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    NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 10 The s-Block Elements

    Edited By Sumit Saini | Updated on Aug 22, 2022 09:02 AM IST

    NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 10 The s-Block Elements- In this NCERT book chapter, we will study the s-block elements of the periodic table. The s-block elements of the periodic table are those elements in which the last electron enters the outermost s-subshell (or s-orbital). Two electrons are the maximum capacity of ns energy subshell. In this NCERT chapter, there are 32 questions in the exercise.

    Also Read :

    You will get all the NCERT solutions from class 6 to 12 by clicking here. By referring to the NCERT solutions for class 11 , students can understand all the important concepts and practice questions well enough before their examination

    NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 10 The s-Block Elements - Exercise Questions

    Question 10.1 What are the common physical and chemical features of alkali metals ?

    Answer :

    Physical and chemical features of alkali metals-

    Physical features-

    • All the alkali metals are silvery white, soft and light metals. Because of the large size, these elements have a low density which increases down the group from Li to Cs. However, potassium is lighter than sodium .
    • The melting and boiling points of the alkali metals are low indicating weak metallic bonding due to the presence of only a single valence electron in them.
    • The alkali metals and their salts impart characteristic colour to an oxidizing flame.

    Chemical features-

    • Due to low ionisation enthalpy, they are highly reactive. As we move down the group reactive nature increases.
    • The alkali metals tarnish in dry air due to the formation of their oxides which in turn react with moisture to form hydroxides. They burn vigorously in oxygen forming oxides. Lithium forms monoxide, sodium forms peroxide, the other metals form superoxides. The superoxide O^{2-} ion is stable only in the presence of large cations such as K, Rb, Cs.
    • The alkali metals react with water to form hydroxide and dihydrogen.

    Question 10.2 Discuss the general characteristics and gradation in properties of alkaline earth metals

    Answer :

    The general characteristics and gradation in properties of alkaline earth metals-

    • General electronic configuration is [noble gas] ns^{2} .
    • Have two electrons to lose and attain their nearest noble gas configuration.
    • have smaller atomic and ionic radii than corresponding alkali metals in the same periods.
    • First IE is higher than those elements of group 1
    • electropositive nature increase down the group from Be to Ba.
    • they give a positive flame test by imparting different colours.(except Be and Mg)

    Chemical properties-

    • Be and Mg are inert to oxygen and water. this is because of the formation of a thin layer of oxide on their surface.(powdered Be give BeO and Be_{3}N_{2} .
    • React with halogens at high temperature to form halogen halides. [M+X_{2}\rightarrow MX_{2}] here M = alkaline metals and X = halogen elements
    • All alkaline metals react with hydrogen and form hydrides except for Beryllium
    • React with acids to form salts and produce dihydrogen gas. [M+2HCl\rightarrow MCl_{2}+H_{2}(g)]
    • Act as a reducing agent but not as powerful as alkali metals. Down the group reducing power decreases.
    • Also, dissolve in liquid ammonia and give the deep blue coloured solution. M + (x+y)NH_{3}\rightarrow [M(NH_{3})_{x}]^{2+}+2[e(NH_{3})_{y}]^{-}

    Question 10.3 Why are alkali metals not found in nature ?

    Answer :

    Electronic Configuration All the alkali metals have one valence electron, ns^{1} outside the noble gas core. The loosely held s electron in the outermost valence shell of these elements makes them the most electropositive metals. They readily lose an electron to give monovalent M+ ions. Hence they are never found in the free or native state in nature.

    Question 10.4 Find out the oxidation state of sodium in Na_{2}O_{2}

    Answer :

    Let suppose the oxidation state of Na is to be x.

    In the case of peroixide, the oxygen has -1 oxidation state.

    So, now

    \\2x+2(-1)=0\\ 2x = 2\\ x=1

    Question 10.5 Explain why is sodium less reactive than potassium

    Answer :

    As we know that in alkali metals, as we go down the group the atomic size increases and also the effective nuclear charge decreases. So, therefore, the outermost electron of potassium is easily removed. Electronic configuration of (K\rightarrow 1s^{2},2s^{2},2p^{6},3s^{2},3p^{6},4s^{1}) and electronic configuration of sodium (Na= ( 1s^{2},2s^{2},2p^{1} ). Hence the reactivity of sodium is less than of potassium.

    Question 10.6 Compare the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals with respect to (i) ionisation enthalpy (ii) basicity of oxides and (iii) solubility of hydroxides

    Answer :

    (i) Ionisation enthalpy-

    Alkali metals have low first IE as compare to alkaline earth metals because of having a large atomic size also after losing one electron they attain noble gas configuration. In alkaline earth metals, their first IE is higher then alkali metals because they have high effective nuclear charge and small in size as compare to group 1st element. However, they have low second IE as compare to alkali metals.

    (ii) Basicity of oxides-

    Alkali metal oxides are more basic than alkaline earth metal oxides. this is because alkali metals are highly electropositive which makes them highly ionic, so they readily dissociate into hydroxide ions in water than alkaline metals.

    (iii) The solubility of Hydroxide-

    Alkali metal hydroxide is more soluble in water than alkaline earth metals. This is because of the high lattice energy of alkaline earth metals.

