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    NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 1 Solid State

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    NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 1 Solid State

    Edited By Sumit Saini | Updated on Sep 17, 2022 11:28 AM IST | #CBSE Class 12th

    NCERT exemplar Class 12 Chemistry solutions chapter 1 deals with the solid-state of matter with a detailed insight on its properties, study of its constituent particles, and the binding forces among such particles holding the shape. This NCERT lesson is a straightforward lesson which gives a brief description of solids and reflects upon various different factors responsible for the existence of such shapes. NCERT exemplar Class 12 Chemistry chapter 1 solutions also introduces various different terms that help solids to contain their shape such as intermolecular distance, intermolecular force, different constituent particles, etc. that further help in understanding the properties of solid-state. Class 12 Chemistry NCERT exemplar solutions chapter 1 includes all the factors that are responsible for the solids to exist and help in distinguishing solids from liquid and gases at a molecular level.

    Also, check - NCERT Solutions for Class 12, Other Subjects

    NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 1: MCQ (Type 1)

    Question:1

    Which of the following conditions favours the existence of a substance in the solid state?
    (i) High temperature
    (ii) Low temperature
    (iii) High thermal energy
    (iv) Weak cohesive forces

    Answer:

    The answer is the option (ii) At low temperature, substance exists in solid state due to low thermal energy and hence decreased molecular motion, which in turn leads to strong intermolecular cohesive i.e., forces, which hold the constituent particles together. Hence, option b is correct.

    Question:2

    Which of the following is not a characteristic of a crystalline solid?
    (i) Definite and characteristic heat of fusion.
    (ii) Isotropic nature.
    (iii) A regular periodically repeated pattern of arrangement of constituent particles in the entire crystal.
    (iv) A true solid
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (ii) Anisotropy: Crystalline solids are anisotropic in nature. In Anisotropic substances, physical properties like electrical resistance or refractive index show different values when measured along different directions in the same crystal. This is primarily due to different arrangement of particles in different directions arrangement of particles along different directions



    Isotropy: In isotropic substances, physical properties like electrical conductivity, refractive index etc. show the same value when measured in different directions just like in glass or liquid. Amorphous substances exhibit Isotropy.

    Question:3

    Which of the following is an amorphous solid?
    (i) Graphite (C)
    (ii) Quartz glass (SiO_2)
    (iii) Chrome alum
    (iv) Silicon carbide (SiC)

    Answer:

    The answer is the option (ii)


    Crystalline Silica (Quartz)

    Amorphous silica (Glass)

    1.

    They are crystalline in nature.

    Light white powder appearance

    2.

    All the 4 corners of silica tetrahedron are shared by others to give a solid network.

    The silica tetrahedron are randomly joined giving rise to polymeric chains, sheets or 3-Dimensional units.

    3.

    It has high melting point (1710^{\circ} C)

    It does not have any sharp melting point and softens gradually to liquid on heating.

    Question:4

    Which of the following arrangements shows the schematic alignment of magnetic moments of antiferromagnetic substances?

    Answer:

    The answer is the option (iv)
    Antiferro-magnetic moment arises when net dipole is zero. In this, the dipoles are aligned in equal and opposite direction to cancel out each other. For example: MnO, FeO, CoO, NiO

    Question:5

    Which of the following is true about the value of the refractive index of quartz glass?
    (i) Same in all directions
    (ii) Different in different directions
    (iii) Cannot be measured
    (iv) Always zero
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (i) Quartz glass is an amorphous solid. Thus it will exhibit an identical value of refractive index in all the directions.

    Question:6

    Which of the following statement is not true about amorphous solids?
    (i) On heating, they may become crystalline at a certain temperature.
    (ii) They may become crystalline on keeping for a long time.
    (iii) Amorphous solids can be moulded by heating.
    (iv) They are anisotropic in nature.
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (iv) Amorphous solids are isotropic because they show physical, thermal and optical properties that are identical in all directions.

    Question:7

    The sharp melting point of crystalline solids is due to ___________.
    (i) a regular arrangement of constituent particles observed over a short distance in the crystal lattice.
    (ii) a regular arrangement of constituent particles observed over a long distance in the crystal lattice.
    (iii) same arrangement of constituent particles in different directions.
    (iv) different arrangement of constituent particles in different directions.
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (ii) A solid is said to be crystalline whose constituents such as atoms, molecules or ions are arranged in highly ordered microscopic structure.
    Crystalline solids have sharp melting point is due to this regular arrangement of constituent particles over a long distance in crystal lattice.

    Question:8

    Iodine molecules are held in the crystals lattice by ____________.
    (i) London forces
    (ii) Dipole-dipole interactions
    (iii) Covalent bonds
    (iv) Coulombic forces
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (i) I_{2} is a molecular solid. Molecular solids are held together by the Dispersion or London forces and have very low melting point. Some other examples are Ar, CO_2 , H_2.

    Question:9

    Which of the following is a network solid?
    (i) SO_2 (Solid)
    (ii) I_2
    (iii) Diamond
    (iv)H_2O(Ice)
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (iii) Diamond has a 3 dimensional tetrahedral arrangement of carbon atoms. Every carbon atom is bonded to 4 other carbon atoms.

    Question:10

    Which of the following solids is not an electrical conductor?
    (A) Mg (s) (B) TiO (s) (C) I_{2} (s) (D) H_{2}O (s)
    (i) (A) only
    (ii) (B) Only
    (iii) (C) and (D)
    (iv) (B), (C) and (D)
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (iii) (C) and (D)
    In I_{2} molecules are soft and non-conductor of electricity.
    Hydrogen is covalently bonded to more electronegative oxygen atom in water. Due to non-ionic nature, they do not dissociate in ions and cannot conduct electricity.

    Question:11

    Which of the following is not the characteristic of ionic solids?
    (i) A very low value of electrical conductivity in the molten state.
    (ii) Brittle nature.
    (iii) Very strong forces of interactions.
    (iv) Anisotropic nature.
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (i) A very low value of electrical conductivity in the molten state. Ionic solids are hard but brittle in appearance. They have high melting point and act as insulators in solid state but conductors in molten state or aqueous solutions. They have very strong forces of attraction. Hence, option A is incorrect.

    Question:12

    Graphite is a good conductor of electricity due to the presence of __________.
    (i) lone pair of electrons
    (ii) free valence electrons
    (iii) cations
    (iv) anions
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (ii) Every carbon atom is bonded to 3 other carbon atoms in graphite by covalent bonds. One valence electron of each carbon atom is free. Graphite is a good conductor of electricity due to the presence of this free electron.

    Question:13

    Which of the following oxides behaves as conductor or insulator depending upon temperature?
    (i) TiO
    (ii) SiO_2
    (iii)TiO_{3}
    (iv) MgO
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (iii) TiO_{3}
    TiO_{3} behaves as conductor or insulator based on temperature. The variation of energy gap between valence band and conduction band with the variation of temperature plays an impotant role in it. When heated, electrons gain energy which helps them to cross this band gap.

    Question:14

    Which of the following oxides shows electrical properties like metals?
    (i) SiO_2
    (ii) MgO
    (iii) SO_2(s)
    (iv) CrO_2
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (iv) CrO_{2}, TiO andReO_{3} are some metal oxides that exhibit electrical properties. SO_{2} and MgO do not show electrical properties.

