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    NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 9 Hydrogen

    Edited By Sumit Saini | Updated on Aug 22, 2022 08:57 AM IST

    NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 9 Hydrogen- Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in our universe. In the NCERT solutions for class 11 chemistry chapter 9 hydrogen, we will learn about hydrogen element, its occurrence, its position in the periodic table, dihydrogen, preparation and properties of dihydrogen, hydrides etc. And also discuss the isotopes of hydrogen, how they are prepared and its properties. NCERT book class 11 chemistry chapter 9 is an important chapter for class 11 students because many questions asked in CBSE class 11 final examination and competitive exams.

    Also Read :

    In this chapter, there are 36 questions in the exercise. The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 9 Hydrogen are designed by our chemistry experts. These NCERT solutions help students in the preparation of their class 11 final examination as well as in the various competitive exams like JEE Mains, NEET, etc. If you are looking for the answers of any other class from 6-12 then NCERT solutions are there for you as it's the easiest way to get all the solutions of NCERT. By referring to the NCERT solutions for class 11 , students can understand all the important concepts and practice questions well enough before their examination

    NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 9 Hydrogen- Exercise Questions

    Question 9.1 Justify the position of hydrogen in the periodic table on the basis of its electronic configuration

    Answer :
    Answer-The electronic configuration of the H atom is 1s^{1} . Due to the presence of only one electron, it exhibits dual behaviour,i.e., it resembles both alkali metals of group 1 and also along with the halogens of group 17.

    It can lose one electron to form a unipositive ion. Both H and alkali metals form monovalent cations by losing one electron from its outer shell. Both alkali and hydrogen shows +1 oxidation numbers.both have an affinity towards electronegative elements and readily combine with them and forms oxide, halides, and sulphides.

    It has a very high ionization enthalpy and does not possess metallic characteristics under normal conditions. In fact, in terms of ionization enthalpy, hydrogen resembles more with halogens, ionization enthalpy of Li is 520 kJ mol–1, F is 1680 kJ mol–1 and that of H is 1312 kJ mol–1. Like halogens, it forms a diatomic molecule, combines with elements to form hydrides and a large number of covalent compounds.

    Question 9.2 Write the names of isotopes of hydrogen. What is the mass ratio of these isotopes ?

    Answer :

    Isotopes of Hydrogen are-

    1. Protium (H^{1}_{1})
    2. Deuterium (H^{2}_{1}/D)
    3. Tritium (H^{3}_{1}/T)

    The mass ratio is 1:2:3

    Question 9.3 Why does hydrogen occur in a diatomic form rather than in a monoatomic form under normal conditions ?

    Answer :

    Ionisation enthalpy of hydrogen is quite high(1312 kJ/mol). Hence it is very difficult to remove its only one electron. As a result, the tendency to exist in the monoatomic form is very low.

    Question 9.4 How can the production of dihydrogen, obtained from ‘coal gasification’, be increased?

    Answer :

    The process of producing syngas from coal is known as 'coal gasification'

    C(s)+H_{2}(g)\rightarrow CO(g)+H_{2}(g)

    The production of dihydrogen can be increased by reacting carbon monoxide of syngas mixture with the steam in the presence of iron chromate as a catalyst. This is called 'water gas shift reaction '. carbon dioxide can be removed by scrubbing with a sodium solution.

    CO(g)+H_{2}O(g)\rightarrow CO_{2}(g)+H_{2}(g)

    Question 9.5 Describe the bulk preparation of dihydrogen by an electrolytic method. What is the role of an electrolyte in this process?

    Answer :

    The dihydrogen is prepared by electrolysis of acidified water using platinum electrodes. generally acid is sulphuric acid and base is sodium hydroxide is used.

    2H_{2}O\rightarrow 2H_{2}(g)+O_{2}(g)

    Role of electrolyte-

    The electrical conductivity of pure water is very low due to the absence of ions in it. Hence electrolysis of water takes place at slow rate. If we add an electrolyte as an acid or base it will increase the rate of electrolysis. Electrolytes provide ions in this process for the better conduction of electricity.

    Question 9.6 Complete the following reactions

    \\(i)H_{2}(g)+MmOo(s)\rightarrow \\ (ii)CO(g)+H_{2}(g)\rightarrow \\ (iii)C_{3}H_{8}(g)+3H_{2}O(g)\rightarrow\\ (iv)Zn(s)+NaOH(aq)\rightarrow

    Answer :

    Answer- Complete reactions are-

    \\(i)H_{2}(g)+MmOo(s)\rightarrow mM(s)+H_{2}O(l)\\ (ii)CO(g)+H_{2}(g)\rightarrow CH_{3}OH(l)\\ (iii)C_{3}H_{8}(g)+3H_{2}O(g)\rightarrow 3CO(g)+7H_{2}(g)\\ (iv)Zn(s)+NaOH(aq)\rightarrow Na_{2}ZnO_{2}(aq)+H_{2}(g)

    Question 9.7 Discuss the consequences of high enthalpy of H–H bond in terms of chemical reactivity of dihydrogen?

