About JAC 12th Board 2019

Jharkhand Academic Council organizes class 12th exam yearly to assess the students in class 12th. The students can than move forward to college to pursue there higher studies after the class 12th exam. JAC senior secondary exam will be held from February 20, 2019 to March 9, 2019. The admit cards for the same will be released in February. The result for JAC class 12th exam 2019 can be found online in June 2019. To find their results, students will have to enter the required credentials in the appropriate fields. The result will then get displayed on their screen which can be saved for future references. Students can also SMS text there enrollment number to a specified phone number in order to receive there result on their mobile phones as an SMS text. JAC class 12th class result 2019 will contain candidate's information such as there name, roll number, marks obtained, percentage, qualifying status etc.

Exam level: Intermediate
Frequency: Once a year
Languages Bengali, English +3 More
Conducting Body: Jharkhand Academic Council, Ranchi
Duration 3 Hours

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JAC 12th Board 2019 Important Dates

25 Feb, 2019 Exam - Computer Science – I.Sc. & I.Com. / Anthropology – I.A. | Mode: Offline
26 Feb, 2019 Exam - History – I.A. | Mode: Offline
27 Feb, 2019 Exam - Geology – I.Sc. / Psychology – I.A. | Mode: Offline
28 Feb, 2019 Exam - Economics – I.A. | Mode: Offline
01 Mar, 2019 Exam - Economics – I.Sc. & I.Com. / Philosophy – I.A. | Mode: Offline
02 Feb, 2019 - 02 Mar, 2019 Exam - Physics – I.Sc. / Accountancy – I.Com / Music – I.A. | Mode: Offline
05 Mar, 2019 Exam - Mathematics/Statistics – I.A.,I.Sc. & I.Com. | Mode: Offline
06 Mar, 2019 Exam - Entrepreneurship – I.Com. / Political Science – I.A. | Mode: Offline
07 Mar, 2019 Exam - Chemistry – I.Sc. / Home Science – I.A. | Mode: Offline
08 Mar, 2019 Exam - Business Studies – I.Com. / Sociology – I.A. | Mode: Offline
09 Mar, 2019 Exam - Biology (Botany+Zoology) – I.Sc. / Geography – I.A. / Business Mathematics – I.Com | Mode: Offline
07 Jun, 2019 (Tentative) Result | Mode: Online
23 Feb, 2019 Exam - Elective Language (Compulsory) – I.A. / Additional Language -I.Sc., I.Com | Mode: Offline
20 Feb, 2019 Exam - Vocational – I.A., I.Sc., & I.Com. | Mode: Offline
22 Feb, 2019 Exam - Compulsory Core Language – I.Sc. & I.Com. / Hindi 'A', Hindi 'B' + Matribhasha & English 'A' | Mode: Offline
21 Feb, 2019 Exam - Compulsory Core Language – I.A. / Hindi 'A', Hindi 'B' + Matribhasha & English 'A' | Mode: Offline

JAC 12th Board 2019 Eligibility Criteria

JAC class 12th exam 2019 eligibility criteria are the guidelines set by Jharkhand Academic Council which tell the minimum requirements to be met by students in order to appear for the exam. The eligibility criteria for students of JAC class 12th exam 2019 are:

  • Student must have passed their 11th grade.
  • Student must be enrolled in a school affiliated to JAC or recognised by JAC.
  • Student must have filled the application and submitted it to the school authorities along with the fees before the due date.

JAC 12th Board 2019 Application Process

Mode of Application : Offline

Students must fill the application form and submit it along with the fees to the school authorities. Students who do not do so will not be eligible for giving the exam. The application for JAC class 12th exam 2019 can be taken from the head of the institution. After acquiring the Jharkhand board 12th application form, the student must fill it completely and submit to the school authorities along with passport sized photos.