    Question:15

    The lattice site in a pure crystal cannot be occupied by _________.
    (i) molecule
    (ii) ion
    (iii) electron
    (iv) atom
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (iii) electron
    Pure crystals have constituents i.e., atoms, molecules, or ions arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure in fixed stoichiometric ratio. Lattice sites can be occupied by electron only when there is imperfection in solid. They do not occur in pure crystals. Hence, the lattice site in a pure crystal cannot be occupied by electron. It is feasible only in case of imperfection giving rise to Crystal defects.

    Question:16

    Graphite cannot be classified as __________.
    (i) conducting solid
    (ii) network solid
    (iii) covalent solid
    (iv) ionic solid
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (iv) Graphite has a covalent structure wherein each C atom is bonded to the 3 remaining Carbon atoms by covalent bonds. Despite being a covalent solid, its electrical conductivity is very high.

    Question:17

    Cations are present in the interstitial sites in __________.
    (i) Frenkel defect
    (ii) Schottky defect
    (iii) Vacancy defect
    (iv) Metal deficiency defect
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (i) Frenkel defect
    Frenkel effect is when a cation is missing from the normal lattice position and is occupying interstitial site. It generally occurs in Ionic solids where the anion is larger than the cation.

    Question:18

    Schottky defect is observed in crystals when __________.
    (i) some cations move from their lattice site to interstitial sites.
    (ii) the equal number of cations and anions are missing from the lattice.
    (iii) some lattice sites are occupied by electrons.
    (iv) some impurity is present in the lattice.
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (ii) the equal number of cations and anions are missing from the lattice.
    Schottky defect is when a crystal has equal number of cations and anions missing from their normal lattice site by creating vacancies or holes. In this case, the electrical neutrality is maintained.

    Question:19

    Which of the following is true about the charge acquired by p-type semiconductors?
    (i) positive
    (ii) neutral
    (iii) negative
    (iv) depends on the concentration of p impurity
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (ii) neutral.
    p-Type semiconductors have no charge and are neutral. They conduct electricity through positive holes.

    Question:20

    To get a n-type semiconductor from silicon, it should be doped with a substance with valence__________.
    (i) 2
    (ii) 1
    (iii) 3
    (iv) 5
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (iv) 5.
    To get n-type semiconductor impurity of higher group is doped. Thus, to get a n-type semiconductor, silicon (valency = 4) should be doped with the element with valency equal to 5.

    Question:21

    The total number of tetrahedral voids in the face-centred unit cell is __________.
    (i) 6
    (ii) 8
    (iii) 10
    (iv) 12
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (ii) Fee unit cell contains 8 tetrahedral voids which are located midway between each corner and centre of unit cell. The coordination number in face centred cubic is 12.

    Question:22

    Which of the following point defects are shown by AgBr(s) crystals?
    (A) Schottky defect
    (B) Frenkel defect
    (C) Metal excess defect
    (D) Metal deficiency defect
    (i) (A) and (B)
    (ii) (C) and (D)
    (iii) (A) and (C)
    (iv) (B) and (D)
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (i).
    Silver bromide shows Schottky as well as Frenkel defects. In AgBr, both the silver cation and bromide ion are absent from the lattice causing Schottky defect. But the silver ions are smaller in size and mobile, so they have a tendency to occupy interstitial sites when removed from lattice point. Hence cause Frenkel defect. ‘

    Question:23

    In which pair most efficient packing is present?
    (i) hcp and bcc
    (ii) hcp and ccp
    (iii) bcc and ccp
    (iv) bcc and simple cubic cell
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (ii)
    Packing efficiency is defined as the percentage of space occupied by constituent particles in a unit cell.
    \text{Packing effiency}=\frac{\text{Volume occupied by four spheres in the unit cell}}{\text{Total volume of unit cell}} \times 100
    Packing efficiency of various types of unit cell are:
    simple cubic cell - 52.4% .
    body centred cubic cell- 68
    cubic closed packing- 74%

    Question:24

    The percentage of empty space in a body centred cubic arrangement is ________.
    (i) 74
    (ii) 68
    (iii) 32
    (iv) 26
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (iii).
    Packing efficiency for bcc arrangement is 68% which means that out of 100cc (let us assume) 68 cc of volume is occupied. So (100- 68) = 32 cc is empty space which gives us 32/100 i.e. 32%

    Question:25

    Which of the following statement is not true about the hexagonal close packing?
    (i) The coordination number is 12.
    (ii) It has 74% packing efficiency.
    (iii) Tetrahedral voids of the second layer are covered by the spheres of the third layer.
    (iv) In this arrangement spheres of the fourth layer are exactly aligned with those of the first layer.
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (iv).
    Hexagonal packing has layers arranged in ABAB pattern. The spheres of first layer are aligned with the third layer and not the fourth layer.
    The 1st layer and 4th layer are not exactly aligned. Thus, statement (d) is not correct while other statements (a), (b) and (c) are true.

    Question:26

    In which of the following structures coordination number for cations and anions in the packed structure will be same?
    (i) Cl^{-} ion form fcc lattice and Na^{+} ions occupy all octahedral voids of the unit cell.
    (ii) Ca^{2+} ions form fcc lattice and F^{-} ions occupy all the eight tetrahedral voids of the unit cell.
    (iii) O^{2-}ions form fcc lattice and Na^{+} ions occupy all the eight tetrahedral voids of the unit cell.
    (iv) S^{2-} ions form fcc lattice and Zn2+ ions go into alternate tetrahedral voids of the unit cell.
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (i).
    In NaCl (Rock salt) structure, the anions have face centered cubic arrangement and all the octahedral voids of given unit cell are occupied by the cation Na^{+}
    Where, C.N of Na^{+} = 6
    C.N of Cl^{-}= 6

    Question:27

    What is the coordination number in a square close-packed structure in two dimensions?
    (i) 2
    (ii) 3
    (iii) 4
    (iv) 6

    Answer:

    The answer is the option (iii) Coordination number in a square closed packed structure in two dimensions is equal to 4.

    Question:28

    Which kind of defects are introduced by doping?
    (i) Dislocation defect
    (ii) Schottky defect
    (iii) Frenkel defects
    (iv) Electronic defects
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (iv).
    Doping introduces electronic defect. Electronic defect occurs due to the addition of electron rich or electron deficient impurity to a perfect crystal. There are 2 types of dopants- n-type and p-type.

    Question:29

    Silicon doped with electron-rich impurity forms ________.
    (i) p-type semiconductor
    (ii) n-type semiconductor
    (iii) intrinsic semiconductor
    (iv) insulator
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (ii) Silicon has four valence electrons. The conductivity increases on doping with an electron rich impurity as the extra electron becomes delocalised. The increase in conductivity is due to negatively charged electron. That is why silicon doped with electron-rich impurity is called n-type semiconductor.

    Question:30

    Which of the following statements is not true?
    (i) Paramagnetic substances are weakly attracted by the magnetic field.
    (ii) Ferromagnetic substances cannot be magnetised permanently.
    (iii) The domains in antiferromagnetic substances are oppositely oriented with respect to each other.
    (iv) The pairing of electrons cancels their magnetic moment in the diamagnetic substances.
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (ii).
    Ferromagnetic materials such as iron are strongly attracted in the magnetic field and can be permanently magnetised. Hence, choice (ii) is not true while other three choices are correct.