    Answer :

    The ionization enthalpy of the H-H bond is very high (1312kJ/mol). It means hydrogen has less tendency to form H^{+} ions. Its ionization enthalpy is comparable to halogens. Hence it forms a diatomic molecule, hydrides with the elements, and a large number of covalent bonds. It does not possess any metallic character like metals

    Question 9.8 What do you understand by (i) electron-deficient, (ii) electron-precise, and (iii) electron-rich compounds of hydrogen? Provide justification with suitable examples.

    Answer :

    (i)Electron-deficient hydrides-

    Those compounds having fewer electrons to writing its conventional Lewis structure. examples B_{2}H_{6} (all the elements of group 13 form electron deficient hydrides)

    (ii)Electron-precise hydrides-

    Those compounds have the required number of electrons to write their conventional Lewis structure. ex- CH_{4} (all elements of group 14 form such compounds)

    (iii)Electron-rich hydrides-

    Electron-rich hydrides have excess electrons which are present as lone pairs. elements of group 15-17 form such compounds like NH_{3},H_{2}O has one lone pair and two lone pair respectively.

    Question 9.9 What characteristics do you expect from an electron-deficient hydride with respect to its structure and chemical reactions

    Answer :

    Electron-deficient hydrides do not have required electrons to form a regular bond in which two electrons are shared by two atoms. e.g. B_{2}H_{6},Al_{2}H_{6} etc


    Because of electron deficiency, they have the tendency to accept electrons. hence they act as Lewis acid.

    \\B_{2}H_{6}+2NMe\rightarrow 2BH_{3}.NMe_{3}\\B_{2}H_{6}+2CO\rightarrow 2BH_{3}.CO

    Question 9.10 Do you expect the carbon hydrides of the type (CnH2n + 2) to act as ‘Lewis’ acid or base? Justify your answer.

    Answer :

    the general term C_{n}H_{2n+2}

    for n = 1, 2, 3.. we get CH_{4},C_{2}H_{6},C_{3}H_{8} ...

    Lewis acids are an electron acceptor, So the above compound should be electron deficient species.

    C_{2}H_{6} taking an example

    Here we can directly count that both the Carbon atom has perfect 8 electrons in sharing. they follow the octet rule. It is electron precise hydride and it neither donate or accept electrons to act Lewis acid or base


    Question 9.11 What do you understand by the term “non-stoichiometric hydrides”? Do you expect this type of the hydrides to be formed by alkali metals? Justify your answer

    Answer :

    Non-stoichiometric hydrides are hydrogen deficient compounds. they are formed by d & f block elements. Such hydrides do not follow the law of constant composition.

    Examples- LaH_{2.87},YbH_{2.55},ZrH_{1.3-1.75} etc.

    Alkali metals do not form these types of hydrides. Alkali metals form stoichiometric hydrides. These hydrides are ionic in nature.

    Question 9.12 How do you expect the metallic hydrides to be useful for hydrogen storage? Explain

    Answer :

    Metallic hydrides are hydrogen deficient and they don't hold the law of constant is established that hydrides of nickel, palladium, and Ce have lattice different where hydrogen occupies the interstitial position in the lattices allowing further absorption of hydrogen on these metals. Some of the metals like Pd and Pt accommodate a very large volume of hydrogen and therefore, can be used for hydrogen storage.

    Question 9.13 How does the atomic hydrogen or oxy-hydrogen torch function for cutting and welding purposes? Explain.

    Answer :

    Atomic hydrogen can be prepared by dissociation of a bond of dihydrogen with the help of an electric arc. This release a huge amount of energy around 135 kJ/mol and this energy can be used to generate a high temperature of 4000K, which is desirable for welding and cutting of metals. Therefore, atomic hydrogen or oxy-hydrogen torch are used for welding purpose.

    Question 9.14 Among NH3, H2O and HF, which would you expect to have highest magnitude of hydrogen bonding and why?

    Answer :

    The strength of hydrogen bonding depends on the electronegativity of an atom

    electronegativity order N<O<F

    The expected order should be NH_{3}<H_{2}O<HF

    But the actual order is NH_{3}<HF<H_{2}O

    This is because of the extent of H bonding in a water molecule is more due to the presence of one extra hydrogen atom. Also, Oxygen atom forms a huge ring like structure through its high ability of hydrogen bonding

    Question 9.15 Saline hydrides are known to react with water violently producing fire. Can CO2, a well-known fire extinguisher, be used in this case? Explain.

    Answer :

    Saline hydrides are known to react with water violently and produce fire.

    MH(s)+H_{2}O\rightarrow MOH(aq)+H_{2}(g) this is the general reaction formula. We see that the product is a base and hydrogen gas.

