NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Biology Solutions Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination and Integration
The NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Biology solutions chapter 22 explores chemical coordination and integration in living beings. The students will get to learn about the role of hormones, their types, and what is its importance in the functioning of the human body, how different glands/organs produce different hormones for a specific activity, and more through NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Biology chapter 22 solutions. The chemicals, also known as hormones, are solely responsible for the chemical coordination. The endocrine system is composed of the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, parathyroid, thymus, and gonads (testis and ovary). Some other organs in the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, heart, etc. are also responsible for the production and secretion of hormones. Questions related to these topics are explained in NCERT Exemplar solutions for Class 11 Biology chapter 12. Students can also use the NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Biology chapter 22 solutions PDF Download and can refer offline.
Also, read NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology
Multiple Choice Questions:
Select the right match of the endocrine gland and their hormones amongst the options given below.
D. Adrenal Medulla
(a) A – (iv), B – (ii), C – (iii), D – (i)
(b) A – (ii), B – (iv), C – (i), D – (iii)
(c) A – (iv), B – (ii), C – (i), D – (iii)
(d) A – (ii), B – (iv), C – (iii), D – (i)
(d) A – (ii), B – (iv), C – (iii), D – (i) is the correct option
Which of the following hormones is not secreted by anterior pituitary gland?
(a) Growth hormone
(b) Follicle stimulating hormone
(d) Adrenocorticotropic hormone
The answer is the option (c) Oxytocin.
Explanation: Oxytocin is produced by the posterior pituitary gland.
Mary is about to face an interview. But during the first five minutes before the interview she experiences sweating, increased rate of heartbeat, respiration etc. Which hormone is responsible for her restlessness?
(a) Estrogen and progesterone
(b) Oxytocin and vasopressin
(c) Adrenaline and noradrenaline
(d) Insulin and glucagon
Ans. The answer is the option (c) Adrenaline and noradrenaline.
Explanation: Adrenaline and noradrenaline are also called stress hormones and can be responsible for restlessness.
The steroid hormone responsible for balance of water and electrolytes in our body is
The answer is the option (d) Aldosterone.
Explanation: Aldosterone stimulates reabsorption of Na+ and water and excretion of K+ and phosphate ions; thus it is responsible for maintaining water balance and electrolytes in our bodies.
(a) Raising the blood sugar level
(b) Raising the blood calcium level
(c) Differentiation of T lymphocytes
(d) Decrease in RBC
The answer is the option (c) Differentiation of T lymphocytes.
In the mechanism of action of a protein hormone, one of the second messengers is
a. Cyclic AMP
The answer is the option (a) Cyclic AMP
Explanation: Hormones which react with membrane-bound receptors and generally do not enter the target cell, but creates second messengers (Cyclic AMP, IP3, Ca++, etc.)
Leydig cells produce a group of hormones called
The answer is the option (a) Androgens.
Corpus luteum secretes a hormone called
The answer is the option (b) Progesterone.
Cortisol is secreted from
The answer is the option (c) Adrenal
A hormone responsible for normal sleep-wake cycle is
The answer is the option (c) Melatonin.
Hormones are called chemical signals that stimulate specific target tissues.Which is the correct location of these receptors in case of protein hormones?
(a) Extracellular matrix
(c) Plasma membrane
The answer is the option (c) Plasma membrane.
Choose the correct option among the following:
Stimulates in muscle growth
Decrease in blood pressure
Decrease in liver glycogen content
Atrial natriuretic factor
(a) A—(ii), B—(i), C—(iii), D—(iv)
(b) A—(iv), B—(i)„ C—(iii), D—(ii)
(c) A—(i), B—(ii), C—(iii), D—(iv)
(d) A—(i), B—(iv), C—(ii), D—(iii)
The answer is the option (b) A—(iv), B—(i), C—(iii), D—(ii).
Which of the following do not play any role in calcium balance in the human body?
(a) Vitamin D
(b) Parathyroid hormone
The answer is the option (d) Thymosin.
Explanation: Thymosin is responsible for differentiation of T-lymphocyte in the body.
Which of the following organs in mammals does not consist of a central 'medullary' region surrounded by a cortical region?
The answer is the option (b) Liver.
Which of the following conditions is not linked to deficiency of thyroid hormone?
The answer is the option (d) Exophthalmos.
Explanation: Exophthalmos happens due to hyperthyroidism.
Very Short Answer Type Questions:
There are many endocrine glands in the human body. Name the gland which is absent in male and the one which is absent in females.
Ovaries are glands which are absent in males and testis is absent in females.
Which of the two adrenocortical layers, zona glomerulosa and zona reticularis lies outside enveloping the other?