    Question:31

    Which of the following is not true about the ionic solids?
    (i) Bigger ions form the close-packed structure.
    (ii) Smaller ions occupy either the tetrahedral or the octahedral voids depending upon their size.
    (iii) Occupation of all the voids is not necessary.
    (iv) The fraction of octahedral or tetrahedral voids occupied depends upon the radii of the ions occupying the voids.
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (iv) The fraction of Octahedral or tetrahedral voids is dependent on the radii of the ions occupying the voids. Hence, option (iv) is not true about ionic solids.

    Question:32

    A ferromagnetic substance becomes a permanent magnet when it is placed in a magnetic field because ________.
    (i) all the domains get oriented in the direction of the magnetic field.
    (ii) all the domains get oriented in the direction opposite to the direction of the magnetic field.
    (iii) domains get oriented randomly.
    (iv) domains are not affected by the magnetic field.
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (i).
    Ferromagnetic substance becomes a permanent magnet when placed in a magnetic field as the domains get aligned in the direction of applied external magnetic field.

    Question:33

    The correct order of the packing efficiency in different types of unit cells is ________.
    (i) fcc < bcc < simple cubic
    (ii) fcc > bcc > simple cubic
    (iii) fcc < bcc > simple cubic
    (iv) bcc < fcc > simple cubic

    Answer:

    The answer is the option (ii) The correct order of the packing efficiency in different types of unit cells is as: fcc (74%) > bcc (68%) > simple cubic (52%).

    Question:34

    Which of the following defects is also known as dislocation defect?
    (i) Frenkel defect
    (ii) Schottky defect
    (iii) Non-stoichiometric defect
    (iv) Simple interstitial defect
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (i).
    In Frenkel defect, some cations create a vacancy and occupy interstitial site. That is why it is also called dislocation defect.

    Question:35

    In the cubic close packing, the unit cell has ________.
    (i) 4 tetrahedral voids each of which is shared by four adjacent unit cells.
    (ii) 4 tetrahedral voids within the unit cell.
    (iii) 8 tetrahedral voids each of them which are shared by four adjacent unit cells.
    (iv) 8 tetrahedral voids within the unit cells.
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (iv) In the cubic close packing the unit cell has 8 tetrahedral voids within the unit cells.

    Question:36

    The edge lengths of the unit cells in terms of the radius of spheres constituting fcc, bcc and simple cubic unit cell are respectively________
    (i) 2 \sqrt{2}r, \frac{4r}{\sqrt{3}}, 2r
    (ii) \frac{4r}{\sqrt{3}}, 2\sqrt{2}r, 2r
    (iii) 2r, 2\sqrt{2}r, \frac{4r}{\sqrt{3}}
    (iv) 2r, \frac{4r}{\sqrt{3}}, 2\sqrt{2}r
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (i) Distance between two atoms is always measured from their centres. (i) If the crystal lattice consists of SCC, the atom which is present at the comers touch each other

    (ii) In case of FCC, atom present at the comer and the centre of the face touch each other.

    (iii)In case of BCC atom present at the corner and center of the body touch each other
    Edge length for fcc, bcc and scc type of unit cell are 2\sqrt{2} r ,\frac{4}{\sqrt{3}}r and 2r respectively.

    Question:37

    Which of the following represents correct order of conductivity in solids?
    (i) κ metals >> κ insulators< κsemiconductors
    (ii) κ metals << κ insulators < κsemiconductors
    (iii) κ metals\simeq κsemiconductors> κ insulators = zero
    (iv) κ metals < κsemiconductors insulators ≠ zero
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (i).
    The relative values of conductivity of solid is represented in terms of k. The value for k for metals >> semiconductor>> Insulator

    NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 1: MCQ (Type 2)

    Question:38

    Which of the following is not true about the voids formed in 3-dimensional hexagonal close-packed structure?
    (i) A tetrahedral void is formed when a sphere of the second layer is present above triangular void in the first layer.
    (ii) All the triangular voids are not covered by the spheres of the second layer.
    (iii) Tetrahedral voids are formed when the triangular voids in the second layer lie above the triangular voids in the first layer and the triangular shapes of these voids do not overlap.
    (iv) Octahedral voids are formed when the triangular voids in the second layer exactly overlap with similar voids in the first layer
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (iii, iv) Tetrahedral voids are formed when the triangular void in the second layer lie exactly above the triangular voids in the first layer and the triangular shape of these voids oppositely overlap.
    Octahedral voids are formed when triangular void of second layer is not exactly overlapping with similar void in first layer.

    Question:39

    The value of the magnetic moment is zero in the case of antiferromagnetic substances because the domains ________.
    (i) get oriented in the direction of the applied magnetic field.
    (ii) get oriented opposite to the direction of the applied magnetic field.
    (iii) are oppositely oriented with respect to each other without the application of the magnetic field.
    (iv) cancel out each other’s magnetic moment.
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (iii, iv) In the case of antiferromagnetic substances like manganese oxide, the magnetic moment becomes zero because the magnetic moments of atoms align in a pattern with neighbouring spins pointing in opposite directions which cancel out each other resulting in 0 net dipole moment.

    Question:40

    Which of the following statements are not true?
    (i) Vacancy defect results in a decrease in the density of the substance.
    (ii) Interstitial defects increase the density of the substance.
    (iii) Impurity defect does not affect the density of the substance.
    (iv) Frankel defect results in an increase in the density of the substance.
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (iii, iv)
    Impurity defect involves the replacement of ions by an impurity which may have a different density than the ion present on perfect crystal. Frenkel defect results in neither decrease nor increase in density of substance as it involves only the migration of ions within the crystal.

    Question:41

    Which of the following statements are true about metals?
    (i) Valence band overlaps with conduction band.
    (ii) The gap between the valence band and the conduction band is negligible.
    (iii) The gap between the valence band and the conduction band cannot be determined.
    (iv) Valence band may remain partially filled.
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (i, ii, iv) The electrical conduction through metals is dependent on the type of valence band and its gap with the conduction band. This gap determines the conducting property of metal.

    Question:42

    Under the influence of the electric field, which of the following statements is true about the movement of electrons and holes in a p-type semiconductor?
    (i) Electron will move towards the positively charged plate through electron holes.
    (ii) Holes will appear to be moving towards the negatively charged plate.
    (iii) Both electrons and holes appear to move towards the positively charged plate.
    (iv) Movement of electrons is not related to the movement of holes.
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (i, ii) In p-type semiconductor, holes act as the charge carriers. On exposure of P-type semiconductor to electric field, positively charged hole starts moving towards negatively charged plate while the electron towards positively charged plate.

    Question:43

    Which of the following statements are true about semiconductors?
    (i) Silicon doped with an electron-rich impurity is a p-type semiconductor.
    (ii) Silicon doped with an electron-rich impurity is an n-type semiconductor.
    (iii) Delocalised electrons increase the conductivity of doped silicon.
    (iv) An electron vacancy increases the conductivity of the n-type semiconductor.
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (ii, iii) Silicon (valence electron – 4) doped with electron rich impurity is an n-type semiconductor due to extra electron. The conductivity of doped siliconis increased by the delocalised electrons.