    Carbon dioxide is heavier than oxygen. It is used in fire extinguisher because it cuts the supply of oxygen by acting as a blanket on fire.

    Carbon dioxide can be used in nowadays and it is heavier than dihydrogen also so that it will isolate the burning surface from H_{2} and O_{2}

    Question 9.16(i) Arrange the following

    CaH2, BeH2 and TiH2 in order of increasing electrical conductance

    Answer :

    increasing order of electrical conductance-


    electrical conductivity depends on its ionic nature . more is the ionic more is the conductivity.

    Berrium hydride is covalent in nature so it has least conductivity. Titanium hydride is metallic in nature so it will also conduct.

    we also know that greater is the size of cation more is the ionic in nature.

    Question 9.16(ii) Arrange the following

    LiH, NaH and CsH in order of increasing ionic character

    Answer :

    the increasing order of ionic character -


    The ionic character can be measured by the electronegativity difference between the atom. we know that down the group electronegativity decreases. Therefore, Cs has most electronegative character then Na then Li.

    Question 9.16(iii) arrange the following

    H–H, D–D and F–F in order of increasing bond dissociation enthalpy

    Answer :

    F-F<H-H<D-D increasing order of bond dissociation enthalpy

    In F-F high repulsion force is acting so breaking should be easy.

    while in case of H-H and D-D, bond pair of D-D is more strongly attracted by the nucleus because of the higher nucleus mass in D2. we know that higher the attraction high is the bond strength.

    Question 9.16(iv) Arrange the following NaH, MgH_2, and H_2O in order of increasing reducing property

    Answer :

    increasing order of reducing property-


    Na can easily donate electrons so it has a higher reducing property. Both H_{2}OandMgH_{2} are covalent hydrides. water has less reducing property because it has high bond dissociation energy than MgH_{2}

    Question 9.17 Compare the structures of H2O and H2O2.

    Answer :

    In the gaseous phase water is a bent molecule with a bond angle of 104.5 degree, and O-H bond length of 95.7 pm. It is a highly polar molecule.

    Hydrogen peroxide has a non-planner structure both in the gas phase and solid phase. The dihedral angle in the gas phase is 115.5 degree and in the solid phase is 90.2 degree.

    Question 9.18 What do you understand by the term ’auto-protolysis’ of water? What is its significance?

    Answer :

    It means water molecules can react with each other and form hydronium ion and hydroxide ion. (self-ionization)

    H_{2}O(l)+H_{2}O(l)\rightarrow H_{3}O^{+}(aq)+OH^{-}(aq)

    it indicates its amphoteric nature; means behave as acid as well as the base.

    the Hydronium Ion - conjugate acid

    the hydroxide ion - conjugate base

    Question 9.19 Consider the reaction of water with F2 and suggest, in terms of oxidation and reduction, which species are oxidized/reduced.

    Answer :

    The reaction of fluorine with water-

    2F_{2}+2H_{2}O\rightarrow 4HF+O_{2}

    F_{2}(0)\rightarrow H^{+1}F^{-1} -----------reduction (O.N of F changes from 0 to -1)

    H^{+1}_{2}O^{-2}\rightarrow O_{2}^{0} ------------- Oxidation( O.N of O changes from -2 to 0)

    Fluorine reduced by gaining an electron and water oxidized by losing an electron.

    Question 9.20(i) Complete the following chemical reactions.


    Classify the above into (a) hydrolysis, (b) redox and (c) hydration reactions

    Answer :

    (i)PbS(s)+H_{2}O_{2}(aq)\rightarrow PbSO_{4}(s)+H_{2}O(l)

    Here hydrogen peroxide oxidizes the lead sulfide, act as an oxidising agent. Hence it is a redox reaction.

    Question 9.20(ii) Complete the following chemical reactions.


    Classify the above into (a) hydrolysis, (b) redox and (c) hydration reactions.

    Answer :

    Reaction is- MnO_{4}^{-}(aq)+H_{2}O_{2}(aq)\rightarrow 6H^{+}(aq)+Mn^{2+}(aq)+8H_{2}O(l)+5O_{2}(g)

    Here hydrogen peroxide reduces the MnO_{4}^{-} into Mn^{2+} act as reducing agent. Hence it's a redox reaction.

    Question 9.20(iii) Complete the following chemical reactions.


    Classify the above into (a) hydrolysis, (b) redox and (c) hydration reactions

    Answer :

    The reaction is - CaO(s)+H_{2}O(g)\rightarrow Ca(OH)_{2}(aq)

    it is a hydrolysis reaction because we know that the reaction in which water reacts with water to produce another compound is hydrolysis.

    Question 9.20 (iv) Complete the following chemical reactions


    Classify the above into (a) hydrolysis, (b) redox and (c) hydration reactions.