JAC 12th Board 2019 Syllabus

Solid State Classification of solids based on different binding forces
Covalent and metallic solids
Amorphous and crystalline solids
Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices
Calculation of density of unit cell
Packing in solids
Number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell
Point defects
Electrical and Magnetic properties
Solutions Types of solutions
Expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids
Solubility of gases in liquids
Solid solutions
Colligative properties
Relative lowering of vapour pressure
Elevation of b.p
Depression of freezing point
Osmotic pressure
Determination of molecular masses using colligative properties
Abnormal molecular mass
Electrochemistry Redox reactions
Conductance in electrolytic solutions
Specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration
Kohlrausch’s Law
Electrolysis and laws of electrolysis
Dry cell
Electrolytic cells and galvanic cells
Lead accumulator
EMF of a cell
Standard electrode potential
Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells
Fuel cells
Chemical Kinetics Rate of a reaction
Factors affecting rates of reaction
Order and molecularity of a reaction
Rate law and specific rate constant
Integrated rate equations and half life
Concept of collision theory
Surface Chemistry Adsorption
Physisorption and Chemisorption
Factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids
Homogenous and heterogeneous
Activity and Selectivity
Enzyme Catalysis
Colloidal state
Distinction between true solutions
Colloids and suspensions
Lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids
Properties of colloids
Tyndall effect
Brownian movement
Types of emulsions
General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Principles and methods of extraction
Reduction electrolytic method and refining
Occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium
Zinc and iron
P-block elements General introduction of group 15 elements
Electronic configuration
Oxidation states
Trends in Physical and Chemical properties
Preparation, properties and uses of nitrogen
Compounds of Nitrogen
Preparation and Properties of Ammonia and Nitric acid
Oxides of Nitrogen
Allotropic forms of phosphorous
Compounds of Phosphorous
Preparation and Properties of Phosphine
Halides and Oxoacids
General introduction of group 16 elements
Preparation, properties and uses of dioxygen
Simple oxides
Allotropic forms of sulphur
Compounds of Sulphur
Preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide
Sulphuric acid
Industrial process of manufacture
Properties and Uses
Oxoacids of sulphur
General introduction of group 17 elements
Compounds of Halogens
Preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid
Interhalogen compounds
Oxoacids of halogens
General introduction of group 18 elements
d and f Block Elements General introduction
Electronic configuration
Occurrence and characteristics of transition metals
General trends in properties of the first row transition metals
Metallic character
Ionization enthalpy
Oxidation states
Ionic radii
Catalytic property
Magnetic properties
Interstitial compounds
Alloy formation
Chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction
Coordination Compounds Introduction
Coordination number
Magnetic properties and shapes
IUPAC Nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds
Importance of coordination compounds
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Nomenclature of haloalkanes
Nature of C-X bond
Physical and Chemical properties
Mechanism of Substitution Reactions
Substitution reactions
Uses and environmental effects of
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Nomenclature of alcohols
Methods of Preparation
Physical and Chemical properties
Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols
Mechanism of dehydration
some important compounds
Methanol and ethanol
Nomenclature of phenols
Acidic nature of Phenol
Electrophillic substitution reactions
Uses of phenols
Nomenclature of ethers
Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Nomenclature of aldehydes and ketones
Nature of carbonyl group
Methods of Preparation
Physical and Chemical properties
Mechanism of nucleophilic addition
Reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes
Nomenclature of carboxylic acids
Acidic nature
Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Nomenclature of amines
Methods of Preparation
Physical and Chemical properties
Identification of Primary Secondary and Tertiary amines
Cyanides and isocyanides will be mentioned at relevant places in context
Preparation of diazonium salts
Chemical reactions and importance in Synthetic Organic Chemistry
Biomolecules Classification of Carbohydrates
Elementary idea of α
Amino acids
Peptide Bond
Primary structure
Secondary structure
Tertiary Structure and Quaternary Structure
Denaturation of Proteins
Classification and functions of Vitamins
Nucleic acids
Polymers Classification
Natural and synthetic
Methods of polymerization
Some important Polymers
Chemistry in Everyday life Chemicals in medicines
Antifertility Drugs
Chemicals in food
Artificial Sweetening Agents
Cleansing agents
Soaps and Detergents
Cleansing Action
The story of the first cities - harappan archaeology Early urban centres
Harappan civilization
Archaeological report on a major site
How it has been utilized by archaeologists or historians
Political and economic history - how inscriptions tell a story Political and economic history from the Mauryan to the Gupta period
Inscriptions and the decipherment of the script
Shifts in the understanding of political and economic history