    Question:44

    An excess of potassium ions makes KCl crystals appear violet or lilac in colour since ________.
    (i) some of the anionic sites are occupied by an unpaired electron.
    (ii) some of the anionic sites are occupied by a pair of electrons.
    (iii) there are vacancies at some anionic sites.
    (iv) F-centres are created which impart colour to the crystals.
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (i, iv).
    When KCl is heated in vapour of K, anionic vacancies are created as some of the Cl^{-} ions leave their lattice site. This chloride ion wants to combine with K vapour to form KCl. For this to happen, loss of electron by potassium atom to form potassium ion occurs. The unpaired free electron gets entrapped in the anion vacancy called F-centre that are responsible for imparting color to crystals. This entrapped electron gains energy due to the visible light falling on the crystal goes to the higher level and when it comes back to the ground state, energy is released in the form of light.

    Question:45

    The number of tetrahedral voids per unit cell in NaCl crystal is ________.
    (i) 4
    (ii) 8
    (iii) twice the number of octahedral voids.
    (iv) four times the number of octahedral voids.
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (ii, iii) NaCl has fcc arrangement
    Number of atoms in packing per unit cell = 4
    Number of tetrahedral voids per unit cell = 2 \times No. of particles present in close packing
    =2\times 4=8
    Number of tetrahedral voids per unit cell = 2 \times No. of octahedral voids
    Hence, option ii and iii are correct.

    Question:46

    Amorphous solid can also be called ________.
    (i) pseudo solids
    (ii) true solids
    (iii) supercooled liquids
    (iv) supercooled solids
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (i, iii) Amorphous solid has short-range order which has a tendency to flow very slowly. Thus, although they are solids, they resemble liquid in many respects. Therefore amorphous solid can also be called as pseudo solids or super cooled liquids. Some examples of amorphous solid includes rubber, glass, plastic and gels.The Solid State Excercise: 1.2

    Question:47

    A perfect crystal of silicon (Figure) is doped with some elements as given in the options. Which of these options show n-type semiconductors?

    Answer:

    The answer is the option (i, iii). N-type semiconductor are formed when a crystal is doped with pentavalent impurity elements i.e. elements with 5 electrons in valence shell.
    In option a and c, the crystal has been doped with elements of group 15 like P and As.

    Question:48

    Which of the following statements are correct?
    (i) Ferrimagnetic substances lose ferrimagnetism on heating and become paramagnetic.
    (ii) Ferrimagnetic substances do not lose ferrimagnetism on heating and remain ferrimagnetic.
    (iii) Antiferromagnetic substances have domain structures similar to ferromagnetic substances and their magnetic moments are not cancelled by each other.
    (iv) In ferromagnetic substances, all the domains get oriented in the direction of the magnetic field and remain as such even after removing magnetic field.
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (i, iv) There is a loss of ferrimagnetism of Ferrimagnetic substances on heating changing them into paramagnetic.
    All the domains get oriented in the direction of magnetic field in ferromagnetic substances and remain as such even on removal of the magnetic field.

    Question:49

    Which of the following features are not shown by quartz glass?
    (i) This is a crystalline solid.
    (ii) Refractive index is the same in all the directions.
    (iii) This has a definite heat of fusion.
    (iv) This is also called supercooled liquid
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (i, iii) Since quartz glass is an amorphous solid, it has no definite heat of fusion. This is due to short-range order of molecule. Also known as super cooled liquid, quartz glass is isotropic in nature.

    Question:50

    Which of the following cannot be regarded as molecular solid?
    (i) SiC (Silicon carbide)
    (ii) AlN
    (iii) Diamond
    (iv) I_{2}
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (i, ii, iii) Silicon carbide, AIN and diamond are examples of network solid instead of molecular solids as they have three-dimensional structure while; I_{2} is a molecular solid, because such solid particles are held together by dipole-dipole interactions. SiC and AIN are interstitial solids.

    Question:51

    In which of the following arrangements octahedral voids are formed?
    (i) hcp
    (ii) bcc
    (iii) simple cubic
    (iv) fcc
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (i, iv) In hcp and fcc arrangement, octahedral voids are formed. In an fcc unit cell, the octahedral voids are observed at edge centre and body centre whereas in bcc and simple cubic, no octahedral voids are observed. Cubic voids are formed in bcc arrangement.

    Question:52

    Frenkel defect is also known as ________.
    (i) stoichiometric defect
    (ii) dislocation defect
    (iii) impurity defect
    (iv) non-stoichiometric defect
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (i, ii) Dislocation of cations takes place from one place to another in frenkel defect and the stoichiometry of the crystal remains unchanged.

    Question:53

    Which of the following defects decrease the density?
    (i) Interstitial defect
    (ii) Vacancy defect
    (iii) Frankel defect
    (iv) Schottky defect
    Answer:

    The answer is the option (ii, iv) Vacancy and Schottky defect lead to decrease the density. In Vacancy defect, an atom goes missing from one of the lattice site thus decreasing the density. In Schottky defect, an atom moves from inside of crystal to its surface. The density remains the same in case of Frenkel defect and interstitial defect.

    NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 1: Short Answer Type

    Question:54

    Why are liquids and gases categorised as fluids?
    Answer:

    The liquids and gases have an ability to flow. Liquid and gas molecules can easily move fast and tumble over one another freely. These have been categorized as fluids because of their tendency to flow.

    Question:55

    Why are solids incompressible?
    Answer:

    The particles in solid are already packed closely together. There will be a large repulsive force between electron clouds of these particles if brought closer. Therefore, solids are incompressible.

    Question:56

    Inspite of long range order in the arrangement of particles why are the crystals usually not perfect?
    Answer:

    Despite of having long range in the arrangement of particles, crystals are not perfect. The reason behind this is that the constituent particles may not get enough time to arrange themselves in a perfect order when crystallisation occurs at a fast rate or moderate rate.

    Question:57

    Why does table salt, NaCl, sometimes appear yellow in colour ?
    Answer:

    The yellow colour of NaCl crystals can be attributed to metal excess defect as some chlorine ions leave their lattice sites and are occupied by unpaired electrons. These sites are called F-centres. On absorption of energy, electrons gets excited and falls on the crystals imparting yellow color.

    Question:58

    Why is FeO (s) not formed in stoichiometric composition?
    Answer:

    Iron oxide (FeO) has rock salt structure.
    In the crystals of FeO, O_{2} ions adopt on sites.
    FeO is always non-stoichiometric i.e., the composition of Fe^{2+} and O_{2} ions is 0.95 : 1 instead of 1:1 .
    This non stoichiometric composition can be obtained if a small number of Fe^{2+} ions are replaced by \frac{2}{3} of Fe^{3+} ions in OH sites to maintain the positive charge.

    Question:59

    Why does white ZnO (s) become yellow upon heating?
    Answer:

    On heating, ZnO gives Zn^{2+}, electrons and colour.
    The excess Zn ions thus formed move to the interstitial sites and electron in the neighbourhood vacant interstitial sites for neutralisation. This electron is responsible for the yellow colour and electrical conductivity in crystals. The color reverts back to white on cooling.

    Question:60

    Why does the electrical conductivity of semiconductors increase with a rise in temperature?
    Answer:

    The energy gap between valence and conduction band is small in semiconductors. Thus, they do not conduct electricity at normal temperature but with a rise in temperature large number of electrons get sufficient energy to jump from valence band to conduction band. Therefore, the electrical conductivity of a semi-conductor will increase exponentially with an increase in temperature.