    Question 10.7 In what ways lithium shows similarities to magnesium in its chemical behaviour?

    Answer :

    Chemical similarities between lithium and magnesium-

    1. Li and Mg slowly react with water and their hydroxide and oxides are also less soluble in water. On heating, their hydroxide decomposes. Both the element form nitride Mg_{3}N_{2} and Li_{3}N by direct reaction with nitrogen.
    2. Li_{2}O and MgO do not give superoxide on reacting with an excess of oxygen.
    3. Lithium and Magnesium carbonates easily decompose into their oxides and carbon dioxide.
    4. Chlorides of both element soluble in ethanol.
    5. Both chlorides can crystallise from their aqueous solution as hydrates, LiCl.2H_{2}O and MgCl_{2}.8H_{2}O

    Question 10.8 Explain why can alkali and alkaline earth metals not be obtained by chemical reduction methods?

    Answer :

    Alkali and alkaline earth metals not be obtained by chemical reduction methods because to reduce their oxides we need to use a strong reducing agent, but there is no other reducing agent which is stronger than them.

    Question 10.9 Why are potassium and cesium, rather than lithium used in photoelectric cells?

    Answer :

    It is because of the low ionisation energy of K and Cs . They lose electron easily. On the other hand, Lithium is smaller in size as compared to caesium and lithium, it requires high energy to lose an electron. Therefore, lithium is not used in a photoelectric cell.

    Question 10.10 When an alkali metal dissolves in liquid ammonia the solution can acquire different colours. Explain the reasons for this type of colour change.

    Answer :

    The alkali metals dissolve in liquid ammonia giving deep blue solutions which are conducting in nature.

    M +(x+y)NH_{3}\rightarrow [M(NH_{3})_{x}]^{+}+[e(NH_{3})_y]^{-}

    The blue colour of the solution is due to the ammoniated electron which absorbs energy in the visible region of light and thus imparts blue colour to the solution. The solutions are paramagnetic.

    In concentrated solution, the blue colour changes to bronze colour and becomes diamagnetic

    Question 10.11 Beryllium and magnesium do not give colour to flame whereas other alkaline earth metals do so. Why ?

    Answer :

    When the alkaline earth metals are heated the electrons are excited to higher energy levels and when they drop back to the ground state, energy is emitted in the form of visible light. Hence the colour is observed. The electrons in beryllium and magnesium are too strongly bound to get excited by flame. Hence, these elements do not impart any colour.

    Question 10.12 Discuss the various reactions that occur in the Solvay process.

    Answer :

    Solvay process is used to prepare sodium carbonate. Reactions occurs in solvay process are -

    1. 2NH_{3}+H_{2}O\rightarrow (NH_{4})_{2}CO_{3}
    2. (NH_{4})_{2}CO_{3}+H_{2}O+CO_{2}\rightarrow 2NH_{4}HCO_{3}
    3. NH_{4}HCO_{3}+NaCl\rightarrow NaHCO_{3}+NH_{4}Cl
    4. 2NaHCO_{3}\rightarrow Na_{2}CO_{3}+CO_{2}+H_{2}O

    Question 10.13 Potassium carbonate cannot be prepared by Solvay process. Why ?

    Answer :

    Solvay process cannot be used to prepare potassium carbonate because unlike sodium bicarbonate, KHCO_{3} is fairly soluble in water and does not precipitate out.

    Question 10.14 Why is Li_{2}CO_{3} decomposed at a lower temperature whereas Na_{2}CO_{3} at higher temperature?

    Answer :

    As we go down the group the electropositive nature of alkali metals increases. And because of that, there is an increase of stability of carbonates. But carbonates of lithium is not stable because lithium carbonate is covalent. Lithium-ion is smaller in size so it can polarise the negative carbonate ion, leading to the formation of more stable lithium oxide. therefore, Lithium decomposes at the lower temperature while sodium carbonate decomposes at a higher temperature.

    Li_{2}CO_{3}\rightarrow LiO_{2}+CO_{2}

    Question 10.15 Compare the solubility and thermal stability of the following compounds of the alkali metals with those of the alkaline earth metals. (a) Nitrates (b) Carbonates (c) Sulphates.

    Answer :

    (a) Nitrates-

    Alkali and alkaline earth metal nitrates are soluble in water. Down the group thermal stability of nitrates increases. Nitrates of alkaline and alkali metals give corresponding nitrites except for lithium nitrate, it gives lithium oxides.

    4LiNO_{3}\rightarrow 2Li_{2}O+4NO_{2}+O_{2}

    NaNO_{3}\rightarrow 2NaNO_{2}+O_{2}

    2M(NO_{3})_{2}\overset{\Delta }{\rightarrow}2MO+4NO_{2}+O_{2} [ M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba]

    (b) Carbonates-

    Alkaline earth metal carbonates decompose on heating gives carbon dioxide and oxide. On the other hand carbonates of alkali metals are stable towards heat. The solubility of carbonates increases down the group in alkali metals (except Li_{2}CO_{3} ) . But carbonates of alkaline earth metals are insoluble in water.


    thermal stability is good for both alkali and alkaline earth metals. Alkali metal sulphates are more soluble in water than alkaline earth metals. Solubility decrease down the group from CaSO_{4} to BaSO_{4} . sulphate of Be and Mg are readily soluble in water.