Asokan inscription and Gupta period land grant
Interpretation of inscriptions by historians
Social histories - using the mahabharata Issues in social history including caste, class, kinship and gender
Transmission and publications of the Mahabharata
From the mahabharata, illustrating how it has been used by historians
Other sources for reconstructing social history
A history of buddhism - sanchi stupa A brief review of religious histories of Vedic religion
Focus on Buddhism
Sanchi stupa
Reproduction of sculptures from Sanchi
Ways in which sculpture has been interpreted by historians, other sources for reconstructing the history of buddhism
Agrarian relations - the ain-i- akbari Structure of agrarian relations in the 16th and 17th centuries
Patterns of change over the period
Account of the compilation and translation of ain-i-akbari
from the Ain-i-Akbari
Ways in which historians have used the text to reconstruct history
The mughal court - reconstructing histories through chronicles Outline of political history 15th-17th centuries
Discussion of the Mughal court and politics
Account of the production of court chronicles and their subsequent translation and transmission
From the Akbarnama and Padshahnama
Ways in which historians have used the texts to reconstruct political histories
New architecture - hampi Outline of new buildings during vijayanagar period
Irrigation facilities
Relationship between architecture and the political system
Account of how Hampi was found
Visuals of buildings at Hampi
Ways in which historians have analysed and interpreted these structures
Religious histories: the bhakti-sufi tradition Outline of religious developments during this period
Ideas and practices of the Bhakti-Sufi saints
Story of transmission
How Bhakti-Sufi compositions have been preserved
Extracts from selected bhakti sufi works
Ways in which these have been interpreted by historians
Medieval society through travellers’ accounts Outline of social and cultural life as they appear in travellers account
A discussion of where they travelled, why they travelled, what they wrote, and for whom they wrote
From Alberuni
From ibn batuta
From bernier
What these travel accounts can tell us and how they have been interpreted by historians
Colonialism and rural society - evidence from official reports Life of zamindars, peasants and artisans in the late 18th century
East India Company
Revenue settlements and surveys
Changes over the nineteenth century
Story of official records
An account of why official investigations into rural societies were undertaken and the types of records and reports produced
From firminger’s fifth report
Accounts of francis buchanan
Hamilton and deccan riots report
What the official records tell and do not tell and how they have been used by historians
Representations of 1857 The events of 1857-58
How these events were recorded and narrated
Focus lucknow
Pictures of 1857
Extracts from contemporary accounts
How the pictures of 1857 shaped British opinion of what had happened
Colonialism and indian towns - town plans and municipal reports The growth of mumbai, chennai, hill stations and cantonments in the 18th and 19th century
Photographs and paintings
Plans of cities
Extract form town plan reports
Focus on Kolkata town planning
How the above sources can be used to reconstruct the history of towns
What these sources do not reveal
Mahatma Gandhi through contemporary eyes The nationalist movement 1918-48
The nature of Gandhian politics and leadership
Mahatma Gandhi in 1931
Reports from English and Indian language newspapers and other contemporary writings
How newspapers can be a source of history
Partition through oral sources The history of the 1940s
Nationalism, communalism and partition
Punjab and Bengal
Oral testimonies of those who experienced partition
Ways in which these have been analysed to reconstruct the history of the event
The making of the constitution Independence and the new nation state
The making of the Constitution
The Constitutional Assembly debates
from the debates
What such debates reveal and how they can be analyzed
Human geography Nature and Scope
People Population of the world
Distribution, density and growth
Population change
Spatial patterns and structure
Determinants of population change
Age-sex ratio
Rural-urban composition
Concept of human development
Selected indicators
International comparisons
Human activities Primary activities
Concept and changing trends
Subsistence agriculture
Modern agriculture
People engaged in agriculture and allied activities
Some examples from selected countries
Concept of secondary activities
Small scale
Large scale
People engaged in secondary activities
Concept of tertiary activities
Transport and communication
People engaged in tertiary activities
Concept of quaternary activities
Knowledge based industries
People engaged in quaternary activities
Transport, communication and trade Land transport
Rail network
Trans-continental railways
Water transport
Inland waterways
Major ocean routes
Air transport
Intercontinental air routes
Oil and gas pipelines
Satellite communication and cyber space
International trade
Basis and changing patterns
Ports as gateways of international trade
Role of WTO in International trade
Human settlements Settlement types
Rural and urban
Morphology of cities
Distribution of mega cities
Problems of human settlements in developing countries
Types and distribution of rural settlements
Urban settlements
Distribution and functional classification
People and economy Population
Density and growth
Composition of population
Linguistic and religious
Rural-urban population change through time
