NCERT exemplar Class 11 Biology solutions chapter 7 deals with the anatomy and morphology in animals to show their organisation and functioning. It also contains detailed diagrams of the same for a better and clearer understanding of the students. Class 11 Biology NCERT exemplar solutions chapter 7 describes the four major issues in the animal body and their placement, along with their core functions. The three main animals that it has set examples of along with fairly detailed diagrams are Earthworm, Cockroach and Frogs. Learn more about NCERT exemplar Class 11 Biology solutions chapter 7 in this article.
Also, check NCERT Solutions for Class 11.
Which one of the following is not a connective tissue?
The answer is the option (c) Muscles
Explanation: - Muscles do not possess the characteristics of connective tissue and hence does not under that category. However, the other three are connective tissues
a. Bone b. Blood c. Muscles d. Cartilage
The clitellum is a distinct part of the body of the earthworm, it is found in?
a. Segment 15-16-17
b. Segment 14-15-16
c. Segment 13-14-15
d. Segment 12-13-14
The answer is the option (b) segment 14-15-16
Explanation: - The clitellum is present at a distance of 2 cm or approximately 079 inch from the anterior end of the earthworm body. Segments 14-15-16 are also present at the same distance.
Which one of the following statements is true for cockroaches?
a. Anal styles are not present in females
b. Cockroaches are ureotelic
c. Their larval stage is known as caterpillar
d. The total number of ovarioles in a single ovary is ten
The answer is the option (a) anal styles are not present in females
Explanation: - Anal systems in female cockroaches are not present. However, the other three options are false since there is a total of 8 ovarioles in every ovary, the larval stage is not present, and cockroaches are uricotelic.
Match the following and choose the correct option
- Stratified epithelium
- Hyaline cartilage
- Fat storage
- Fluid connective tissue
- Adipose tissue
a-iii, b-i, c-iv, d-ii
B. a-i, b-iii, c-ii, d-iv
C. a-iv, b-ii, c-i, d-iii
D. a-iv, b-iii, c-i, d-ii
The answer is the option (d), a-iv, b-iii, c-I, d-ii
Explanation: - Stratified epithelium is found in the skin, hyaline cartilage is present in the nose, the fluid connective tissue is found in the blood whereas the adipose tissue performs the function of fat storage
Match the following and choose the correct answer
- Direct development
- Larval form absent
- Blood gland in earthworm
- Sense of chemical substances
- Produce blood cells and haemoglobin
- Testis and ovary in the same animal
a. A-iv, B-iii, C-I, D-ii
b. A-ii, B-i, C-iv, D- iii
c. A-iii, B-iv, C-i, D- ii
d. A- i, B-iii, C-ii, D-iv
The answer is the option (d) A-i, B-iii, C-ii, D-iv
Explanation: - When the sexes are found on the same organism, the condition is called hermaphrodite. When the young individual resembles the adult organism, the process is known as direct development. Also, the blood glands in an earthworm produce haemoglobin and blood cells. The chemoreceptors have a sense of chemical substances.
Match the following with references to cockroach and choose the correct option
- The external genitalia
- Chain of developing ova
- Bundles of sperm
- Opening of the ejaculatory duct
a. A-iii, B-i, C-ii, D-iv
b. A-ii, B-iv, C-iii, D-i
c. A-iv, B-iii, C-I, D-ii
d. A-ii, B-iii, C-iv, D-i
The answer is the option (c) A-iv, B-iii, C-i, D-ii
Explanation: - The opening of the ejaculatory duct is called the gonopore, whereas bundle of sperms is called a spermatophore. Ovarioles consist of chains of the maturing ova and every ovary consist of 8 ovarioles. The term ‘phallomere’ comes from the word phallus.
Match the following and choose the correct answer
- Sensory papillae
- Medulla oblongata
- Foramen magnum
- Cranial nerves
- Peripheral nervous system
- Nasal epithelium
a. A-iii, B-iv, C-i, D-ii
b. A-iv, B-iii, C-ii, D-i
c. A-i, B-iv, C-iii, D-ii
d. A-iv, B-ii, C-iii, D-i
Answer- The answer is the option (d) A-iv, B-ii, C-iii, D-i
Explanation: - Olfactory receptors are located in the nasal epithelium, which helps in getting the sense of smell. The medulla oblongata passes through the foramen
magnum. The peripheral nervous system is composed of the cranial nerves. Sensory papillae help in sensing the touch.