    Question 10.16 Starting with sodium chloride how would you proceed to prepare (i) sodium metal (ii) sodium hydroxide (iii) sodium peroxide (iv) sodium carbonate ?

    Answer :

    (i) Sodium metal can be extracted from sodium chloride.In this process electrolysis of fused NaCl (40%) and CaCl_{2} (60%) at a temp. of 1123K in Downs cell.

    steel cathode and graphite block is act as anode. sodium and calcium deposit at cathode .

    NaCl\rightarrow Na^{+}+Cl^{-} (Molten state)

    At Cathode- Na^{+}+e^{-}\rightarrow Na

    At Anode- \\Cl^{-}\rightarrow Cl+e^{-}\\ Cl+Cl\rightarrow Cl_{2}

    (ii) NaOH can be prepared by the electrolysis of sodium chloride. By Castner- kellner process. A brine solution is electrolysed using a mercury cathode and a carbon anode. Sodium metal discharged at the cathode combines with mercury to form sodium amalgam. Chlorine gas is evolved at the anode.

    At Cathode Na^{+}+e^{-}\rightarrow Na-amalgam

    At anode- Cl^{-}\rightarrow 1/2Cl_{2}+e^{-}

    (iii) NaCl is electrolysed for the formation of Na metal (in downs process). this sodium metal is then heated on aluminium trays in air to form sodium peroxide.

    2Na+O_{2}\rightarrow Na_{2}O_{2}

    (iv) Sodium carbonate is preapred by solvay process. NaHCO_{3} is precipitated in a reaction of sodium chloride and ammonium hydrogen carbonate.

    \\2NH_{3} +H_{2}O+CO_{2}\rightarrow (NH_{4})_{2}CO_{3}\\ (NH_{4})_{2}CO_{3}+H_{2}O+CO_{2}\rightarrow NaHCO_{3}\\ (NH_{4})_{2}CO_{3} +NaCl\rightarrow NH_{4}Cl+NaHCO_{3}

    this NaHCO_{3} crystals are heatedto give sodium carbonate.

    2NaHCO_{3}\rightarrow Na_{2}CO_{3}+CO_{2}+H_{2}O

    Question 10.17 What happens when (i) magnesium is burnt in air (ii) quick lime is heated with silica (iii) chlorine reacts with slaked lime (iv) calcium nitrate is heated ?

    Answer :

    (i) Magnesium is more electropositive and burns with dazzling brilliance in the air to give MgO and Mg3N.

    2Mg+O_{2}\rightarrow MgO\\ 3Mg+N_{2}\rightarrow Mg_{3}N_{2}

    (ii) Quick lime combined with silica to form calcium silicate which is used as slag.

    CaO+SiO_{2}\rightarrow CaSiO_{3}

    (iii) when chlorine reacts with slaked lime it produces bleaching powder.

    2Ca(OH)_{2}+2Cl_{2}\rightarrow CaCl_{2}+Ca(OCl)_{2}+H_{2}O

    (iv) when calcium nitrate is heated is decomposed to give calcium

    2Ca_{3}(NO_{3})_{2}\rightarrow 2CaO + 4NO_{2} +O_{2}

    Question 10.18 Describe two important uses of each of the following : (i) caustic soda (ii) sodium carbonate (iii) quicklime.

    Answer :

    (i) Caustic Soda The chemical name is sodium hydroxide ( NaOH ). Sodium hydroxide is generally prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride in Castner-Kellner cell.


    • the manufacture of soap, paper, artificial silk and a number of chemicals
    • in the purification of bauxite,
    • in the textile industries for mercerising cotton fabrics
    • for the preparation of pure fats and oils, and
    • as a laboratory reagent.

    (ii) Sodium Carbonate-

    The common name is washing soda ( Na_{2}CO_{3} ).Sodium carbonate is generally prepared by Solvay Process.


    • It is used in water softening, laundering and cleaning.
    • It is used in the manufacture of glass, soap, borax and caustic soda.
    • It is used in paper, paints and textile industries.
    • It is an important laboratory reagent both in qualitative and quantitative analysis

    (iii) Quick lime-

    The chemical name is calcium oxide and the formula is CaO . It is prepared on a commercial scale by heating limestone (CaCO3) in a rotary kiln at 1070-1270 K ( CaCO_{3}\rightleftharpoons CaO+CO_{2} )


    • It is an important primary material for manufacturing cement and is the cheapest form of alkali.
    • It is used in the manufacture of sodium carbonate from caustic soda.
    • It is employed in the purification of sugar and in the manufacture of dye stuffs.

    Question 10.19 Draw the structure of (i) BeCl_{2} (vapour) (ii) BeCl_{2} (solid).

    Answer :


    structure of BeCl_{2} in solid phase-


    In Gaseous phase-


    Question 10.20 The hydroxides and carbonates of sodium and potassium are easily soluble in water while the corresponding salts of magnesium and calcium are sparingly soluble in water. Explain?

    Answer :

    The atomic size of sodium and potassium is lager than the magnesium and calcium. So, the lattic energy of carbonates and oxides formed by sodium and potassium are less than that of calcium and magnesium. Therefore the carbonates and oxides of Na and K are dissolve readily in water and Mg and Ca are sparingly soluble in water

    Question 10.21 Describe the importance of the following : (i) limestone (ii) cement (iii) plaster of paris.