The outermost layer is the Zona glomerulosa, and the innermost layer of the adrenal gland is the zona reticularis.
What is erythropoiesis? Which hormone stimulates it?
The process of formation of RBCs from the bone marrow is known as erythropoiesis. It is stimulated by the hormone called erythropoietin.
Name the only hormone secreted by pars intermedia of the pituitary gland.
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH) is the only hormone secreted by pars intermedia of the pituitary gland.
Name the endocrine gland that produces calcitonin and mention the role played by this hormone.
The thyroid gland produces calcitonin or thyrocalcitonin. Calcitonin hormone regulates blood calcium levels in the body.
Name the hormone that helps in cell-mediated immunity.
Thymosin is the hormone that helps in cell-mediated immunity.
What is the role of the second messenger in the mechanism of protein hormone action?
The Second messenger helps in regulating cell metabolism. The hormones which react with the membrane-bound receptors generally do not enter the cell. Instead of that, they create second messengers and in doing so, affect the functioning of the target cells.
State whether true or false:
(a) Gastrointestinal tract, kidney and heart also produce hormones.
(b) Pars distalis produces six trophic hormones.
(c) B-lymphocytes provide cell-mediated immunity.
(d) Insulin resistance results in a disease called diabetes mellitus.
A patient complains of constant thirst, excessive passing of urine and low blood pressure. When the doctor checked the patient's blood glucose and blood insulin level, the levels were found to be normal or slightly low. The doctor diagnosed the condition as diabetes insipidus. But he decided to measure one more hormone in the patient's blood. Which hormone does the doctor intend to measure?
The doctor intends to measure Vasopressin or Antidiuretic hormones because low levels of these hormones can cause excessive passing of urine and low blood pressure in humans.
Correct the following statements by replacing the term underlined.
(a) Insulin is a steroid hormone.
(b) TSH is secreted from the corpus luteum.
(c) Tetraiodothyronine is an emergency hormone.
(d) The pineal gland is located on the anterior part of the kidney.
(a) Insulin is a peptide hormone.
(b) TSH is secreted from anterior pituitary gland.
(c) Tetraiodothyronine is a maintenance hormone.
(d) The adrenal gland is located on the anterior part of the kidney.
Rearrange the following hormones in Column I so as to match with their chemical nature in Column II.
i) Amino acid derivative
(d) Growth hormone
The answer is the option (a) - (iii), (b) - (i), (c ) - (ii), (d) - (iv)
Short Answer Type Questions:
What is the role played by luteinizing hormones in males and females respectively?
Luteinizing hormones play the following roles: -
In Males: They help in stimulating the Leydig cell production of testosterone.
In Females: They help in stimulating the process of ovulation.
What is the role of the second messenger in hormone action?
Extracellular substances such as some hormones which do not cross the plasma membrane are called the first messenger. In cases like these, second messengers are produced so that they can enter the cell. Second messengers trigger various physiological changes in a cell. Hence, second messengers play the role of connecting the signals from first messengers.
On an educational trip to Uttaranchal, Ketki and her friends observed that many local people were having swollen necks. Please help Ketki and her friends to find out the solutions to the following questions.
(a) Which probable disease are these people suffering from?
(b) How is it caused?
(c) What effect does this condition have on pregnancy?
(a) The people are suffering from a health condition called the goitre.
(b) Goitre is caused by dietary iodine deficiency.
(c) If a pregnant woman is suffering from goitre, which is associated with hypothyroidism; it can have adverse effects on the foetus. Goitre causes defective development and maturation of the growing baby leading to stunted growth, mental retardation, abnormal skin and deaf-mutism.
George comes on a vacation to India from the US. The long journey disturbs his biological system, and he suffers from jet lag. What is the cause of his discomfort?
Body's biological clock follows a set pattern during the 24 hours called the circadian rhythm. If a person travels through different time zones through long hours of journey, his circadian rhythm gets troubled. As a result, the person suffers from jet lag.
This causes sleep disturbance, bowel habits, anorexia, etc.
Inflammatory responses can be controlled by a certain steroid. Name the steroid, the source from which it is obtained and also mention its other important functions.
Inflammatory responses are controlled by a steroid called cortisol. Cortisol hormone is secreted by the adrenal cortex. Cortisol is one of the many corticoids secreted by the adrenal gland. It also stimulates the RBC production and also influences or modulates a lot of changes that happen in the body in response to stress etc.
Old people have weak immune systems What could be the reason.
