen atoms?

 Option 1) 0.02 Option 2) 3.125 × 10-2 Option 3) 1.25 × 10-2 Option 4) 2.5 × 10-2

If we consider that 1/6, in place of 1/12, mass of carbon atom is taken to be the relative atomic mass unit, the mass of one mole of a substance will

 Option 1) decrease twice Option 2) increase two fold Option 3) remain unchanged Option 4) be a function of the molecular mass of the substance.

With increase of temperature, which of these changes?

 Option 1) Molality Option 2) Weight fraction of solute Option 3) Fraction of solute present in water Option 4) Mole fraction.

Number of atoms in 558.5 gram Fe (at. wt.of Fe = 55.85 g mol-1) is

 Option 1) twice that in 60 g carbon Option 2) 6.023 × 1022 Option 3) half that in 8 g He Option 4) 558.5 × 6.023 × 1023

A pulley of radius 2 m is rotated about its axis by a force F = (20t - 5t2) newton (where t is measured in seconds) applied tangentially. If the moment of inertia of the pulley about its axis of rotation is 10 kg m2 , the number of rotations made by the pulley before its direction of motion if reversed, is

 Option 1) less than 3 Option 2) more than 3 but less than 6 Option 3) more than 6 but less than 9 Option 4) more than 9