    Answer :

    (i) Limestone-

    The chemical formula is CaCO_{3} .

    Importance of limstone is-

    • It is used as a building material in the form of marble and in the manufacture of quick lime
    • Calcium carbonate along with magnesium carbonate is used as a flux in the extraction of metals such as iron.
    • It is also used as an antacid, mild abrasive in tooth paste, a constituent of chewing gum, and a filler in cosmetics.

    (ii) Cement-

    Cement is an important building material. It is amixture of triclcium silicate( Ca_{3}SiO_{5} ) and tricalium aluminate( Ca_{3}Al_{2}O_{6} ).

    Importance of cement-

    It is used in concrete and reinforced concrete, in plastering and in the construction of bridges, dams and buildings

    (iii) Plaster of Paris-

    It is a hemihydrate of calcium sulphate. It is obtained when gypsum, CaSO_{4}.2H_{2}O , is heated to 393 K.

    Importance of POP-

    It is used in medicine as surgical bandages and also it is used for making casts and moulds.

    Question 10.22 Why are lithium salts commonly hydrated and those of the other alkali ions usually anhydrous?

    Answer :

    Lithium-ion is the smallest among the other alkali metal ions. Hence it has higher polarising power than others and so it can polarise water molecule more easily than other alkali metals. Hence the water molecules are more attracted towards Li salts as the water of crystallisation. Li+ has a maximum degree of hydration and for this reason, lithium salts are mostly hydrated, e.g., LiCl· 2H2O

    As the down the group size of ions increase, their polarising power decreases. Hence other alkali metal ions usually form anhydrous salts.

    Question 10.23 Why is LiF almost insoluble in water whereas LiCl soluble not only in water but also in acetone ?

    Answer :

    Both Li^{+} ion and F^{-} ion are smaller in size. So their size compatibility is very high. Hence lattice energy during formation is very high and it is not overcome by the hydration energy. Therefore LiF is almost insoluble in water. On the other hand, Li^{+} cation and Cl^{-} anion have comparable size differences, therefore they have low lattice energy and because of small in size, lithium ion has high polarising power as a result is distort the electron cloud of chloride anion. As a result, there is some covalent character in LiCl . So, it soluble in water but also in acetone.

    Question 10.24 Explain the significance of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium in biological fluids

    Answer :

    Significance of sodium potassium, magnesium and calcium in biological fluids-


    • It is mainly found in blood plasma and also in the interstitial fluid which surrounds the cell.
    • Na^{+} ions help in the transmission of nerve signals also for the regulating water in the plasma membrane.
    • Also for the transport of sugars and amino acids into the cells.


    • These ions are highly present within cell fluids.
    • Helps in activating many enzymes
    • To produce ATP it oxidises the glucose molecule.
    • Also helps in the transmission of nerve signals.

    Magnesium and calcium-

    • Plays an important role in neuromuscular function (by magnesium), interneuronal transmission, cell membrane integrity and blood coagulation(by calcium)
    • Mg helps in maintains normal blood circulation in our body.

    Question 10.25 What happens when (i) sodium metal is dropped in water ? (ii) sodium metal is heated in free supply of air ? (iii) sodium peroxide dissolves in water ?

    Answer :

    (i) When sodium metal dropped into water it reacts rapidly and forms sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas.

    the chemical reaction is - 2Na+2H_{2}O\rightarrow 2NaOH +H_{2}

    (ii) sodium metal heated in the free supply of water-

    Sodium reacts vigorously with oxygen and forming sodium peroxides.

    Reaction- 2Na+O_{2}\rightarrow Na_{2}O_{2}

    (iii) when sodium peroxide dissolved in water it hydrolysed and produce sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide.

    Reaction- Na_{2}O_{2}+2H_{2}O\rightarrow 2NaOH+H_{2}O_{2}

    Question 10.26 Comment on each of the following observations: (a) The mobilities of the alkali metal ions in aqueous solution are Li+ < Na+ < K+ < Rb+ < Cs+ (b) Lithium is the only alkali metal to form a nitride directly. (c) E 0 for M2+ (aq) + 2e– → M(s) (where M = Ca, Sr or Ba) is nearly constant.

    Answer :

    (a) As we know that down the group ionic size increases. Lithium-ion is the smallest in size and we know smaller the size of ion, the more hydrated it is. So lithium ion is most hydrated and Cs^{+} ion is bigger in size so it is least hydrated.

    Greater the size of hydrated ion less is mobility. So that the order of mobility of ions Li^{+}<Na^{+}<K^{+}<Rb^{+}<Cs^{+}

    (b) Lithium unlike other alkali metals direct react with nitrogen and forms lithium nitride ( Li_{3}N ). This is because lithium-ion is the smallest in size and therefore it has very high size compatibility with N^{3-} . Hence the lattice energy released is very high.

    (c) Electrode potential ( E^{0} ) for M^{2+} is depend on mainly three-factor- (i)ionisation enthalpy (ii)hydration enthalpy (iii)enthalpy of vaporisation. But we consider the overall effect of these three factors that should be the same for all Ca,Sr,Ba . Hence their electrode potential is constant.