    Question:61

    Explain why does conductivity of germanium crystals increase on doping with gallium?
    Answer:

    p-type semiconductor:


    When germanium is doped with gallium or any other group 13 elements ,some of the positions of lattice of germanium atom are occupied by gallium. Gallium contains only 3 valence electrons. Thus the 4th valency of nearby germanium atom is not satisfied leaving this place vacant. Electron from neighbouring atom comes and fills the gap and creates a hole in its original position.
    The electrons move towards positively charged plates through these under the influence of electric field for conduction of electricity. The holes appear to move towards negatively charged plates.

    Question:62

    In a compound, nitrogen atoms (N) make cubic close packed lattice and metal atoms (M) occupy one-third of the tetrahedral voids present. Determine the formula of the compound formed by M and N?
    Answer:

    Let the no. of atoms per unit cell be n. For ccp lattice the value of n is 4
    Number of tetrahedral voids generated = 2\times n =2\times 4 = 8
    We know that only one-third of tetrahedral voids are occupied by metal M.
    Number of metal atoms M=13 \times 8
    M:N=83:4=2:3
    Thus formula is M_2N_3

    Question:63

    Under which situations can an amorphous substance change to crystalline form?
    Answer:

    To convert from amorphous to crystalline, one must heat it till its melting point and then quickly cool it down rapidly. Heating beyond its crystallization temperature will lead to recrystallization.

    NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 1: Matching Type

    Question:64

    Match the defects given in Column I with the statements given in Column II.

    Column I

    Column II

    (i) Simple vacany defect

    (a) Shown by non-ionic solids and increases density of the solid

    (ii) Simple interstitial defect

    (b) Shown by ionic solids and decreases density of the solid

    (iii) Frenkel defect

    (c) Shown by non-ionic solids and denisty of the solids decreases.

    (iv) Schottky defect

    (d) Shown by the ionic solids and denisty of the solid remains the same

    Answer:

    (i) -> (c); (ii) -> (a); (iii) ->(d); (iv) ->(b)

    Vacancy defect occurs when some of the lattice sites are vacant resulting in decrease in density. In case of schottky defect, an equal number of cations and anions are missing from their normal lattice site by creating vacancies or holes.
    In case of frenkel defect, the density remains same as the cation missing from the normal lattice position occupies interstitial site. Thus, maintaining the same density. In Interstitial defect, some of the constituent atoms occupy the interstitial site. Hence, no change in density.

    Question:65

    Match the type of unit cell given in Column I with the features given in Column II.

    Column I

    Column II

    (i) Primitive cubic unit cell

    (a) edges of the three perpendicular edges complusory have the different edge length i.e, a\neq b\neq c

    (ii) Body centred cubic unit cell

    (b) Number of the atoms per unit cell is one

    (iii) Face centred cubic unit cell

    (c) Each of the three perpendicular edges complusory have the same edge length i.e, a = b = c

    (iv) End centred orthohombic unit cell

    (d) In addition to the contributin from the corner atoms the number of atoms present in the unit cell is one.


    (e) In addition to the contribution from the corner atoms the number of atoms the number of atoms present in a unit cell is three.

    Answer:

    (i) —>(b, c); (ii) —>(c, d); (iii) —>(c, e); (iv) —> (a, d)
    (i) In primitive unit cell each of the 8 corners contribute 1/8th to the unit cell
    Total number of atoms per unit cell = \frac{1}{8}\times 8 = 1

    (ii) Body centered cubic unit cell contains atoms at corner as well as body centre.
    each of the 8 corners contribute 1/8th to the unit cell and the contribution due to the atom at the centre of the body=1

    (iii) In face centred unit cell, total constituent ions per unit cell present at corners =\frac{1}{8}\times 8 = 1
    Total contribution of atoms per unit cell present at face centre =\frac{1}{2}\times 6 = 3
    (iv) For end centred orthorhombic unit cell a\neq b\neq c
    each of the 8 corners contribute 1/8th to the unit cell =\frac{1}{8}\times 8 = 1
    whereas at end centre the total contribution is =\frac{1}{2}\times 2 = 1
    Thus, other than corner it contains total one atom per unit cell.

    Question:66

    Match the types of defect given in Column I with the statement given in Column II.

    Column I

    Column II

    (i) Impurity defect

    (a) NaCl with anionic sites called F-centres

    (ii) Metal excess defect

    (b) FeO with Fe^{3+}

    (iii) Metal deficiency defect

    (c) NaCl with Sr^{2+} and some cationic sites vacant

    Answer:

    i) —>(c); (ii) —>(a); (iii) —> (b)
    (A) (i) Impurity defects: The defects introduced in the crystal lattice due to presence of the certain impurity are called impurity defects.
    Example: Substitution of Na^{+}ions in NaCl by Sr^{2+} ions.
    Structure with defect:

    Impurity defect due to substitution of Na^{+} ions in NaCl by Sr^{2+} ions (Cation vacancy) ‘Schottky Defect’

    (B) On heating NaCl in vapour of sodium, some of the Cl ions leave their lattice site and create anion vacancies. For chloride ions to combine with sodium vapour to form sodium chloride, sodium atom loses electrons to form Na^{+} ions. This released electron on diffusion into the crystal gets entrapped in the anion vacancy called F-centre.

    (C) Metal deficiency is caused when a cation is missing from its lattice site and a nearby metal ion acquires 2 positive charge to maintain electrical neutrality.
    This type of defect can be seen in compounds where metal exhibit variable valency.
    Example: FeO, FeS, NiO

    Question:67

    Match the items given in Column I with the items given in Column II.

    Column I

    Column II

    (i) Mg in solid state

    (a) p-Type semiconductor

    (ii) MgCl_{2} in molten state

    (b) n-Type semiconductor

    (iii) Silicon with phosphorous

    (c) Electrolytic conductors

    (iv) Germanium with boron

    (d) Electronic conductors

    Answer:

    (i) \rightarrow (d); (ii)\rightarrow (c); (iii)\rightarrow (b); (iv)\rightarrow (a)
    (i) electronic conductivity is shown by Mg in solid state due to presence of free electrons.
    (ii) electrolytic conductivity is shown by MgCl_{2} in molten state due to the presence of electrolytes in molten state.
    (iii) Silicon doped with phosphorus is p-type semiconductor. It contain one extra electron due to which it shows conductivity under the influence of electric field.
    (iv) Germanium doped with boron is p-type semiconductor. It shows conductivity under the influence of electric field due to the presence of a hole.

    Question:68

    Match the type of packing given in Column I with the items given in Column II.

    Column I

    Column II

    (i) Square close packing in two dimensions

    (a) Triangular voids

    (ii) Hexagonal close packing in two dimensions

    (b) Pattern of spheres is repeated in every fourth layer

    (iii) Hexagonal close packing in three dimensions

    (c) Coordination number 4

    (iv) Cubic close packing in three dimensions

    (d) Pattern of sphere is repeated in alternate layers.

    Answer:

    (i) —> (c); (ii) —> (a); (iii) —>(d); (iv) —> (b)
    (i) In Square close packing in two dimensions, each sphere has coordination number 4, as shown in the diagram below.

    (ii)In hexagonal close packing, in two dimensions, each sphere has coordination number 6 and a triangular void is created.

    (iii) hcp in 3 dimensions is a repetitive pattern of ABAB…..

    (iv) In ccp spheres are repeated at every 4th layer as in ABCABCA….