The thymus gland in the body does the job of secreting the hormone called thymosin which plays a big role in the differentiation of T-lymphocytes. T-lymphocytes are responsible for cell mediation for immune response. In old people, because of their age, their thymus gland starts to degenerate, which results in reduced production of thymosin. Thus, old people have weak immune systems.
What are the effects of hypothyroidism (observed during pregnancy) on the development and maturation of a growing baby?
If a pregnant woman is suffering from hypothyroidism; it can have adverse effects on the development and maturation of the foetus. Their foetus's growth can be stunted, which can result in an underweight newborn. The effects of hypothyroidism remain after birth and do not go away. The baby's brain may not develop, and they may show signs of mental retardation. The baby can also develop abnormal skin and deaf-mutism.
Mention the difference between hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.
Requires less than normal secretion of thyroid hormone.
Requires more than normal production of thyroid hormone.
Decreases metabolic rate in the body.
Increases metabolic rate.
It may happen because of iodine deficiency in the body.
It may happen because of the development of tumour or nodules in thyroid gland.
Symptoms are fatigue, dry hair, dry skin, muscle cramps, decreased menstrual flow, etc.
Symptoms are feeling hot, forgetfulness, sweating, increased heart rate, disturbed bowel movement, etc.
You have learnt that a characteristic feature of endocrine systems is the presence of feedback loops. By what is meant if hormone A stimulates gland 'X' to secrete hormone B, the production of 'A' could be modified when the level of B changes in our blood. An example is the relationship between hormones LH and estrogen (E2). An old woman exhibits the following features.
High levels of LH in blood but low levels of E2 in the blood. Another woman exhibits high level of LH in blood and also high level of E2 in the blood. Where lies the defect in both these women? Provide a suitable diagram to support the answer.
In the body, the level of LH in the blood is generally low before puberty, and it starts to increase during the reproductive phase. LH levels in the blood during the reproductive phase are dependent on the specific phase of the ovulation cycle that the woman is going through. When ovulation is about to happen, the LH level peaks, and so does the level of E2. This displays normal conditions.
But in the case of older women, LH level in the bodies is higher, and it goes along with the low levels of E2. Low level of E2 displays the end of the reproductive phase. It is known that menopause marks the end of the reproductive phase for the woman. After menopause, no or negligible oocytes are left in the ovary. Hence, LH is not being utilized the way it was during the reproductive phase. This explains the reason of the increased level of LH in blood in older women.
Long Answer Type Questions:
A milkman is very upset one morning as his cow refuses to give any milk. The milkman's wife gets the calf from the shed. On fondling by the calf, the cow gave sufficient milk. Describe the role of endocrine gland and the pathway associated with this response?
Ans. Milk secretion in mammals is provoked by the hormone known as oxytocin which works on positive feedback mechanisms.
(a) When the calf suckles on the cow's udder; it stimulates the nerve impulses.
(b) Nerve impulses in order to send signals to the hypothalamus, which starts producing oxytocin in the body.
(c) Therefore, Oxytocin results in the contraction of the smooth muscles around the alveoli (in the cow's udder) and hence milk is released.
Udder (suckling stimulus) Hypothalamus Posterior lobe of pituitary Oxytocin (in the blood) Udder (Smooth muscles) Milk flow.
A sample of urine was diagnosed to contain a high content of glucose and ketone bodies. Based on this observation, answer the following:
(a) Which endocrine gland and hormone is related to this condition?
(b) Name the cells on which this hormone acts.
(c) What is the condition called, and how can it be rectified?
(a) The pancreas is the endocrine gland and insulin is the hormone which is related to this condition.
(b) Insulin acts on hepatocytes and adipocytes.
(c) This condition is called diabetes. This can be controlled by changing some dietary habits, medications etc. In some cases, the patient may need to take insulin on a daily basis.
Calcium plays a very important role in the formation of bones. Elaborate the role of endocrine glands and hormones responsible for maintaining Calcium homeostasis.
The movement of calcium ions between the body fluids and cells is known as calcium homoeostasis. Calcium plays a critical role in different metabolic processes and is also an important part of the bones. Hence, to maintain the levels of calcium in body fluids, cells and bones are very highly important. Both the thyroid and parathyroid hormones play great roles in calcium homeostasis.
Illustrate the differences between the mechanism of action of a protein and a steroid hormone.
They correspond with the membrane-bound receptors.
They correspond with the intracellular receptors.
They give rise to a second messenger for further action.
They do not give rise to second messengers.
Effect of these hormones changes cellular metabolism.
Effect of these hormones changes gene expression or chromosome function.
Examples: insulin, glucagon, etc
Examples: cortisol, testosterone etc.
Hypothalamus is a super master endocrine gland. Elaborate.