    Question 10.27 State as to why (a) a solution of Na2CO3 is alkaline ? (b) alkali metals are prepared by electrolysis of their fused chlorides ? (c) sodium is found to be more useful than potassium ?

    Answer :

    (a) when sodium bicarbonate is added to water it gives sodium hydroxide (strong base). As a result, the solution becomes alkaline in nature.

    Na_{2}CO_{3}+H_{2}O\rightarrow NaOH+ H_{2}CO_{3}

    (b) Because their oxides are themselves are a very strong reducing agent in nature. So, by chemical reduction, we cannot obtain alkali metals. Also, we cannot use electrolysis of the aqueous solution method because after liberating the metals they again react with water.(

    (2M+H_{2}O\rightarrow 2M^{+}+2OH^{-}+H_{2}) [M = alkali metals]

    Question 10.28 Write balanced equations for reactions between (a) Na2O2 and water (b) KO2 and water (c) Na2O and CO2 .

    Answer :

    (a)The balanced reaction between Na_{2}O_{2} and water-

    Na_{2}O_{2} +2H_{2}O\rightarrow 2NaOH +H_{2}O_{2}

    (b) the reaction between water and KO_{2} -

    KO_{2}+H_{2}O\rightarrow KOH+H_{2}O_{2}+O_{2}

    (c) reaction between Na_{2}O\ and\ CO_{2} -

    Na_{2}O+CO_{2}\rightarrow Na_{2}CO_{3}

    Question 10.29 How would you explain the following observations? (i) BeO is almost insoluble but BeSO4 is soluble in water, (ii) BaO is soluble but BaSO4 is insoluble in water, (iii) LiI is more soluble than KI in ethanol.

    Answer :

    (i) Be^{2+} is small in size so it has high polarising power and O^{2-} is also small in size. Compatibility of both the cation and anion are very high. So their lattice energy is also very high. When BeO is dissolved in water it's hydration energy is not sufficient to overcome its lattice energy. So, therefore, it is insoluble in water.

    On the other hand, SO_{4}^{2-} ions are large in size. Hence Be^{+} ion can easily polarise SO_{4}^{2-} ions and making it unstable and because of that lattice energy of BeSO_{4} is not very high and so it is soluble in water.

    (ii) BaO is soluble because Ba^{2+} cation is large in size as compare to O^{2-} anion. Size compatibility between them is not good. Therefore BaO is unstable. Hence lattice energy during the formation of their lattice is not high So it can be easily overcome by hydration energy. Therefore BaO is soluble in water. In case of BaSO_{4} , we know that down the group hydration enthalpy decreases and both the anion and cation have very good size compatibility. So, lattice energy cannot be overcome by hydration energy. As a result, BaSO_{4} is not soluble in water.

    (iii) The Li^{+} ion has high polarising power. It is very small in size as compare to K^{+} ion. So, it has a high tendency to distort the electron cloud around the negative iodide ( I^{-} ) ion. As a result of high polarizability, it has high covalent character than. KI Hence it is more soluble in methanol.

    Question 10.30 Which of the alkali metal is having least melting point ? (a) Na (b) K (c) Rb (d) Cs

    Answer :

    The strength of metallic bond decreases down the group in the periodic table because as the size of cation increases the binding energies of their atoms in the crystal lattice decreases.

    order of melting point Na>k>Rb>Cs

    So, ans is (a) Na

    Question 10.31 Which one of the following alkali metals gives hydrated salts ? (a) Li (b) Na (c) K (d) Cs

    Answer :

    The smaller the size of ion higher is the charge density and high polarising power. And among the alkali metals, lithium-ion is the smallest in size and has the power to attract the water molecules.

    Ans is (a) Li

    Question 10.32 Which one of the alkaline earth metal carbonates is thermally the most stable ? (a) MgCO3 (b) CaCO3 (c) SrCO3 (d) BaCO3

    Answer :

    Thermal stability \propto size of the cation in carbonates

    increasing order of cationic size in alkaline earth metal is Mg<Ca<Sr<Ba

    Therefore the most thermal stable carbonates are of Barium

    Ans. (d) BaCO_{3}

    More About The s Block Elements Class 11 NCERT Chapter

    The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 10 The s-Block Elements are designed and solved by our chemistry experts. These are the detailed explanation of NCERT textbook questions. These NCERT solutions for class 11 chemistry chapter 10 The s-Block Elements help students in their preparation of class 11 final examination as well as in the various competitive exams like JEE, NEET, BITSAT etc.

    In s-block, there is a total of two groups (1&2). In NCERT solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 10 The s-Block Elements we will discuss important concepts of s-block elements like properties of group 1 and group 2 elements, their electronic configuration, their occurrence, general characteristics of the compounds of alkali metals and alkaline earth metal, anomalous behaviour of lithium and beryllium, important compounds of sodium and calcium and at the end NCERT syllabus discuss the biological importance of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium.

    We have already discussed that s-block elements are divided into two groups. The elements of Group 1 are lithium(Li), sodium(Na), potassium(K), rubidium(Rb), caesium(Cs) and francium(Fr). They are collectively known as the alkali metals . The elements of Group 2 beryllium(Be), Magnesium(Mg), Calcium(Ca), Strontium(Sr), Barium(Ba) and Radium(Ra). They are collectively known as alkaline earth metals . In NCERT solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 10 The s-Block Elements, we will also discuss some important trends like atomic radius, diagonal relationship etc.