    Question:70

    In the following questions, a statement of Assertion (A) followed by a statement of Reason (R) is given. Choose the correct answer out of the following choices.
    (a) Assertion and Reason both are correct statements and Reason is the correct explanation for Assertion.
    (b) Assertion and Reason both are correct statements but Reason is not the correct explanation for Assertion.
    (c) Assertion is correct but Reason is wrong.
    (d) Assertion is wrong but Reason is correct.
    Assertion (A): Graphite is a good conductor of electricity, however, diamond belongs to the category of insulators.
    Reason (R): Graphite is soft in nature on the other hand diamond is very hard and brittle.

    Answer:

    The answer is the option (b)Assertion and reason both are correct statements but reason is not correct explanation for assertion.
    Diamond is a non-conductor of electricity because all valence electrons of carbon are involved in bonding and thus there is no delocalised electron in its structure. In graphite, one valence electron is free to move between adjacent layers making it a good conductor.
    In Graphite, parallel layers are held together by week van der Waals force. That is why it is soft. However, diamond is hard since C atom is covalently bonded with the adjacent 3 carbon atoms forming a 3-dimensional network.

    NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 1: Long Answer Type

    Question:74

    With the help of a labelled diagram show that there are four octahedral voids per unit cell in a cubic close packed structure.
    Answer:

    In ccp, one octahedral void is present at the centre of body surrounded by six atoms at the centre of respective face.
    Where Nc=Number of atoms at corner
    Nf=Number of atoms at face centre
    =Nc*contribution+Nf*contribution
    =8\times 18+6\times 12=4
    Position of octahedral voids=Edge centre and body centre
    Number of octahedral voids per unit cell in cubic close packing=Ne\times \frac{1}{4}+Nb\times 1=12\times \frac{1}{4}+1\times 1=4
    Number of octahedral voids=4

    Question:75

    Show that in a cubic close packed structure, eight tetrahedral voids are present per unit cell.
    Answer:

    In ccp, each unit cell consists of eight cubic components and the number of atoms per unit cell is given by
    Nc*contribution+Nf*contribution
    =8\times \frac{1}{}8+6\times \frac{1}{2}=4

    The tetrahedral voids are positioned at the centre of cubic cell.
    In cubic close packing number of tetrahedral voids per unit cell = 8\times 1=8

    Question:76

    How does the doping increase the conductivity of semiconductors?
    Answer:

    Conductivity of semiconductors are exceptionally low for practical use. Semiconductors are doped to generate either a surplus or deficiency in valence electrons depending on whether n-type semiconductors are required or p-type. An electron rich or electron deficient impurity as compared to the intrinsic semiconductor, silicon or germanium is used for doping. Electronic defects are introduced in them by such impurities.

    1. On doping silicon with electron rich impurities, the extra electron becomes delocalized increasing the conductivity of doped silicon. Hence silicon doped with electron-rich impurity is called n-type semiconductor due to the negatively charged electron. For ex. When group 15 elements are added to silicon

    2. When silicon is doped with electron-deficit impurities to increase the conductivity through positive holes, this type of semiconductors are called p-type semiconductors. Ex. Addition of group 13 elements to group 14 element

    Question:77

    A sample of ferrous oxide has actual formula Fe_{0.93 }O_{1.00}. In this sample, what fraction of metal ions are Fe^{2+} ions? What is the type of non-stoichiometric defect present in this sample?
    Answer:

    Let the number of O^{2-} be 100
    Then number of Fe^{2+}=x
    Number of Fe^{3+}=93-x
    To maintain electrical neutrality net positive charge is equal to net negative charge
    2x+393-x=2\times 100
    2x+279-3x=200
    x=79
    Fe^{2+}=79
    \frac{Fe^{2+}}{Fe^{2+}+Fe^{3+}}=799
    =0.849
    Metal deficiency defect is present in the sample because iron is less in amount than that required for stoichiometric composition.

    NCERT exemplar solutions for Class 12 Chemistry chapter 1 also helps in correlating different nature of particles, creating different properties of solid and also studies various arrangements of particles resulting in distinguished structures of solid. NCERT exemplar Class 12 Chemistry solutions chapter 1 Solid State deals with two different types of solid, namely crystalline and amorphous solids along with the further classification of crystalline solids into various other categories based on intermolecular forces along with examples. Students can make use of NCERT exemplar Class 12 Chemistry solutions chapter 1 PDF download prepared by experts. The topics included are as follows:

    NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 1 Solid State -Main subtopics

    • General Characteristics of Solid State
    • Amorphous and Crystalline Solids
    • Classification of Crystalline Solids
    • Molecular Solids
    • Ionic Solids
    • Metallic Solids
    • Covalent or Network Solids
    • Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells
    • Primitive and Centred Unit Cells
    • Number of Atoms in a Unit Cell
    • Primitive Cubic Unit Cell
    • Body-Centred Cubic Unit Cell
    • Face-Centred Cubic Unit Cell
    • Close-Packed Structures
    • The formula of a Compound and Number of Voids Filled
    • Packing Efficiency
    • Packing Efficiency in HCP and CCP Structures
    • The efficiency of Packing in Body-Center Cubic Structures
    • Packing Efficiency in Simple Cubic Lattice
    • Calculations Involving Unit Cell Dimensions
    • Imperfections in Solids
    • Types of Point Defects
    • Electrical Properties
    • Conduction of Electricity in Metals
    • Conduction of Electricity in Semiconductors
    • Magnetic Properties

    NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Chemistry Solutions

    Important Topics To Cover For Exams From Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 1 Solid State

    · NCERT exemplar Class 12 Chemistry solutions chapter 1 covers the diagrammatic representation of the regular and repeating pattern of crystalline solid in three-dimensional spaces with reference to fourteen possible arrangements known as Bravais Lattices.

    · NCERT exemplar solutions for Class 12 Chemistry chapter 1 also includes questions related to the formation of the crystal lattice at the molecular level for defining various arrangements along with the study of unit cells and its types that make up the crystal lattice.

    · Class 12 Chemistry NCERT exemplar solutions chapter 1 also provides understanding and different methods for calculating the number of atoms combined to form a unit cell.

    · NCERT exemplar Class 12 Chemistry solutions chapter 1 also explains different types of packing of constituent particles in solid in different dimensions, provides the formula for a compound made of different particles based on its arrangement of constituent particles and packing efficiencies of different types of structures.

    NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Solutions

    Check NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry

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    Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

    1. Q: How many questions are there in this chapter?

    Ans: The NCERT exemplar Class 12 Chemistry solutions chapter 1 has 6 exercises in total with 77 questions of various types like mcqs, short and long answers, matching, etc.


    2. Q: Are these solutions helpful for competitive examinations?

    Ans: Yes, the NCERT exemplar solutions for class 12 Chemistry chapter 1 Solid State are reliable to prepare for the competitive exams like JEE Main and NEET.

    3. Q: How to read the solutions better?

    Ans: You can read the solutions to note important points. You mark them with highlighter or underline them. You must revise it occasionally for better understanding and practice.

    4. Q: Can I download the solutions for this chapter?

    Ans: Yes, you can get the pdf of this chapter solutions easily on the link provided on the page.

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    Questions related to CBSE Class 12th

    Have a question related to CBSE Class 12th ?

    hello,

    Yes you can appear for the compartment paper again since CBSE gives three chances to a candidate to clear his/her exams so you still have two more attempts. However, you can appear for your improvement paper for all subjects but you cannot appear for the ones in which you have failed.

    I hope this was helpful!