Regional variations
Causes and consequences
Human development
Selected indicators and regional patterns
Environment and development
Resources and development Land resources
General land use
Agricultural land use
Major crops
Agricultural development and problems
Common property resources
Water resources
Availability and utilization
Industrial and other uses
Scarcity of water and conservation methods
Rain water harvesting and watershed management
Mineral and energy resources
Metallic and non-metallic minerals and their distribution
Conventional and non-conventional energy sources
Types and distribution
Industrial location and clustering
Changing pattern of selected industries
Iron and steel
Cotton textiles
Petrochemicals and knowledge based industries
Impact of liberalisation
Privatisation and globalisation on industrial location
Planning in india
Target area planning
Idea of sustainable development
Transport, communication and international trade Transport and communication
Waterways and airways
Oil and gas pipelines
National electric grids
Communication networkings
Satellite and internet
International trade
Changing pattern of india’s foreign trade
Sea ports and their hinterland and airports
Geographical perspective on selected issues and problems Environmental pollution
Urban-waste disposal
Urbanisation-rural-urban migration
Problem of slums
Land degradation
Political Science
Politics in india since independence Era of one-party dominance
First three general elections
Nature of Congress dominance at the national level
Uneven dominance at the state level
Coalitional nature of Congress
Major opposition parties
Nation-building and its problems
Nehru’s approach to nation-building
Legacy of partition
Challenge of ‘refugee’ resettlement, the kashmir problem
Organisation and reorganisation of states
Political conflicts over language
Politics of planned development
Five year plans
Expansion of state sector and the rise of new economic interests
Famine and suspension of five year plans
Green revolution and its political fallouts
India’s external relations
Nehru’s foreign policy
Sino-indian war of 1962
Indo-pak war of 1965 and 1971
India’s nuclear programme and shifting alliances in world politics
Challenge to and restoration of congress system
Political succession after Nehru
Non-congressism and electoral upset of 1967
Congress split and reconstitution
Congress’ victory in 1971 elections
Politics of ‘garibi hatao'
Crisis of the constitutional order
Search for ‘committed’ bureaucracy and judiciary
Navnirman movement in Gujarat and the Bihar movement
Emergency context
Constitutional and extraconstitutional dimensions
Resistance to emergency
1977 elections and the formation of Janata Party
Rise of civil liberties organisations
Regional aspirations and conflicts
Rise of regional parties
Punjab crisis and the anti-sikh riots of 1984
The Kashmir situation
Challenges and responses in the North East
Rise of new social movements
Farmers’ movements
Women’s movement
Environment and development-affected people’s movements
Implementation of Mandal Commission report and its aftermath
Democratic upsurge and coalition politics
Participatory upsurge in 1990s
Rise of the JD and the BJP
Increasing role of regional parties and coalition politics
Uf and nda governments
Elections 2004 and upa government
Recent issues and challenges
Challenge of and responses to globalization
New economic policy and its opposition
Rise of obcs in north indian politics
Dalit politics in electoral and nonelectoral arena
Challenge of communalism
Ayodhya dispute
Gujarat riots
Contemporary world politics Cold war era in world politics
Emergence of two power blocs after the second world war
Arenas of the cold war
Challenges to Bipolarity
Non Aligned Movement
Quest for new international economic order
India and the cold war
Disintegration of the ‘second world’ and the collapse of bipolarity
New entities in world politics
Balkan states and central asian states
Introduction of democratic politics and capitalism in post-communist regimes
India’s relations with russia and other post-communist countries
Us dominance in world politics
Growth of unilateralism
First gulf war
Response to 9/11 and attack on iraq
Dominance and challenge to the US in economy and ideology
India’s renegotiation of its relationship with the usa
Alternative centres of economic and political power
Rise of china as an economic power in post-mao era
Creation and expansion of european union
India’s changing relations with china
South asia in the post-cold war era
Democratisation and its reversals in pakistan and nepal
Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka
Impact of economic globalization on the region
Conflicts and efforts for peace in South Asia
India’s relations with its neighbours
International organisations in a unipolar world
Restructuring and the future of the UN
India’s position in the restructured un
Rise of new international actors
New international economic organisations
How democratic and accountable are the new institutions of global governance
Security in contemporary world
Traditional concerns of security and politics of disarmament
Non-traditional or human security
Global poverty, health and education
Issues of human rights and migration
Environment and natural resources in global politics
Environment movement and evolution of global environmental norms
Conflicts over traditional and common property resources
Rights of indigenous people
India’s stand in global environmental debates
Globalisation and its critics
Economic, cultural and political manifestations
Debates on the nature of consequences of globalisation