    The s-Block Elements Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 10 ; Some Important Points

    1. General electronic configuration of Group 1 elements is ns^1 .

    2. General electronic configuration of Group 2 elements is ns^2 .

    3. Generally, densities of alkali metals increase down the group from Li to Cs except for density of K < Na.

    4. Alkali metals have low boiling and melting point and these decreases down the group.

    NCERT The s-Block Elements Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 10 Topics

    10.1 Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals

    10.2 General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals

    10.3 Anomalous Properties of Lithium

    10.4 Some Important Compounds of Sodium

    10.5 Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium

    10.6 Group 2 Elements: Alkaline Earth Metals

    10.7 General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals

    10.8 Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium

    10.9 Some Important Compounds of Calcium

    10.10 Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium

    NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter Wise

    NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Subject Wise

    Benefits of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 10 The s-Block Elements

    • The solutions are written in a comprehensive manner in the NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 10 The s-Block Elements will help you writing answers in your exam.
    • Revision will be easy because the detailed solutions will help you to remember the concepts and get you good marks.
    • Homework problems will be easier for you, all you need to do is check the detailed NCERT solutions for class 11 chemistry and you are ready to go.

    If you have a doubt or question that is not available here or in any of the chapters, contact us. You will get all the answers that will help you score well in your exams.

    Also Check NCERT Books and NCERT Syllabus here:

    Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

    1. What are the important topics NCERT class 11 chemistry chapter 10 ?

    Important topics- 

    - Electronic configuration

    - Occurrence

    - Compounds: Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydrogen         Carbonate

    - Anomalous properties of the first element of each group -

    - Diagonal relationship

    - Trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens, uses

    - Preparation and Properties of Some Important

    2. Where can I find complete solutions of NCERT class 11 Chemistry?

    For complete solutions of NCERT, students can refer to this link: 

    3. What is the weightage of NCERT class 11 Chemistry chapter 10 in NEET ?

    The weightage of NCERT class 11 Chemistry chapter 10 in NEET is 2% of total marks

    4. What is the weightage of NCERT class 11 Chemistry chapter 10 in JEE mains ?

    Atleast 1 question from this chapter is asked in JEE mains every year 


    Get answers from students and experts

    A block of mass 0.50 kg is moving with a speed of 2.00 ms-1 on a smooth surface. It strikes another mass of 1.00 kg and then they move together as a single body. The energy loss during the collision is

    Option 1)

    0.34\; J

    Option 2)

    0.16\; J

    Option 3)

    1.00\; J

    Option 4)

    0.67\; J

    A person trying to lose weight by burning fat lifts a mass of 10 kg upto a height of 1 m 1000 times.  Assume that the potential energy lost each time he lowers the mass is dissipated.  How much fat will he use up considering the work done only when the weight is lifted up ?  Fat supplies 3.8×107 J of energy per kg which is converted to mechanical energy with a 20% efficiency rate.  Take g = 9.8 ms−2 :

    Option 1)

    2.45×10−3 kg

    Option 2)

     6.45×10−3 kg

    Option 3)

     9.89×10−3 kg

    Option 4)

    12.89×10−3 kg


    An athlete in the olympic games covers a distance of 100 m in 10 s. His kinetic energy can be estimated to be in the range

    Option 1)

    2,000 \; J - 5,000\; J

    Option 2)

    200 \, \, J - 500 \, \, J

    Option 3)

    2\times 10^{5}J-3\times 10^{5}J

    Option 4)

    20,000 \, \, J - 50,000 \, \, J

    A particle is projected at 600   to the horizontal with a kinetic energy K. The kinetic energy at the highest point

    Option 1)


    Option 2)

    \; K\;

    Option 3)


    Option 4)


    In the reaction,

    2Al_{(s)}+6HCL_{(aq)}\rightarrow 2Al^{3+}\, _{(aq)}+6Cl^{-}\, _{(aq)}+3H_{2(g)}

    Option 1)

    11.2\, L\, H_{2(g)}  at STP  is produced for every mole HCL_{(aq)}  consumed

    Option 2)

    6L\, HCl_{(aq)}  is consumed for ever 3L\, H_{2(g)}      produced

    Option 3)

    33.6 L\, H_{2(g)} is produced regardless of temperature and pressure for every mole Al that reacts

    Option 4)

    67.2\, L\, H_{2(g)} at STP is produced for every mole Al that reacts .

    How many moles of magnesium phosphate, Mg_{3}(PO_{4})_{2} will contain 0.25 mole of oxygen atoms?

    Option 1)


    Option 2)

    3.125 × 10-2

    Option 3)

    1.25 × 10-2

    Option 4)

    2.5 × 10-2

    If we consider that 1/6, in place of 1/12, mass of carbon atom is taken to be the relative atomic mass unit, the mass of one mole of a substance will

    Option 1)

    decrease twice

    Option 2)

    increase two fold

    Option 3)

    remain unchanged

    Option 4)

    be a function of the molecular mass of the substance.