    Good Luck

    Hello dear,

    If you was not able to clear 1st compartment and now you giving second compartment so YES, you can go for your improvement exam next year but if a student receives an improvement, they are given the opportunity to retake the boards as a private candidate the following year, but there are some requirements. First, the student must pass all of their subjects; if they received a compartment in any subject, they must then pass the compartment exam before being eligible for the improvement.


    As you can registered yourself as private candidate for giving your improvement exam of 12 standard CBSE(Central Board of Secondary Education).For that you have to wait for a whole year which is bit difficult for you.


    Positive side of waiting for whole year is you have a whole year to preparing yourself for your examination. You have no distraction or something which may causes your failure in the exams. In whole year you have to stay focused on your 12 standard examination for doing well in it. By this you get a highest marks as a comparison of others.


    Believe in Yourself! You can make anything happen


    All the very best.

    Hello Student,

    I appreciate your Interest in education. See the improvement is not restricted to one subject or multiple subjects  and  we cannot say if improvement in one subject in one year leads to improvement in more subjects in coming year.

    You just need to have a revision of all subjects what you have completed in the school. have a revision and practice of subjects and concepts helps you better.

    All the best.

    If you'll do hard work then by hard work of 6 months you can achieve your goal but you have to start studying for it dont waste your time its a very important year so please dont waste it otherwise you'll regret.

    Yes, you can take admission in class 12th privately there are many colleges in which you can give 12th privately.

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    A block of mass 0.50 kg is moving with a speed of 2.00 ms-1 on a smooth surface. It strikes another mass of 1.00 kg and then they move together as a single body. The energy loss during the collision is

    Option 1)

    0.34\; J

    Option 2)

    0.16\; J

    Option 3)

    1.00\; J

    Option 4)

    0.67\; J

    A person trying to lose weight by burning fat lifts a mass of 10 kg upto a height of 1 m 1000 times.  Assume that the potential energy lost each time he lowers the mass is dissipated.  How much fat will he use up considering the work done only when the weight is lifted up ?  Fat supplies 3.8×107 J of energy per kg which is converted to mechanical energy with a 20% efficiency rate.  Take g = 9.8 ms−2 :

    Option 1)

    2.45×10−3 kg

    Option 2)

     6.45×10−3 kg

    Option 3)

     9.89×10−3 kg

    Option 4)

    12.89×10−3 kg

     

    An athlete in the olympic games covers a distance of 100 m in 10 s. His kinetic energy can be estimated to be in the range

    Option 1)

    2,000 \; J - 5,000\; J

    Option 2)

    200 \, \, J - 500 \, \, J

    Option 3)

    2\times 10^{5}J-3\times 10^{5}J

    Option 4)

    20,000 \, \, J - 50,000 \, \, J

    A particle is projected at 600   to the horizontal with a kinetic energy K. The kinetic energy at the highest point

    Option 1)

    K/2\,

    Option 2)

    \; K\;

    Option 3)

    zero\;

    Option 4)

    K/4

    In the reaction,

    2Al_{(s)}+6HCL_{(aq)}\rightarrow 2Al^{3+}\, _{(aq)}+6Cl^{-}\, _{(aq)}+3H_{2(g)}

    Option 1)

    11.2\, L\, H_{2(g)}  at STP  is produced for every mole HCL_{(aq)}  consumed

    Option 2)

    6L\, HCl_{(aq)}  is consumed for ever 3L\, H_{2(g)}      produced

    Option 3)

    33.6 L\, H_{2(g)} is produced regardless of temperature and pressure for every mole Al that reacts

    Option 4)

    67.2\, L\, H_{2(g)} at STP is produced for every mole Al that reacts .

    How many moles of magnesium phosphate, Mg_{3}(PO_{4})_{2} will contain 0.25 mole of oxygen atoms?

    Option 1)

    0.02

    Option 2)

    3.125 × 10-2

    Option 3)

    1.25 × 10-2

    Option 4)

    2.5 × 10-2

    If we consider that 1/6, in place of 1/12, mass of carbon atom is taken to be the relative atomic mass unit, the mass of one mole of a substance will

    Option 1)

    decrease twice

    Option 2)

    increase two fold

    Option 3)

    remain unchanged

    Option 4)

    be a function of the molecular mass of the substance.

    With increase of temperature, which of these changes?

    Option 1)

    Molality

    Option 2)

    Weight fraction of solute

    Option 3)

    Fraction of solute present in water

    Option 4)

    Mole fraction.

    Number of atoms in 558.5 gram Fe (at. wt.of Fe = 55.85 g mol-1) is

    Option 1)

    twice that in 60 g carbon

    Option 2)

    6.023 × 1022

    Option 3)

    half that in 8 g He

    Option 4)

    558.5 × 6.023 × 1023

    A pulley of radius 2 m is rotated about its axis by a force F = (20t - 5t2) newton (where t is measured in seconds) applied tangentially. If the moment of inertia of the pulley about its axis of rotation is 10 kg m2 , the number of rotations made by the pulley before its direction of motion if reversed, is

    Option 1)

    less than 3

    Option 2)

    more than 3 but less than 6

    Option 3)

    more than 6 but less than 9

    Option 4)

    more than 9

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    Underwriter

    An underwriter is a person who assesses and evaluates the risk of insurance in his or her field like mortgage, loan, health policy, investment, and so on and so forth. The underwriter career path does involve risks as analysing the risks means finding out if there is a way for the insurance underwriter jobs to recover the money from its clients. If the risk turns out to be too much for the company then in the future it is an underwriter who will be held accountable for it. Therefore, one must carry out his or her job with a lot of attention and diligence.

    3 Jobs Available
    Commercial Manager

    A Commercial Manager negotiates, advises and secures information about pricing for commercial contracts. He or she is responsible for developing financial plans in order to maximise the business's profitability.

    2 Jobs Available
    Welding Engineer

    Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues. 

    5 Jobs Available
    Transportation Planner

    A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

    3 Jobs Available
    Architect

    Individuals in the architecture career are the building designers who plan the whole construction keeping the safety and requirements of the people. Individuals in architect career in India provides professional services for new constructions, alterations, renovations and several other activities. Individuals in architectural careers in India visit site locations to visualize their projects and prepare scaled drawings to submit to a client or employer as a design. Individuals in architecture careers also estimate build costs, materials needed, and the projected time frame to complete a build.

    2 Jobs Available
    Landscape Architect

    Having a landscape architecture career, you are involved in site analysis, site inventory, land planning, planting design, grading, stormwater management, suitable design, and construction specification. Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of Central Park in New York introduced the title “landscape architect”. The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA) proclaims that "Landscape Architects research, plan, design and advise on the stewardship, conservation and sustainability of development of the environment and spaces, both within and beyond the built environment". Therefore, individuals who opt for a career as a landscape architect are those who are educated and experienced in landscape architecture. Students need to pursue various landscape architecture degrees, such as M.Des, M.Plan to become landscape architects. If you have more questions regarding a career as a landscape architect or how to become a landscape architect then you can read the article to get your doubts cleared. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Plumber

    An expert in plumbing is aware of building regulations and safety standards and works to make sure these standards are upheld. Testing pipes for leakage using air pressure and other gauges, and also the ability to construct new pipe systems by cutting, fitting, measuring and threading pipes are some of the other more involved aspects of plumbing. Individuals in the plumber career path are self-employed or work for a small business employing less than ten people, though some might find working for larger entities or the government more desirable.