    Answer :

    The complete reaction is -

    AlCl_{3}(g)+H_{2}O(l)\rightarrow Al_{2}O_{3}(s)+6HCl(aq)

    The given reaction is hydrolysis reaction.

    Question 9.20(v) Complete the following chemical reactions


    Classify the above into (a) hydrolysis, (b) redox and (c) hydration reactions

    Answer :

    the complete reaction is -

    Ca_{3}N_{2}(s)+H_{2}O(l)\rightarrow 3Ca(OH)_{2}(aq)+2NH_{3}(g)

    The reaction in which water reacts with water and produce other compound are called hydrolysisreaction.

    Question 9.21 Describe the structure of the common form of ice.

    Answer :


    Ice is a crystalline form of water. At atmospheric pressure, ice crystallizes in the hexagonal form, but at low temperature, it condenses to cubic form. The density of ice is less than water; therefore it floats on the water surface. Ice has a highly ordered three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded structure. (shown above) Each Oxygen atom is surrounded by four H atom tetrahedrally.

    Question 9.22 What causes the temporary and permanent hardness of water ?

    Answer :

    Answer- Temporary hardness of water is because of the presence of salts of magnesium and calcium hydrogen carbonates. (MHCO_{3}) [ M = Mg,Ca]. Permanent hardness is due to the presence of soluble salts of magnesium and calcium in the form of chlorids and sulphates in water. e.g, MCl_{2}/MSO_{4}

    [M = Mg and Ca]

    Question 9.23 Discuss the principle and method of softening of hard water by synthetic ionexchange resins.

    Answer :

    The treatment process of permanent hard water using synthetic resin is based on cations exchange (Ca^{2+},Mg^{2+},Na^{+}) and anion exchange ((Cl^{-},SO_{4}^{2-},HCO_{3}^{-}) ;present in water by H^{+} ions and OH^{-} ions.

    There are two types-

    (i) Cation exchange resins

    (ii)anion exchange resins

    Cation exchange resin is large organic molecules contain -SO_{3}H group and are water-insoluble. Ion exchange resin (RSO3H) is changed to RNa by treating it with NaCl. The resin exchanges Na^{+} ions with Ca^{2+} and Mg^{2+} ions present in hard water to make the water soft.

    2RNa(s)+M^{2+}(aq)\rightarrow R_{2}M(s)+2Na^{+}(aq)

    There are cation exchange resins in H + form. The resins exchange H + ions for Na + , Ca 2+ , and Mg 2+ ions.

    2RH+M^{2+}\rightleftharpoons MR_{2}+2H^{+}

    Anion exchange resins exchanges OH^{-} ions for anions like ((Cl^{-},SO_{4}^{2-},HCO_{3}^{-})

    \\RNH_{2}+H_{2}O\rightleftharpoons RNH_{3}^{+}.OH(s)\\RNH_{3}^{+}.OH^{-}+X^{-}\rightleftharpoons RNH_{3}^{+}.X^{-}+OH^{-}

    Water first passes through the cation exchange process. The water obtained is acidic in nature and this acidic water then passed through anion exchange process where OH^{-} ions neutralize the H + ions

    Question 9.24 Write chemical reactions to show the amphoteric nature of water.

    Answer :

    It has the ability to act as an acid as well as a base. In the Bronsted sense, it acts as an acid with ammonia and a base with hydrogen sulphide.

    Reactions to show the amphoteric nature of water -

    H_{2}O(l)+NH_{3}(aq)\rightleftharpoons OH^{-}(aq)+NH_{4+}(aq)

    \\H_{2}O(l)+NH_{3}(aq)\rightleftharpoons OH^{-}(aq)+NH_{4}^{+}(aq)\\ H_{2}O(l)+H_{2}S(aq)\rightleftharpoons H_{3}O^{+}(aq)+HS^{-}(aq)

    Question 9.26 What is meant by ‘demineralised’ water and how can it be obtained?

    Answer :

    Demineralized water means free from all types of cations and anions and also soluble mineral salts.

    It can be obtained by passing water successively through a cation exchange (in the H^{+} ion form) and anion exchange (in the form of OH^{-} ion) resins:

    Cation exchange process-

    2RH(s)+M^{2+}\rightleftharpoons MR_{2}(s)+2H^{+}(aq) { exchange for Na^{+}, Ca^{2+},Mg{2+} and other cation present in water.}

    Anion exchange process-

    OH^{-} exchanges for anions like Cl^{-},HCO_{3}^{-},SO_{4}^{2-} etc present in the water \\RNH_{2}(s)+H_{2}O(l)\rightleftharpoons RNH_{3}^{+}.OH^{-}(s)\\RNH_{3}^{+}.OH^{-}(s)+X^{-}(aq)\rightleftharpoons RNH_{3}^{+}X^{-}(s)+OH^{-}(aq)

    OH^{-} ions liberated in anion exchange neutralizes the H^{+} ions liberated in cation exchange, thereby forming water

    Question 9.27 Is demineralized or distilled water useful for drinking purposes? If not, how can it be made useful?