Ans. The hypothalamus consists of many groups of neurosecretory cells which are called nuclei which produces hormones. These hormones control the synthesis and production of pituitary hormones. The hypothalamus produces two types of hormones, i.e. releasing hormones (that revivify secretion of pituitary hormones) and inhibiting hormones (which inhibits the secretion of pituitary hormones) The Pituitary gland produces the maximum number of hormones in the body, But many hormones secreted from the pituitary gland regulate the function of other endocrine glands in the body. In fact, all the other endocrine glands are controlled by the hormones which are produced by the pituitary gland. Thus, the pituitary gland is popularly known as the 'Master Gland' But the hormones secreted by hypothalamus regulates the production of hormones from the pituitary gland. Due to this, the hypothalamus can also be known as the 'Super Master Gland' of the body.
NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Biology Solutions Chapter 22 Main Sub-topics: -
- Endocrine Glands and Hormones,
- Human Endocrine System,
- Hormones of Heart, Kidney and Gastrointestinal Tract,
- Mechanisms of Hormone Action.
Check NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Other Subjects
NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Biology Solutions Chapter Wise
|Chapter 11 Transport in Plants|
NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Solutions
NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Biology Solutions Chapter 22-Important Topics
Class 11 Biology NCERT Exemplar solutions chapter 22 include details about Endocrine system in humans, endocrine organs and hormones, Hormones of the heart, kidney GI tract, the mechanism of hormone action, and its effects are important topics which students should pay extra attention to.
It is important to pay attention to every gland/organ in the male and female body, which secretes hormones that are essential for the proper functioning of every part of our bodies. Hormones are responsible for the growth & development, sexual development, reproduction, metabolism, simply they help the systems of our body to function smoothly, and this chapter is quite frequently asked in the exams.
Check Chapter-Wise Solutions of Questions Given in Book:
Also, Read NCERT Solution subject wise
- NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Maths
- NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Physics
- NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry
Must Read NCERT Notes subject wise
- NCERT Notes for Class 11 Maths
- NCERT Notes for Class 11 Physics
- NCERT Notes for Class 11 Chemistry
- NCERT Notes for Class 11 Biology
Also Check NCERT Books and NCERT Syllabus here
- NCERT Books Class 11 Biology
- NCERT Syllabus Class 11 Biology
- NCERT Books Class 11
- NCERT Syllabus Class 11
Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) - NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Biology Solutions Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination and Integration
Question: How to make use of these solutions?
One can use these Class 11 Biology NCERT Exemplar solutions chapter 22 to learn about the topics in detail and also use them to refer while solving questions before the exam.
Question: Which topics are included in the chapter?
The entire chapter covers the endocrine system of the human body, various hormones, glands, and hormonal action.
Question: Who has prepared these solutions?
These NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Biology solutions chapter 22 are prepared by our team of experts who have experience in subject matter for years.
Question: Who can benefit from these NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Biology Solutions Chapter 22 ?
Those students who are appearing for the entrance exam for higher education and those who want to score high in their final exams.
Sainik School Cut Off Marks 2023 Class 6 & 9 - Check AISSEE Ex...
Sainik School Cutoff Marks 2023 - National Testing Agency will...
Sainik School Result 2023 for Class 6 & 9 - Check AISSEE Merit...
Sainik school result 2023 Class 6 & 9 - National Testing Agenc...
Byju’s Scholarship Test Result 2023 - Check Class 10 to 12 res...
Byjus BNAT Scholarship Test Result 2023 - Byju Educational tec...
LIC Golden Jubilee Scholarship 2023 - How to Apply, Last Date,...
LIC Scholarship 2023 - Check here about Life Insurance Corpora...
Allen ASAT Scholarship Test Dates 2023 - Check Important Dates...
Allen ASAT Scholarship Test Dates 2023 - Allen Institute condu...
VMC NAT Scholarship Exam 2023 - Registration, Exam date, Eligi...
VMC Scholarship test Exam 2023 - Vidyamandir classes conducts ...
IMO Results 2022-23 (Released) - Check SOF IMO Level 1 result ...
IMO Results 2022-23 - Science Olympiad Foundation has released...
NSO Result 2022-23 - Check SOF NSO Result for Level 1 Here
NSO Result 2022-23 - Know the SOF NSO result 2022 date, websit...
IEO Result 2022-23 (Released)- Check SOF IEO result at sofworl...
IEO Result 2022-23 - Know where to check SOF IEO result 2022-2...
IMO Sample Papers 2022-23 - Download Previous Years IMO Sample...
IMO Sample Papers 2022-23 PDF - Silverzone Olympiad Foundation...