Anti-globalisation movements
India as an arena of globalization and struggles against it
Introduction What is microeconomics
Central problems of an economy, production possibility curve and opportunity cost
Consumer behaviour and demand Consumer’s equilibrium
Meaning and attainment of equilibrium through utility approach
One and two commodity cases
Market demand
Determinants of demand
Demand schedule
Demand curve
Movement along and shifts in demand curve
Price elasticity of demand
Measurement of price elasticity of demand
Total expenditure and geometric methods
Producer behaviour and supply Production function
Returns to factor and returns to scale
Market supply
Determinants of supply
Supply schedule
Supply curve movement along and shifts in supply curve
Price elasticity of supply
Measurement of price elasticity of supply
Percentage and geometric methods
Cost and revenue
Concepts of costs
Short-run cost curves
Concepts of revenue
Total, average and marginal revenue and their relationship
Producer’s equilibrium with the help of mc and mr
Forms of market and price determination Forms of market
Perfect competition
Monopolistic competition
Their meaning and features
Price determination under perfect competition
Equilibrium price
Effects of shifts in demand and supply
Simple applications of tools of demand and supply curves The teachers can be given the flexibility to choose the issues
Floors and ceilings and food availability decline theory
National income and related aggregates — basic concepts and measurement Meaning of macroeconomics
Circular flow of income
Concepts of gdp, gnp, ndp, nnp
National disposable income
Private income
Personal income and personal disposable income
Measurement of national income
Value added method
Income method and expenditure method
Determination of income and employment Aggregate demand, aggregate supply and their components
Propensity to consume and propensity to save
Meaning of involuntary unemployment and full employment
Determination of income and employment
Two sector model
Concept of investment multiplier and its working
Problems of excess and deficient demand
Measures to correct excess and deficient demand
Availability of credit
Change in government spending
Money and banking Meaning of money
Evolution and functions
Meaning and functions of central bank
Meaning and functions of commercial banks
Recent significant reforms and issues in indian banking system
Privatisation and modernisation
Government budget and the economy Government budget meaning and its components
Objectives of government budget
Classification of receipts
Revenue and capital
Classification of expenditure
Plan and non-plan
Developmental and non-developmental
Balanced budget
Surplus budget and deficit budget
Meaning and implications
Revenue deficit
Fiscal deficit and primary deficit
Measures to contain different deficits
Meaning and implications of downsizing the role of government
Balance of payments Meaning of foreign exchange rate
Merits and demerits
Determination through demand and supply
Meaning and components of balance of payments accounts
A brief analysis about recent exchange rate issues
Structure of indian society Introducing indian society
Class and Community
Demographic structure
Rural-urban linkages and divisions
Social institutions - continuity and change Family and Kinship
The Caste System
Tribal society
The market as a social institution
Social inequality and exclusion Caste Prejudice
Scheduled Castes and Other Backward Classes
Marginalisation of tribal communities
The struggle for women’s equality
The protection of religious minorities
Caring for the differently abled
The challenges of unity in diversity Problems of
Casteism and patriarchy
Role of the state in a plural and unequal society
What we share
Process of social change in india Process of structural change
Process of cultural change
Social Reform Movements and Laws
Social change and the polity The Constitution as an instrument of Social Change
Parties, pressure groups and democratic politics
Panchayati Raj and the Challenges of Social Transformation
Social change and the economy Land reforms, the green revolution and agrarian society
From planned industrialisation to liberalisation
Changes in the class structure
New arenas of social change Media and social change
Globalisation and social change
Social Movements Class-based movements
Caste-based movements
Dalit movement
Backward Castes
Trends in Upper Caste Responses
Women’s Movements in Independent India
Tribal Movements
Environmental Movements
Electrostatics Electric charges and their conservation
Coulomb’s law
Force between two point charges
Forces between multiple charges
Superposition principle and continuous charge distribution
Electric fIeld
Electric field due to a point charge
Electric field lines
Electric dipole
Electric field due to a dipole
Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field
Electric flux
Statement of Gauss’s Theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire
Uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell
Electric potential
Potential difference
Electric potential due to a point charge
A dipole and system of charges
Equipotential surfaces
Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipoles in an electrostatic field
Conductors and insulators
Free charges and bound charges inside a conductor
Dielectrics and electric polarisation
Capacitors and Capacitance
Combination of capacitors in series and in parallel
Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates
Energy stored in a Capacitor
Van de Graaff generator
Current Electricity Electric current