    2 Jobs Available
    Urban Planner

    Urban Planning careers revolve around the idea of developing a plan to use the land optimally, without affecting the environment. Urban planning jobs are offered to those candidates who are skilled in making the right use of land to distribute the growing population, to create various communities. 

    Urban planning careers come with the opportunity to make changes to the existing cities and towns. They identify various community needs and make short and long-term plans accordingly.

    2 Jobs Available
    Construction Manager

    Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.

    2 Jobs Available
    Environmental Engineer

    Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Orthotist and Prosthetist

    Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

    6 Jobs Available
    Veterinary Doctor

    A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.

    5 Jobs Available
    Pathologist

    A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.

    5 Jobs Available
    Speech Therapist
    4 Jobs Available
    Gynaecologist

    Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

    4 Jobs Available
    Oncologist

    An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.

    3 Jobs Available
    Audiologist

    The audiologist career involves audiology professionals who are responsible to treat hearing loss and proactively preventing the relevant damage. Individuals who opt for a career as an audiologist use various testing strategies with the aim to determine if someone has a normal sensitivity to sounds or not. After the identification of hearing loss, a hearing doctor is required to determine which sections of the hearing are affected, to what extent they are affected, and where the wound causing the hearing loss is found. As soon as the hearing loss is identified, the patients are provided with recommendations for interventions and rehabilitation such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and appropriate medical referrals. While audiology is a branch of science that studies and researches hearing, balance, and related disorders.

    3 Jobs Available
    Cardiothoracic Surgeon

    Cardiothoracic surgeons are an important part of the surgical team. They usually work in hospitals, and perform emergency as well as scheduled operations. Some of the cardiothoracic surgeons also work in teaching hospitals working as teachers and guides for medical students aspiring to become a cardiothoracic surgeon. A career as a cardiothoracic surgeon involves treating and managing various types of conditions within their speciality that includes their presence at different locations such as outpatient clinics, team meetings, and ward rounds. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Actor

    For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

    4 Jobs Available
    Acrobat

    Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

    3 Jobs Available
    Video Game Designer

    Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages.

    Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

    3 Jobs Available
    Talent Agent

    The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

    If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

    3 Jobs Available
    Radio Jockey

    Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

    A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.

    3 Jobs Available
    Producer

    An individual who is pursuing a career as a producer is responsible for managing the business aspects of production. They are involved in each aspect of production from its inception to deception. Famous movie producers review the script, recommend changes and visualise the story. 

    They are responsible for overseeing the finance involved in the project and distributing the film for broadcasting on various platforms. A career as a producer is quite fulfilling as well as exhaustive in terms of playing different roles in order for a production to be successful. Famous movie producers are responsible for hiring creative and technical personnel on contract basis.

    2 Jobs Available
    Fashion Blogger

    Fashion bloggers use multiple social media platforms to recommend or share ideas related to fashion. A fashion blogger is a person who writes about fashion, publishes pictures of outfits, jewellery, accessories. Fashion blogger works as a model, journalist, and a stylist in the fashion industry. In current fashion times, these bloggers have crossed into becoming a star in fashion magazines, commercials, or campaigns. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Photographer

    Photography is considered both a science and an art, an artistic means of expression in which the camera replaces the pen. In a career as a photographer, an individual is hired to capture the moments of public and private events, such as press conferences or weddings, or may also work inside a studio, where people go to get their picture clicked. Photography is divided into many streams each generating numerous career opportunities in photography. With the boom in advertising, media, and the fashion industry, photography has emerged as a lucrative and thrilling career option for many Indian youths.

    2 Jobs Available
    Copy Writer

    In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism, Advertising, Marketing Management. Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

    5 Jobs Available
    Journalist

    Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

    3 Jobs Available
    Publisher

    For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

    3 Jobs Available
    Vlogger

    In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. 

    Ever since internet costs got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, a career as a vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the Vlogger eligibility, roles and responsibilities then continue reading the article. 

    3 Jobs Available
    Editor

    Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

    3 Jobs Available
    Content Writer

    Content writing is meant to speak directly with a particular audience, such as customers, potential customers, investors, employees, or other stakeholders. The main aim of professional content writers is to speak to their targeted audience and if it is not then it is not doing its job. There are numerous kinds of the content present on the website and each is different based on the service or the product it is used for.

    2 Jobs Available
    Reporter

    Individuals who opt for a career as a reporter may often be at work on national holidays and festivities. He or she pitches various story ideas and covers news stories in risky situations. Students can pursue a BMC (Bachelor of Mass Communication), B.M.M. (Bachelor of Mass Media), or MAJMC (MA in Journalism and Mass Communication) to become a reporter. While we sit at home reporters travel to locations to collect information that carries a news value.  

    2 Jobs Available
    Linguist

    Linguistic meaning is related to language or Linguistics which is the study of languages. A career as a linguistic meaning, a profession that is based on the scientific study of language, and it's a very broad field with many specialities. Famous linguists work in academia, researching and teaching different areas of language, such as phonetics (sounds), syntax (word order) and semantics (meaning). 

    Other researchers focus on specialities like computational linguistics, which seeks to better match human and computer language capacities, or applied linguistics, which is concerned with improving language education. Still, others work as language experts for the government, advertising companies, dictionary publishers and various other private enterprises. Some might work from home as freelance linguists. Philologist, phonologist, and dialectician are some of Linguist synonym. Linguists can study French, German, Italian

    2 Jobs Available
    Welding Engineer

    Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues. 

    5 Jobs Available
    QA Manager
    4 Jobs Available
    Product Manager

    A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

    3 Jobs Available
    Quality Controller

    A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

    A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

    3 Jobs Available
    Production Manager
    3 Jobs Available
    Team Lead

    A Team Leader is a professional responsible for guiding, monitoring and leading the entire group. He or she is responsible for motivating team members by providing a pleasant work environment to them and inspiring positive communication. A Team Leader contributes to the achievement of the organisation’s goals. He or she improves the confidence, product knowledge and communication skills of the team members and empowers them.

    2 Jobs Available
    Procurement Manager

    The procurement Manager is also known as  Purchasing Manager. The role of the Procurement Manager is to source products and services for a company. A Procurement Manager is involved in developing a purchasing strategy, including the company's budget and the supplies as well as the vendors who can provide goods and services to the company. His or her ultimate goal is to bring the right products or services at the right time with cost-effectiveness. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Merchandiser
    2 Jobs Available
    QA Manager
    4 Jobs Available
    Azure Administrator

    An Azure Administrator is a professional responsible for implementing, monitoring, and maintaining Azure Solutions. He or she manages cloud infrastructure service instances and various cloud servers as well as sets up public and private cloud systems. 

    4 Jobs Available
    AWS Solution Architect

    An AWS Solution Architect is someone who specializes in developing and implementing cloud computing systems. He or she has a good understanding of the various aspects of cloud computing and can confidently deploy and manage their systems. He or she troubleshoots the issues and evaluates the risk from the third party. 

    4 Jobs Available
    Computer Programmer

    Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

    3 Jobs Available
    Product Manager

    A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

    3 Jobs Available
    ITSM Manager
    3 Jobs Available
    Information Security Manager

    Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

    3 Jobs Available
    Big Data Analytics Engineer

    Big Data Analytics Engineer Job Description: A Big Data Analytics Engineer is responsible for collecting data from various sources. He or she has to sort the organised and chaotic data to find out patterns. The role of Big Data Engineer involves converting messy information into useful data that is clean, accurate and actionable. 

    2 Jobs Available
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