    Answer :

    Water contains several minerals that are necessary or required by human beings, plants, animals for survival. And we know that demineralized water is free from all these minerals. So it is not useful for drinking purpose.

    It can be made useful by adding desired minerals in a certain amount which are favourable for growth.

    Question 9.28 Describe the usefulness of water in biosphere and biological systems.

    Answer :

    Water is essential for all living beings. It plays an important role in the biosphere. its has high specific heat, thermal conductivity, surface tension, dipole moment, and dielectric constant.

    The high heat of vaporisation and heat capacity are responsible for the moderation of the climate and body temperature of living beings. It is an excellent solvent for transportation of ions and molecules required for plant and animal metabolism.

    Question 9.29 What properties of water make it useful as a solvent? What types of a compound can it (i) dissolve, and (ii) hydrolyze?

    Answer :

    Water has high dielectric constant ( 78.4 C^{2}/Nm^{2} ) and dipole moment which makes it universal solvent. It dissolves the most ionic as well as covalent compounds. [ionic compound because of ion-dipole interaction and covalent due to their tendency to form a hydrogen bond with water.] Water is also able to hydrolyze the metallic and non-metallic oxides, hydrides and nitrides, etc.

    Question 9.30 Knowing the properties of H2O and D2O, do you think that D2O can be used for drinking purposes?

    Answer :

    D_{2}O is heavy water, it acts as a moderator which slow down the rate of the chemical reaction. Due to this property, we cannot use it for drinking purpose. if we use, it will slow down our metabolic reaction happens in the body.

    Question 9.31 What is the difference between the terms ‘hydrolysis’ and ‘hydration’ ?

    Answer :

    Hydrolysis - it means the reaction of the water molecule (H^{+}/OH^{-}) with another compound and forming a new product. for example.

    KH +H_{2}O\rightarrow KOH+H_{2}

    Hydration - It means the addition of one or more than one water molecule to form a hydrated compound.

    ex. CuSO_{4}+5H_{2}O\rightarrow CuSO_{4}.5H_{2}O

    Question 9.32 How can saline hydrides remove traces of water from organic compounds?

    Answer :

    The saline hydrides react with water to form metal hydroxide and liberate hydrogen gas.

    reaction- MH+H_{2}O\rightarrow MOH+H_{2} [M = Na, K, Ca...]

    when added to the organic compounds they form metal hydroxide along with the liberation of hydrogen gas (escape into the atmosphere) and leave behind only hydroxide part.

    Question 9.33 What do you expect the nature of hydrides is, if formed by elements of atomic numbers 15, 19, 23 and 44 with dihydrogen? Compare their behaviour towards water

    Answer :

    Atomic Number 15 19 23 and 44 are phosphorus, potassium, vanadium, and ruthenium respectively.

    hydrides of these elements are

    (i) PH_{3} - its an electron rich species also a covalent molecule.

    1650536300163 a lone pair of electron.

    (ii)Hydrides of potassium- dihydrogen forms an ionic hydride. It is crystalline and non-volatile in nature

    (iii) hydrides of vanadium and ruthenium- Both elements belong to d- block. They form metallic and non-stoichiometric hydrides. They are metallic in nature.

    Behavior towards water-

    • D block element does not react with water
    • phosphorus reacts with water (behave as Lewis base and accept H^{+} and form PH_{4}^{+} )
    • potassium react with water and form KOH and liberate hydrogen gas

    Question 9.34 Do you expect different products in solution when aluminum (III) chloride and potassium chloride treated separately with (i) normal water (ii) acidified water, and (iii) alkaline water? Write equations wherever necessary.

    Answer :

    • KCl is salt of KOH(strong base) and HCl(strong acid). So it does not hydrolyze in normal water because it is neutral in nature. It just simply ionizes in water.

    KCl\rightarrow K^{+}+Cl^{-} In acidified and alkaline water they do not dissociate into ions and remains the same.

    • AlCl_{3} is the salt of a weak base Al(OH)_{3} and HCl( strong acid).So it hydrolyzes in normal water.

    AlCl_{3}+H_{2}O\rightarrow Al(OH)_{3}+HCl

    In acidic water, there are H^{+} ions which react with Al(OH)_{3} and form water molecule and give Al^{3+} ions. In alkaline water, OH^{-} ions react with Al(OH)_{3} and form [Al(OH)_{4}]^{-} and water molecules.

    Al(OH)_{3}+OH^{-}\rightarrow [Al(OH)_{4}]^{-}+H_{2}O

    Question 9.35 How does H2O2 behave as a bleaching agent?