Flow of Electric charges in a Metallic Conductor
Drift velocity and mobility and their relation with electric current
Ohm’s law
Electrical resistance
V-i characteristics
Electrical energy and power
Electrical Resistivity and Conductivity
Carbon resistors
Colour code for carbon resistors
Series and parallel combinations of resistors
Temperature dependence of resistance
Internal Resistance of a cell
Potential difference and emf of a cell
Combination of cells in series and in parallel
Kirchhoff ’s laws and simple applications
Wheatstone bridge
Metre bridge
Principle and applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells
Measurement of internal resistance of a cell
Magnetic effects of current and magnetism Concept of Magnetic Field
Oersted’s Experiment
Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop
Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire
Straight and toroidal solenoids
Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields
Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field
Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors
Definition of Ampere
Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field
Moving coil galvanometer
Its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment
Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron
Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole along its axis and perpendicular to its axis
Torque on a magnetic dipole in a uniform magnetic field
Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid
Magnetic field lines
Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements
Para-, dia- and ferro-magnetic substances with examples
Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths
Permanent Magnets
Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents Electromagnetic induction
Faraday’s law
Induced emf and current
Lenz’s Law
Eddy currents
Self and mutual inductance
Need for Displacement Current
Alternating currents
Peak and rms value of alternating current or voltage
Reactance and impedance
Lc oscillations
LCR series circuit
Power in AC circuits
Wattless current
AC generator and transformer
Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics
Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves
Electromagnetic spectrum including elementary facts about their uses
Optics Reflection of Light
Spherical Mirrors
Mirror formula
Refraction of light
Total internal reflection and its applications
Optical fibres
Refraction at Spherical Surfaces
Thin lens formula
Lensmaker’s formula
Power of a Lens
Combination of thin lenses in contact
Refraction and Dispersion of light through a prism
Scattering of light
Blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset
Optical Instruments
Human Eye
Image Formation and Accommodation
Correction of eye defects using lenses
Microscopes and astronomical telescopes and their magnifying powers
Wave optics
Wavefront and Huygens’ principle
Reflection and Refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts
Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle
Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width
Coherent sources and sustained interference of light
Diffraction due to a single slit
Width of central maximum
Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes
Plane polarised light
Brewster’s law
Uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids
Dual Nature of Matter and radiation Photoelectric effect
Hertz and Lenard’s observations
Einstein’s photoelectric equation
Particle nature of light
Matter waves
Wave nature of particles
De Broglie relation
Davisson-Germer experiment
Atoms and Nuclei Alpha
Particle scattering experiment
Rutherford’s model of atom
Bohr model
Energy levels
Hydrogen spectrum
Composition and size of nucleus
Atomic masses
Alpha, beta and gamma particles or rays and their properties
Radioactive decay law
Mass-energy relation
Mass defect
Binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number
Nuclear fission and fusion
Electronic Devices Semiconductors
Semiconductor diode
I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias
Diode as a rectifier
I-V characteristics of LED
Solar cell and Zener diode
Zener diode as a voltage regulator
Junction transistor
Transistor action
Characteristics of a Transistor
Transistor as an amplifier and oscillator
Logic gates
Transistor as a switch
Communication systems Elements of a communication system
Bandwidth of signals
Bandwidth of Transmission medium
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation
Need for modulation
Production and detection of an amplitude-modulated wave
Psychology and self
Variations in Psychological Attributes The unit aims at studying how people differ with respect to their various psychological attributes
Individual Differences in Human Functioning
Assessment of Psychological Attributes
Individual Differences in Intelligence
Theories of Intelligence
Culture and Intelligence
Special Abilities
Nature and measurement
Emotional Intelligence
Self and personality This unit focuses on the study of self and personality in the context of different approaches in an effort to appraise the person
The assessment of personality will also be discussed
Concepts of
Culture and Self
Concept of Personality
Major approaches
Type and trait
Assessment of Personality
Self-report measures
Behavioural analysis and projective measures
Meeting life challenges This unit deals with the nature of stress and how responses to stress depend on an individual’s appraisal of stressors
Strategies to cope with stress will also be dealt with
Types and Sources of Stress
Effects on psychological functioning and health
