NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 12 biotechnology and its applications: Through biotechnology, human produces several products by using microbes, plant, animals and their metabolic machinery. In the solutions of NCERT for class 12 biology chapter 12 biotechnology and its applications, you will get all the questions related to the different uses and applications of biotechnology in the real world. You will learn that recombinant DNA technology (RDT) has made it possible for us to engineer on a molecular basis with the help of microbes, plants, and animals such that they can have novel capabilities. An important topic which you will study in this chapter is GMOs that is Genetically Modified Organisms which have been created by using methods other than any natural methods, only to transfer one or more genes from one organism to another. In NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 12 biotechnology and its applications, you will get questions from topics which include, therapeutics, diagnostics, (GMCs) genetically modified crops for agriculture, processed food, bioremediation and other waste management. If you are looking for the answers of any other class from 6-12, then NCERT solutions are there for you as it's the easiest way to get all the solutions of NCERT.
Three critical research areas of biotechnology which you should know for the solutions of NCERT for class 12 biology chapter 12 biotechnology and its applications are given below:
(i) Providing the best catalyst in the form of the improved organism usually a microbe or pure enzyme
(ii) Creating optimal conditions through engineering for a catalyst to act, and
(iii) Downstream processing technologies to purify the protein/organic compound.
Important topics of NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 12 biotechnology and its applications:
12.1 Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture
12.2 Biotechnological Applications in Medicine
12.2.1 Genetically Engineered Insulin
12.2.2 Gene Therapy
12.2.3 Molecular Diagnosis
12.3 Transgenic Animals
12.4 Ethical Issues
In NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 12 biotechnology and its applications, you will also get answers to such questions which has been asked from the interesting topic that is Gene therapy. This chapter of NCERT will tell you that gene therapy is the insertion or injection of genes into an individual’s cells and tissues to treat a kind of diseases, like hereditary diseases. It can be performed by replacing a defective mutant allele with a functional targeted gene or allele which involves gene amplification. To know more about this processer, you have to go through the chapter.
NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 12 biotechnology and its applications: Solved Exercise Questions
Q2. What are transgenic bacteria? Illustrate using any one example.
Transgenic bacteria are the bacteria whose genes have been manipulated by transferring foreign genes into its genome through recombinant DNA technology. For example, transgenic E.coli was developed by introducing in it, two DNA sequences of A and B chains of human insulin in order to produce insulin to treat diabetic patients.
Q3. Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of production of genetically modified crops.
GM crops are genetically modified crops that can be made by transferring desirable characteristics in them. The main advantage of GM crops is that they are highly productive and they yield an increased amount of produce. The other advantages of the production of genetically modified crops in order to increase the yield are as follows:
1. GM crops can be developed for increasing the nutritional quality of crop products. For example golden rice with enhanced vitamin, A content is a GM crop.
2. Many GM crops are developed to have insect pest resistance, thus, decreasing our dependence on chemical-based insecticides/pesticides.
3. GM crops are made to be highly tolerant of environmental conditions.
4. Gm crops are highly tolerant to abiotic conditions
5. GM Crops minimises post-harvesting losses.
GM crops possess some disadvantages also. The presence of a transgene in commercial crops endangers wild species. The gene for Bt toxin expressed in pollen endangers pollinators such as honeybees. These crops supply allergens and transfer antibiotic resistance markers. They are damaging to the genetic environment.
NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 12 biotechnology and its applications:
Q4. What are Cry proteins? Name an organism that produces it. How has man exploited this protein to his benefit?
Cry proteins are toxin protein encoded by cry genes. These are produced by a bacteria named Bacillus thuringiensis which itself remain safe from cry toxins b y having methylated DNA. Cry proteins act as insecticides as they are toxic to insects. This property of Cry proteins has been exploited in producing genetically modified crops such as Bt cotton, Bt brinjal etc. These crops are resistant to insects of order Lepidoptera.
Q5. What is gene therapy? Illustrate using the example of adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency.
Gene therapy refers to a collection of methods and technologies allowing correction or replacement of a defective or dysfunctional gene. While correcting, a normal gene is transferred into the individual's embryo to replace and perform the function of the original defective gene. One well-established example of gene therapy is ADA deficiency. This is caused by the deletion of a gene encoding for enzyme adenosine deaminase. The gene therapy for ADA deficiency was carried out in a 4-year-old patient by the following method:
1. The lymphocytes of a patient were grown in a culture in vitro.
2. A functional ADA cDNA was introduced in these lymphocytes using a retroviral vector.
3. The transformed lymphocytes were introduced back into the blood of the patient.
4. The patient is regularly infused with transformed lymphocytes
5. For a permanent cure of ADA deficiency, a gene isolated from bone marrow cell is introduced in the patient in the early stage.
Q8. Find out from internet what is golden rice.
Golden rice is a variety of rice crop, genetically engineered to synthesise beta carotene which is a precursor of vitamin A. The normal rice produces beta carotene but in leaves, to increase the production of vitamin A, beta carotene should be synthesised in the endosperm. Golden rice was developed by transferring two beta-carotene biosynthesis genes into the rice genome. These genes include psy (phytoene synthase) from a plant named Narcissus pseudonarcissus (daffodil) and crtI (phytoene desaturase) from the soil bacterium Erwinia uredovora. These genes were under endosperm-specific promoter so that they will show expression in the endosperm.
NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 12 biotechnology and its applications:
Q9. Does our blood have proteases and nucleases?
Proteases and nucleases are two enzymes that catalyse the hydrolysis of proteins and nucleic acids respectively. These enzymes are not found in blood, instead, blood contains protease inhibitors protecting the proteins being broken down. Similarly, nucleases are also absent in blood.
Q10. Consult internet and find out how to make orally active protein pharmaceutical. What is the major problem to be encountered?
Orally active protein pharmaceuticals contain biologically active proteins, peptides etc. These are taken into the body by oral route in various formulations. The production of these protein pharmaceuticals involves encapsulation of proteins or peptides in liposomes using penetration enhancers. These proteins or peptides are used for the treatment of diseases and they can also be used as vaccines.
The major problem encountered in the administration of these pharmaceuticals is that they are ingested orally, and digested by the proteases present in the stomach before showing results. This is why such pharmaceuticals are directly ingested into the target site.
After going through the NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 12 biotechnology and its applications, you must be able to understand all the answers of the questions mentioned in the above.
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- You will get all the answers to this chapter and it will help you to score good marks in the exam.
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- It will also boost your knowledge and interest in biology.
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