    Answer :

    Hydrogen peroxide (H_{2}O_{2}) act as an oxidizing agent in basic as well as the acidic medium. In the exposure of light, it decomposes and gives nascent oxygen which combines with coloring matter which in turn gets oxidized. So the bleaching action of (H_{2}O_{2}) is mainly due to the oxidation of coloring matter.

    Question 9.36 What do you understand by the terms: (i) hydrogen economy (ii) hydrogenation (iii) ‘syngas’ (iv) water-gas shift reaction (v) fuel-cell ?

    Answer :

    (i) Hydrogen Economy - Technique of using dihydrogen in an efficient way. The basic principle of the hydrogen economy is the transportation and storage of energy in the form of liquid or gaseous dihydrogen.

    (ii) Hydrogenation- The addition of dihydrogen to the reactant. This process can be done with the help of a suitable catalyst like nickel and palladium.

    (iii) Syngas- The mixture of CO\&H_{2} . This mixture of carbon monoxide and dihydrogen is used for the synthesis of methanol and a number of hydrocarbons, its called syngas, water gas or synthesis gas.

    (iv) Water gas shift reaction- To increase the production of dihydrogen, by reacting with carbon monoxide of syngas mixture with steam in the presence of iron chromate as a catalyst. CO(g)+H_{2}O(g)\rightarrow H_{2}+CO_{2} This is called water gas shift reaction.

    (v) Fuel-cell- These are the devices that produce electrical energy from the liquid fuel with the help of suitable electrolytes.dihdrogen can be used in these cells to produce electrical energy. It is eco-friendly in nature.

    Hydrogen is the most abundant element in our universe (more than 80% of the universe) and also the 3rd most abundant element after oxygen and silicon on the surface of the globe. Therefore it is important to know all about the hydrogen element for a chemistry student. Hydrogen is being visualized as the major future source of energy. After completing NCERT solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 9 Hydrogen students will be able to explain the position of hydrogen in the periodic table; describe isotopes of hydrogen; able to explain how different elements combine with hydrogen to form, molecular, ionic and non-stoichiometric compounds; understand the structure of water, hydrogen peroxide, etc.

    Hydrogen Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 9: Points To Remember-

    1. Hydrogen is the 1st element in the periodic table. Its electronic configuration is 1s^1 . Its electronic configuration is similar to the electronic configuration of two groups which are alkali metals (ns^1) and halogens (ns^2np^5) .

    2. Hydrogen shows dual nature because it behaves as electropositive like alkali metals and electronegative like halogens.

    3. Hydrogen exists in three isotopes which are _{1}^{1}\textrm{H} (protium), _{1}^{2}\textrm{H} or D (deuterium), and _{1}^{3}\textrm{H} or T (tritium).

    4. Three main sources from which dihydrogen may be prepared are (i) Water, (ii) Acids and (iii) Alkalies.

    5. Dihydrogen is an odourless, colourless, and tasteless gas.

    Hydrogen Class 11 Chemistry NCERT Syllabus Topics

    9.1 Position of Hydrogen in the Periodic Table

    9.2 Dihydrogen, H_2

    9.3 Preparation of Dihydrogen, H_2

    9.4 Properties of Dihydrogen

    9.5 Hydrides

    9.6 Water

    9.7 Hydrogen Peroxide (H_2O_2)

    9.8 Heavy Water, D_2O

    9.9 Dihydrogen as a Fuel

    NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry

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    • The solutions are written in a comprehensive manner in the NCERT solutions for class 11 chemistry chapter 9 Hydrogen will help you writing answers in your exam.
    • Revision will be easy because the detailed solutions will help you to remember the concepts and get you good marks.
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    If you have a doubt or question that is not available here or in any of the chapters, contact us. You will get all the answers that will help you score well in your exams.

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    Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

    1. What are the important topics NCERT class 11 chemistry chapter 9 ?

    Important topics are- 

    • Isotopes of hydrogen
    • Dihydrogen: Preparation, properties and uses
    • Chemical properties of water
    • Hard and soft water: Definition and methods of removal
    • H2O2: Preparation, structure and properties
    • Hydrides and its three types
    • Difference between structures of ice and water
    2. Where can I find complete solutions of NCERT class 11 Chemistry?

    For complete solutions of NCERT, students can refer to this link: 

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    A block of mass 0.50 kg is moving with a speed of 2.00 ms-1 on a smooth surface. It strikes another mass of 1.00 kg and then they move together as a single body. The energy loss during the collision is

    Option 1)

    0.34\; J

    Option 2)

    0.16\; J

    Option 3)

    1.00\; J

    Option 4)

    0.67\; J

    A person trying to lose weight by burning fat lifts a mass of 10 kg upto a height of 1 m 1000 times.  Assume that the potential energy lost each time he lowers the mass is dissipated.  How much fat will he use up considering the work done only when the weight is lifted up ?  Fat supplies 3.8×107 J of energy per kg which is converted to mechanical energy with a 20% efficiency rate.  Take g = 9.8 ms−2 :