Coping with Stress
Promoting positive health and well-being
Psychological disorders This unit discusses the concepts of normality and abnormality and the major psychological disorders
Concepts of abnormality and psychological Disorders
Classification of disorders
Factors Underlying Abnormal Behaviour
Major Psychological Disorders
Developmental and behavioural
Substance use related
Therapeutic approaches The unit discusses the goals
Techniques and effectiveness of different approaches to treat psychological disorders
Nature and process of therapy
Therapeutic relationship
Types of therapies
Behaviour and bio-medical
Alternative therapie
Yoga and meditation
Rehabilitation of mentally ill
Psychology and society
Attitude and social cognition This unit focuses on formation and change of attitudes
Cultural influences on attributional tendencies and conditions influencing pro-social behaviour
Explaining Social Behaviour
Impression formation and explaining behaviour of others through attributions
Social Cognition
Schemas and Stereotypes
Nature and Components of Attitudes
Attitude Formation and Change
Behaviour in the Presence of Others
Pro-social Behaviour
Prejudice and Discrimination
Strategies for Handling Prejudice
Social influence and group processes The unit deals with the concept of group
Its functions and the dynamics of social influence on conformity
Obedience and compliance
Different conflict resolution strategies will also be discussed
Cooperation and Competition
Nature and Formation of Groups
Types of groups
Social Identity
Influence of Group on Individual Behaviour
Inter-group conflict
Conflict Resolution Strategies
Psychology and life The unit focuses on the application of psychological understanding to some important social issues
Human-environment relationship
Environmental Effects on Human Behaviour
Natural Disasters
Promoting pro-environmental behaviour
Psychology and Social Concerns
Violence and peace
Discrimination and poverty
Impact of Television on Behaviour
Developing Psychological Skills The unit deals with some effective psychological and interpersonal skills for facilitating personal social development
Effective psychological skills
Observational Skills
Interviewing skills
Testing skills
Counselling Skills
Positive regard
Communication Skills
Principles and functions of management
Nature and significance of management Concept of management
Nature of management
Management as
Levels of Management
Middle supervisory are
Management functions
Directing and Controlling
Nature and importance of coordination
Principles of management Principles of management and its meaning, nature and significance
Fayol’s principles of management
Taylor’s Scientific management
Principles and Techniques
Business environment Meaning and importance of business environment
Dimensions of business environment
Political and Legal
Economic environment in india
Impact of government policy changes on business and industry with special reference to adoption of the policies of liberalization privatization and globalisation
Planning Meaning of planning
Importance and limitations
Planning process
Types of plans
Organising Meaning and importance
Steps in the process of organising
Structure of organization
Functional and divisional
Formal and informal organisation
Meaning, elements and importance
Difference between delegation and decentralisation
Staffing Meaning, need and importance of staffing
Staffing as a part of human resources management
Steps in staffing process
Meaning and sources of recruitment
Meaning and process of selection
Meaning of training and development
On the job and off the job methods of training
Directing Meaning of directing
Importance and principles
Elements of direction
Meaning and importance of supervision
Meaning and importance of motivation
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Financial and non-financial incentives
Meaning of leadership and its importance
Qualities of a good leader
Meaning and importance of communication
Formal and Informal communication
Barriers to Effective Communication
Controlling Meaning and importance
Relationship between planning and controlling
Steps in the process of control.
Techniques of controlling
Business finance and marketing
Business finance Meaning of business finance
Objectives of financial management
Meaning and importance of financial planning
Meaning and factors of capital structure
Fixed and Working Capital
Meaning and factors affecting their requirements
Financial markets Concept of financial market
Money market
Nature instruments
Capital market
Nature and types
Primary and secondary market
Distinction between capital market and money market
Stock Exchange
Trading procedure
Objectives and functions of securities and exchange board of india
Marketing Meaning of marketing
Functions and role
Distinction between marketing and selling
Concept and elements of marketing mix
Nature of product
Labeling and packaging
Meaning and role of physical distribution
Meaning and types of channels of distribution
Meaning and role of promotion
Promotion mix
Role of advertising and personal selling
Objections to advertising
Factors influencing pricing
Consumer protection Importance of consumer protection
Consumer rights
Consumer responsibilities
Ways and means of consumer protection
Consumer awareness and legal redressal with special reference to consumer protection act
Role of consumer organizations and ngos
Entrepreneurship development Concept
Functions and need
Entrepreneurship characteristics and competencies
Process of entrepreneurship development
Entrepreneurial values
Attitudes and motivation
Meaning and concept