    With increase of temperature, which of these changes?

    Option 1)


    Option 2)

    Weight fraction of solute

    Option 3)

    Fraction of solute present in water

    Option 4)

    Mole fraction.

    Number of atoms in 558.5 gram Fe (at. wt.of Fe = 55.85 g mol-1) is

    Option 1)

    twice that in 60 g carbon

    Option 2)

    6.023 × 1022

    Option 3)

    half that in 8 g He

    Option 4)

    558.5 × 6.023 × 1023

    A pulley of radius 2 m is rotated about its axis by a force F = (20t - 5t2) newton (where t is measured in seconds) applied tangentially. If the moment of inertia of the pulley about its axis of rotation is 10 kg m2 , the number of rotations made by the pulley before its direction of motion if reversed, is

    Option 1)

    less than 3

    Option 2)

    more than 3 but less than 6

    Option 3)

    more than 6 but less than 9

    Option 4)

    more than 9

    Data Administrator

    Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

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    Bio Medical Engineer

    The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

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    Ethical Hacker

    A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.

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    Database Architect

    If you are intrigued by the programming world and are interested in developing communications networks then a career as database architect may be a good option for you. Data architect roles and responsibilities include building design models for data communication networks. Wide Area Networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), and intranets are included in the database networks. It is expected that database architects will have in-depth knowledge of a company's business to develop a network to fulfil the requirements of the organisation. Stay tuned as we look at the larger picture and give you more information on what is db architecture, why you should pursue database architecture, what to expect from such a degree and what your job opportunities will be after graduation. Here, we will be discussing how to become a data architect. Students can visit NIT Trichy, IIT Kharagpur, JMI New Delhi

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    Data Analyst

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    Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

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    Geothermal Engineer

    Individuals who opt for a career as geothermal engineers are the professionals involved in the processing of geothermal energy. The responsibilities of geothermal engineers may vary depending on the workplace location. Those who work in fields design facilities to process and distribute geothermal energy. They oversee the functioning of machinery used in the field.

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    Geotechnical engineer

    The role of geotechnical engineer starts with reviewing the projects needed to define the required material properties. The work responsibilities are followed by a site investigation of rock, soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest. The investigation is aimed to improve the ground engineering design and determine their engineering properties that include how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. 

    The role of geotechnical engineer in mining includes designing and determining the type of foundations, earthworks, and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be made. Geotechnical engineering jobs are involved in earthen and concrete dam construction projects, working under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. 

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    How fascinating it is to represent the whole world on just a piece of paper or a sphere. With the help of maps, we are able to represent the real world on a much smaller scale. Individuals who opt for a career as a cartographer are those who make maps. But, cartography is not just limited to maps, it is about a mixture of art, science, and technology. As a cartographer, not only you will create maps but use various geodetic surveys and remote sensing systems to measure, analyse, and create different maps for political, cultural or educational purposes.

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    Bank Probationary Officer (PO)

    A career as Bank Probationary Officer (PO) is seen as a promising career opportunity and a white-collar career. Each year aspirants take the Bank PO exam. This career provides plenty of career development and opportunities for a successful banking future. If you have more questions about a career as  Bank Probationary Officer (PO), what is probationary officer or how to become a Bank Probationary Officer (PO) then you can read the article and clear all your doubts. 

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    Operations Manager

    Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.

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    The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

    Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

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    Finance Executive

    A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.  

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    Investment Banker

    An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance, and Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.

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    Bank Branch Manager

    Bank Branch Managers work in a specific section of banking related to the invention and generation of capital for other organisations, governments, and other entities. Bank Branch Managers work for the organisations and underwrite new debts and equity securities for all type of companies, aid in the sale of securities, as well as help to facilitate mergers and acquisitions, reorganisations, and broker trades for both institutions and private investors.

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    Treasury analyst career path is often regarded as certified treasury specialist in some business situations, is a finance expert who specifically manages a company or organisation's long-term and short-term financial targets. Treasurer synonym could be a financial officer, which is one of the reputed positions in the corporate world. In a large company, the corporate treasury jobs hold power over the financial decision-making of the total investment and development strategy of the organisation.

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    Product Manager

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    Transportation Planner

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    A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.

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    Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

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    An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.

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    For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

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    Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

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    If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

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    Radio Jockey

    Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

    A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.

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    An individual who is pursuing a career as a producer is responsible for managing the business aspects of production. They are involved in each aspect of production from its inception to deception. Famous movie producers review the script, recommend changes and visualise the story. 

    They are responsible for overseeing the finance involved in the project and distributing the film for broadcasting on various platforms. A career as a producer is quite fulfilling as well as exhaustive in terms of playing different roles in order for a production to be successful. Famous movie producers are responsible for hiring creative and technical personnel on contract basis.

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    Fashion Blogger

    Fashion bloggers use multiple social media platforms to recommend or share ideas related to fashion. A fashion blogger is a person who writes about fashion, publishes pictures of outfits, jewellery, accessories. Fashion blogger works as a model, journalist, and a stylist in the fashion industry. In current fashion times, these bloggers have crossed into becoming a star in fashion magazines, commercials, or campaigns. 