    Option 1)

    2.45×10−3 kg

    Option 2)

     6.45×10−3 kg

    Option 3)

     9.89×10−3 kg

    Option 4)

    12.89×10−3 kg


    An athlete in the olympic games covers a distance of 100 m in 10 s. His kinetic energy can be estimated to be in the range

    Option 1)

    2,000 \; J - 5,000\; J

    Option 2)

    200 \, \, J - 500 \, \, J

    Option 3)

    2\times 10^{5}J-3\times 10^{5}J

    Option 4)

    20,000 \, \, J - 50,000 \, \, J

    A particle is projected at 600   to the horizontal with a kinetic energy K. The kinetic energy at the highest point

    Option 1)


    Option 2)

    \; K\;

    Option 3)


    Option 4)


    In the reaction,

    2Al_{(s)}+6HCL_{(aq)}\rightarrow 2Al^{3+}\, _{(aq)}+6Cl^{-}\, _{(aq)}+3H_{2(g)}

    Option 1)

    11.2\, L\, H_{2(g)}  at STP  is produced for every mole HCL_{(aq)}  consumed

    Option 2)

    6L\, HCl_{(aq)}  is consumed for ever 3L\, H_{2(g)}      produced

    Option 3)

    33.6 L\, H_{2(g)} is produced regardless of temperature and pressure for every mole Al that reacts

    Option 4)

    67.2\, L\, H_{2(g)} at STP is produced for every mole Al that reacts .

    How many moles of magnesium phosphate, Mg_{3}(PO_{4})_{2} will contain 0.25 mole of oxygen atoms?

    Option 1)


    Option 2)

    3.125 × 10-2

    Option 3)

    1.25 × 10-2

    Option 4)

    2.5 × 10-2

    If we consider that 1/6, in place of 1/12, mass of carbon atom is taken to be the relative atomic mass unit, the mass of one mole of a substance will

    Option 1)

    decrease twice

    Option 2)

    increase two fold

    Option 3)

    remain unchanged

    Option 4)

    be a function of the molecular mass of the substance.

    With increase of temperature, which of these changes?

    Option 1)


    Option 2)

    Weight fraction of solute

    Option 3)

    Fraction of solute present in water

    Option 4)

    Mole fraction.

    Number of atoms in 558.5 gram Fe (at. wt.of Fe = 55.85 g mol-1) is

    Option 1)

    twice that in 60 g carbon

    Option 2)

    6.023 × 1022

    Option 3)

    half that in 8 g He

    Option 4)

    558.5 × 6.023 × 1023

    A pulley of radius 2 m is rotated about its axis by a force F = (20t - 5t2) newton (where t is measured in seconds) applied tangentially. If the moment of inertia of the pulley about its axis of rotation is 10 kg m2 , the number of rotations made by the pulley before its direction of motion if reversed, is

    Option 1)

    less than 3

    Option 2)

    more than 3 but less than 6

    Option 3)

    more than 6 but less than 9

    Option 4)

    more than 9

    Bio Medical Engineer

    The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

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    Data Administrator

    Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

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    GIS Expert

    GIS officer work on various GIS software to conduct a study and gather spatial and non-spatial information. GIS experts update the GIS data and maintain it. The databases include aerial or satellite imagery, latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates, and manually digitized images of maps. In a career as GIS expert, one is responsible for creating online and mobile maps.

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    Database Architect

    If you are intrigued by the programming world and are interested in developing communications networks then a career as database architect may be a good option for you. Data architect roles and responsibilities include building design models for data communication networks. Wide Area Networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), and intranets are included in the database networks. It is expected that database architects will have in-depth knowledge of a company's business to develop a network to fulfil the requirements of the organisation. Stay tuned as we look at the larger picture and give you more information on what is db architecture, why you should pursue database architecture, what to expect from such a degree and what your job opportunities will be after graduation. Here, we will be discussing how to become a data architect. Students can visit NIT Trichy, IIT Kharagpur, JMI New Delhi

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    Ethical Hacker

    A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.

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    Data Analyst

    The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

    Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

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    Geothermal Engineer

    Individuals who opt for a career as geothermal engineers are the professionals involved in the processing of geothermal energy. The responsibilities of geothermal engineers may vary depending on the workplace location. Those who work in fields design facilities to process and distribute geothermal energy. They oversee the functioning of machinery used in the field.

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    Geotechnical engineer

    The role of geotechnical engineer starts with reviewing the projects needed to define the required material properties. The work responsibilities are followed by a site investigation of rock, soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest. The investigation is aimed to improve the ground engineering design and determine their engineering properties that include how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. 

    The role of geotechnical engineer in mining includes designing and determining the type of foundations, earthworks, and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be made. Geotechnical engineering jobs are involved in earthen and concrete dam construction projects, working under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. 