What is the difference between cutaneous and pulmonary respiration?
During cutaneous respiration, breathing occurs by diffusion through the skin pores. However, in pulmonary respiration, breathing takes place through the lungs. In frogs, cutaneous respiration occurs underwater. Pulmonary respiration occurs when a frog is on land.
Frogs are beneficial for mankind. Justify the statement.
Frogs are beneficial for mankind. This statement can be justified by the following reasons.
- Frogs help in preventing damage done to crops and fields by eating the pests and insects.
- Frogs play a vital role in the ecological and form a key link in the food chain. Due to this factor, they are essential in the ecosystem.
Moreover, they are also used as food items in certain countries.
How does a gap junction facilitate intercellular communication?
Gap junction facilitates intercellular communication. These junctions are present in the form of fine hydrophilic channels between adjacent cells. The gap junctions are produced due to the help of protein cylinders called Connexus. The junctions allow signal molecules to pass from one cell to another. Thus, ensuring intercellular communication. This movement of cells is controlled by the Ca2+
concentration and the pH levels.
Why are blood, bone and cartilage called connective tissues?
The blood, bones and cartilages are referred to as connective tissues. This is major because they form a structural framework of the bodies and connect different body parts from one another. Moreover,these parts are of mesodermal origin.
Why are neurons called excitable cells? Mention special features of the membrane of the neurons.
The neurons are called excitable cells because their membranes are found in a polarised state. Due to this state, ions interact with the membrane and change the state of polarisation. Due to this, the neurons become excited. The ability to polarise and depolarise help in the transmission of a nerve impulse. Therefore, the neurons are often termed as excitable cells.
Why earthworm is called the friend of a farmer?
Earthworms are referred to as the friends of farmers. This is mainly because they make the topsoil loose and turn it into granular form. This, in turn, makes the soil permeable to the air molecules and accelerates the growth of crops and plants. The soil fertility is improved due to the growth of these creatures.
Correct the wrong statement among the following.
a. In earthworm, a single male genital pore is present.
b. Typhlosole is the part of the intestine of earthworm
c. Muscular layer in the body wall of earthworm is made up of only circular muscles
d. Setae help in locomotion of earthworm.
b and d are the correct statements.
a. In an earthworm, paired male genital pores are located at the 18 th segment of the body of the earthworm.
b. It is a correct statement.
c. The muscular layer in the body wall of the earthworm is made up of an outer layer of circular muscle and an inner longitudinal muscle layer.
d. It is a correct statement
Complete the following statement-
a. In cockroach blood vessels open into spaces called_______
b. Malpighian tubules help in removal of _________
c. In cockroach grinding of food particles is performed by________
d. Hind gut of cockroach is differentiated into_______
b. Nitrogenous waste
d. Ileum, colon and rectum
Mention the special features of the eye in a cockroach.
The special features of the eye of a cockroach are listed below:
- The cockroach eye is composed of multiple photoreceptor units.These units are called ommatidia.
- Every ommatidium constructs an image of the object seen.Therefore, all the ommatidia together form a mosaic of images of the object seen.
- These compound eyes have a large view angle and can help detect small activities by a single glance.
- However, the resolution of the images formed is not of good quality as compared to a simple eye.
What is special about tissue present in the heart?
The special tissues [resent in the heart are:
- The heart tissues are auto-excitatory in nature and therefore possess their own mechanism to initiate contraction.
- These muscles are striated and show a branched structure
- The muscles depict a continuous cycle of systole and diastole
Long Answer Type Questions
Classify and describe epithelial tissue on the basis of structural modifications of cells.
Epithelial tissues are categorised into three distinct types. This categorisation is done on the basis of structural modification of cells and organisation.
- Squamous epithelium
These tissues are composed of a single thin layer of flattened cells. The cells of these tissues possess irregular boundaries and are usually found in the walls of
blood vessels and air sacs of lungs. The thin of this tissue ensures that diffusion can be facilitated across the boundary.
- Cuboidal epithelium
These tissues consist of a single layer of cuboidal cells. The tissue is usually found in the ducts of various glands and in the nephrons. The tissue performs the key function of secretion and absorption in the body.
- Columnar epithelium
These tissues are composed of a single layer of slender and long cells. The nucleus is usually created at the base of the cells. Moreover, microvilli are also
located at the top portion of these slender cells. The columnar epithelium is commonly found in the stomach lining and the intestine. The key function of this
tissue is to perform secretion and absorption activities.