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    Photography is considered both a science and an art, an artistic means of expression in which the camera replaces the pen. In a career as a photographer, an individual is hired to capture the moments of public and private events, such as press conferences or weddings, or may also work inside a studio, where people go to get their picture clicked. Photography is divided into many streams each generating numerous career opportunities in photography. With the boom in advertising, media, and the fashion industry, photography has emerged as a lucrative and thrilling career option for many Indian youths.

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    In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism, Advertising, Marketing Management. Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

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    Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

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    For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

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    In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. Ever since internet cost got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, the career as vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the career as vlogger, how to become a vlogger, so on and so forth then continue reading the article. Students can visit Jamia Millia Islamia, Asian College of Journalism, Indian Institute of Mass Communication to pursue journalism degrees.

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    Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

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    Individuals who opt for a career as a reporter may often be at work on national holidays and festivities. He or she pitches various story ideas and covers news stories in risky situations. Students can pursue a BMC (Bachelor of Mass Communication), B.M.M. (Bachelor of Mass Media), or MAJMC (MA in Journalism and Mass Communication) to become a reporter. While we sit at home reporters travel to locations to collect information that carries a news value.  

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    Linguistic meaning is related to language or Linguistics which is the study of languages. A career as a linguistic meaning, a profession that is based on the scientific study of language, and it's a very broad field with many specialities. Famous linguists work in academia, researching and teaching different areas of language, such as phonetics (sounds), syntax (word order) and semantics (meaning). 

    Other researchers focus on specialities like computational linguistics, which seeks to better match human and computer language capacities, or applied linguistics, which is concerned with improving language education. Still, others work as language experts for the government, advertising companies, dictionary publishers and various other private enterprises. Some might work from home as freelance linguists. Philologist, phonologist, and dialectician are some of Linguist synonym. Linguists can study French, German, Italian

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    Product Manager

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    Quality Controller

    A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

    A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

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    Production Manager

    Production Manager Job Description: A Production Manager is responsible for ensuring smooth running of manufacturing processes in an efficient manner. He or she plans and organises production schedules. The role of Production Manager involves estimation, negotiation on budget and timescales with the clients and managers. 

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    A Team Leader is a professional responsible for guiding, monitoring and leading the entire group. He or she is responsible for motivating team members by providing a pleasant work environment to them and inspiring positive communication. A Team Leader contributes to the achievement of the organisation’s goals. He or she improves the confidence, product knowledge and communication skills of the team members and empowers them.

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    Quality Systems Manager

    A Quality Systems Manager is a professional responsible for developing strategies, processes, policies, standards and systems concerning the company as well as operations of its supply chain. It includes auditing to ensure compliance. It could also be carried out by a third party. 

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    A career as a merchandiser requires one to promote specific products and services of one or different brands, to increase the in-house sales of the store. Merchandising job focuses on enticing the customers to enter the store and hence increasing their chances of buying a product. Although the buyer is the one who selects the lines, it all depends on the merchandiser on how much money a buyer will spend, how many lines will be purchased, and what will be the quantity of those lines. In a career as merchandiser, one is required to closely work with the display staff in order to decide in what way a product would be displayed so that sales can be maximised. In small brands or local retail stores, a merchandiser is responsible for both merchandising and buying. 

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    Procurement Manager

    The procurement Manager is also known as  Purchasing Manager. The role of the Procurement Manager is to source products and services for a company. A Procurement Manager is involved in developing a purchasing strategy, including the company's budget and the supplies as well as the vendors who can provide goods and services to the company. His or her ultimate goal is to bring the right products or services at the right time with cost-effectiveness. 

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    Production Planner

    Individuals who opt for a career as a production planner are professionals who are responsible for ensuring goods manufactured by the employing company are cost-effective and meets quality specifications including ensuring the availability of ready to distribute stock in a timely fashion manner. 

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    Product Manager

    A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

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    ITSM Manager

    ITSM Manager is a professional responsible for heading the ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) or (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) processes. He or she ensures that operation management provides appropriate resource levels for problem resolutions. The ITSM Manager oversees the level of prioritisation for the problems, critical incidents, planned as well as proactive tasks. 

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    Information Security Manager

    Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

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    Computer Programmer

    Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

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    Computer System Analyst

    Individuals in the computer systems analyst career path study the hardware and applications that are part of an organization's computer systems, as well as how they are used. They collaborate closely with managers and end-users to identify system specifications and business priorities, as well as to assess the efficiency of computer systems and create techniques to boost IT efficiency. Individuals who opt for a career as a computer system analyst support the implementation, modification, and debugging of new systems after they have been installed.

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    Test Manager

    A Test Manager is a professional responsible for planning, coordinating and controlling test activities. He or she develops test processes and strategies to analyse and determine test methods and tools for test activities. The test manager jobs involve documenting tests that have been carried out, analysing and evaluating software quality to determine further recommended procedures. 

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    Azure Developer

    A career as Azure Developer comes with the responsibility of designing and developing cloud-based applications and maintaining software components. He or she possesses an in-depth knowledge of cloud computing and Azure app service. 

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    Deep Learning Engineer

    A Deep Learning Engineer is an IT professional who is responsible for developing and managing data pipelines. He or she is knowledgeable about analyzing and storing data collected from various sources.  A Career as a Deep Learning Engineer needs to help the  data scientists and analysts to create effective data sets.

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