JAC 12th Board 2019 Preparation Tips


Preparation tips for JAC class 12th exam 2019 are personally tried and tested methods used by exam experts, shared with you so that you can plan your studies accordingly. It is very important to study efficiently and not waste a large amount of time on topics which will not be that important, comparatively. Here are some preparation tips for JAC class 12th exam 2019:

1) Know the exam pattern: You must go through the exam pattern and the syllabus in it's complete entirety before starting to prepare so that you can plan your time accordingly.

2) Give discipline to your studies: Giving a set amount of time to topics makes you prepare for them efficiently. Divide topics according to the time management and weightage.

3) Step out of comfort zone: Your school textbooks are your known territories. You have been through them quite often already. It's time to step up your game and go into more advanced topics.

4) Make notes and flashcards: Bulky formulas and equations require constant revision. Opening the textbooks can be a big hassle and then looking for the formulas there more so. Thus, make flashcards and notes to facilitate your revision.

5) Eat healthy, stay healthy: Mucking up your health can be fatal at this point of life. You might have to wait another year to pass 12th grade. So, remember and take care of your health. Eat well and exercise to be healthy mentally and physically.

Exam pattern and syllabus are much needed in properly planned preparation of any exam. Exam pattern and syllabus guide student in planning the studies according to the weightage of subjects/topics. Exam pattern for JAC class 12th exam 2019 is:

SubjectNumber of questionsFull marksMinimum pass marksTime allowed
Political Science35100-3
Business Mathematics31100-3

JAC 12th Board 2019 Mock Test

Preparation for JAC class 12th exam 2019 needs sitting down and analyzing where you might make a mistake. You must ask yourself where you need more practice? and where you can be better? To achieve this, it is highly advised that you practice more and more without getting bored. This is where sample papers and mock tests come in . Through sample papers, you can derive various needful information like exam pattern, syllabus, time management, weightage etc. for JAC class 12th exam 2019. When you practice from sample papers, you get confident for the final exam too. Practicing from sample papers makes you less susceptible to the anxiety of sitting in a paper.

JAC 12th Board 2019 Admit Card

Admit card for JAC class 12th 2019 exam is to be produced at the time of the exam or the candidate will not be allowed to sit for the exam. JAC class 12th 2019 admit card will be provided sometime before the day of the exam. Jharkhand board 12th admit card will contain details about the candidate such as the name and enrollment number which is needed at the time of the result.

Documents Required at Exam

  • School ID Card
  • Admit Card

JAC 12th Board 2019 Result

Result for JAC class 12th exam 2019 will have name of student, enrollment number, marks obtained, percentage and qualifying status etc. There are two ways to check the JAC 12th exam 2019 result:

Through SMS

To get your result through SMS, send a text message ‘RESULT (space) JAC12 (space) Roll Code (space) Roll no.’ to the specified number. 

Candidates can check the step-by-step process to download the result of class 12 below: 

Step 1: Get your JAC result 2019 for class 12 by going on the official website of the Jharkhand Academic Board. 

Step 2: You reach a space where you will have to select there stream (Arts/ Science/ Commerce). 

Step 3: Enter your enrollment code, enrollment number and date of birth. 

Step 4: Submit the form and you see your JAC 12th result on screen. 

Step 5: Save the result and also take a printout for future reference.

Jharkhand Academic Council issues original mark sheets to candidates who qualify in the exam after a month of online declaration of result.

Qualifying Marks Trend

Year Category Cutoff
2019 General 33
OBC 33
SC 33
ST 33

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