- Ciliated epithelium
These tissues are commonly located on the cuboidal and columnar epithelium tissues. The key function performed by these tissues is to provide movement of
Write down the common features of the connective tissue. On the basis of structure and function, differentiate between bones and cartilages.
The features commonly found in connective tissue are listed below.
- They help in constructing the structural framework of the body.
- They help in connecting different parts of the body
- Connective tissues are of mesodermal origin.
Bones and cartilages are differentiated below.
- The intercellular material of bones is hard and non-pliable
|The intercellular material of cartilages is solid and pliable|
- Bones form the major part of the skeletal system
|Cartilages only make a minuscule part of the skeletal system|
- The bone marrow found in the bones is the site for blood cell production
|Cell production does not take place in cartilages|
- The spaces between the bones are the site for osteocytes. These spaces are called lacunae
|The spaces between cartilages are the site for chondrocytes secreted by the matrix|
- Bone cells are known as osteocytes
|Cartilage cells are known as chondrocytes|
Comment upon the gametic exchange in earthworm during mating.
The gametic exchange in earthworm during mating is discussed below.
- Earthworm posses both the sexes in an individual. Therefore, they are known as hermaphrodite animals.
- The ventro-lateral side 18th
segment has a pair of the male genital pore.
- Moreover, the 6th
segment have four pair of spermathecae
- The spermatozoa get deposited in the spermathecae during the process of copulation.
- Mating occurs between two earthworm bodies. The bodies get juxtapose so that the male genital pore of one earthworm is in the opposite direction to the spermathecae of the other earthworm.
- The exchange of spermatozoa occurs between two earthworms in the form of pockets called spermatophores.
- The mature egg cell and the sperm get deposited in the cocoons which are made by the fluid secreted by the clitellum gland
- The cocoons are then deposited in the ground, and further fertilisation occurs.
Explain the digestive system of cockroach with the help of a labelled sketch.
Answer- The digestive system of cockroaches is explained below.
- The alimentary canal of the cockroach is distinguished into three-part namely the foregut, midgut and the hindgut.
The foregut consists of the cockroach oesophagus, gizzard, crop and the pharynx.
- Between the foregut and hindgut, the hepatic caeca are located
- The Malpighian tubules are located between the midgut and the hindgut
- The hindgut is composed of the ileum, colon and the rectum
- The short tubular structure at which the mouth opens is called the pharynx.
The pharynx further opens into another narrow tube called the oesophagus.
- The crop is a pouch in which the oesophagus opens. The crop stores the food material for a certain duration
- The crop opens into a circular muscle called the gizzard, which helps in food grinding.
- The hepatic caeca act as the liver of the cockroach body and help in the process of digestion
- The hindgut further opens into the rectum.
NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Biology Solutions Chapter Wise:
More About NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 7 Structural Organization in Animals
In a section, it also talks about how tissues form organs and that in turn forms an organ system in multicellular organisms which thereby helps in the proper functioning of the body. The in-depth information about the organisation and functions of the tissues gives students useful knowledge about animals.
It is both useful and important for the students as it’ll help them to correct their own mistakes if any and also provides them with an insight into writing to the point answers and at the same time mention all the required points. It’ll also help them during their preparation for boards and other competitive exams that they might sit for.
NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Biology Chapter 7 Solutions Main Subtopics
Organ and Organ System
What will the students learn in NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Biology Chapter 7 Solutions?
NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Biology solutions chapter 7 makes understanding the topics much easier with their simple and concise explanations and diagrams to visualise what they are saying.
The NCERT exemplar solutions for Class 11 Biology chapter 7 provides students with information and related diagrams about the organisation of the tissues and its functions. They also discuss the surroundings, the environment they live in, the animals that are around and how their body carries out different activities in a coordinated and efficient manner.
Knowing about the animals in detail will help the students come up with vaccines for the treatment of the animals, later in life.
Important Topics of NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Biology Solutions Chapter 7 Structural Organization in Animals
- Class 11 Biology NCERT exemplar solutions chapter 7 has detailed that different kinds and classifications of animal tissues, organ and organ system of animals, their morphology, and anatomy are important topics which students should pay extra attention to.
- Studying the diagrams about the organisation of the tissues and its functions along with the surroundings, the environment they live in, the animals that are found there and how their body carries out different activities in a coordinated and efficient manner is a very important topic for students to focus on.
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