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    Bank Probationary Officer (PO)

    A career as Bank Probationary Officer (PO) is seen as a promising career opportunity and a white-collar career. Each year aspirants take the Bank PO exam. This career provides plenty of career development and opportunities for a successful banking future. If you have more questions about a career as  Bank Probationary Officer (PO), what is probationary officer or how to become a Bank Probationary Officer (PO) then you can read the article and clear all your doubts. 

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    Operations Manager

    Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.

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    The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

    Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

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    Finance Executive

    A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.  

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    Investment Banker

    An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance, and Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.

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    Bank Branch Manager

    Bank Branch Managers work in a specific section of banking related to the invention and generation of capital for other organisations, governments, and other entities. Bank Branch Managers work for the organisations and underwrite new debts and equity securities for all type of companies, aid in the sale of securities, as well as help to facilitate mergers and acquisitions, reorganisations, and broker trades for both institutions and private investors.

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    Treasury analyst career path is often regarded as certified treasury specialist in some business situations, is a finance expert who specifically manages a company or organisation's long-term and short-term financial targets. Treasurer synonym could be a financial officer, which is one of the reputed positions in the corporate world. In a large company, the corporate treasury jobs hold power over the financial decision-making of the total investment and development strategy of the organisation.

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    Product Manager

    A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

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    Transportation Planner

    A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

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    Conservation Architect

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    A Safety Manager is a professional responsible for employee’s safety at work. He or she plans, implements and oversees the company’s employee safety. A Safety Manager ensures compliance and adherence to Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) guidelines.

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    Structural Engineer

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    Individuals in the architecture career are the building designers who plan the whole construction keeping the safety and requirements of the people. Individuals in architect career in India provides professional services for new constructions, alterations, renovations and several other activities. Individuals in architectural careers in India visit site locations to visualize their projects and prepare scaled drawings to submit to a client or employer as a design. Individuals in architecture careers also estimate build costs, materials needed, and the projected time frame to complete a build.

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    An expert in plumbing is aware of building regulations and safety standards and works to make sure these standards are upheld. Testing pipes for leakage using air pressure and other gauges, and also the ability to construct new pipe systems by cutting, fitting, measuring and threading pipes are some of the other more involved aspects of plumbing. Individuals in the plumber career path are self-employed or work for a small business employing less than ten people, though some might find working for larger entities or the government more desirable.

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    Orthotist and Prosthetist

    Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

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    Veterinary Doctor

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    A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.

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    Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

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    An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.

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    Chemical Pathologist

    Are you searching for a chemical pathologist job description? A chemical pathologist is a skilled professional in healthcare who utilises biochemical laboratory tests to diagnose disease by analysing the levels of various components or constituents in the patient’s body fluid. 

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    A Biochemical Engineer is a professional involved in the study of proteins, viruses, cells and other biological substances. He or she utilises his or her scientific knowledge to develop products, medicines or ways to improve quality and refine processes. A Biochemical Engineer studies chemical functions occurring in a living organism’s body. He or she utilises the observed knowledge to alter the composition of products and develop new processes. A Biochemical Engineer may develop biofuels or environmentally friendly methods to dispose of waste generated by industries. 

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    For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

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    Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

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    Video Game Designer

    Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages. Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

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    Talent Agent

    The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

    If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

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    Radio Jockey

    Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

    A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.

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    Careers in videography are art that can be defined as a creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than a simple recording of a simple event. It would be wrong to portrait it as a subcategory of photography, rather photography is one of the crafts used in videographer jobs in addition to technical skills like organization, management, interpretation, and image-manipulation techniques. Students pursue Visual Media, Film, Television, Digital Video Production to opt for a videographer career path. The visual impacts of a film are driven by the creative decisions taken in videography jobs. Individuals who opt for a career as a videographer are involved in the entire lifecycle of a film and production. 

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    Multimedia Specialist

    A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

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    Visual Communication Designer

    Individuals who want to opt for a career as a Visual Communication Designer will work in the graphic design and arts industry. Every sector in the modern age is using visuals to connect with people, clients, or customers. This career involves art and technology and candidates who want to pursue their career as visual communication designer has a great scope of career opportunity.

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    In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism, Advertising, Marketing Management. Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

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    Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

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    For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

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    In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. Ever since internet cost got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, the career as vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the career as vlogger, how to become a vlogger, so on and so forth then continue reading the article. Students can visit Jamia Millia Islamia, Asian College of Journalism, Indian Institute of Mass Communication to pursue journalism degrees.

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    Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

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    Content writing is meant to speak directly with a particular audience, such as customers, potential customers, investors, employees, or other stakeholders. The main aim of professional content writers is to speak to their targeted audience and if it is not then it is not doing its job. There are numerous kinds of the content present on the website and each is different based on the service or the product it is used for.

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    Individuals who opt for a career as a reporter may often be at work on national holidays and festivities. He or she pitches various story ideas and covers news stories in risky situations. Students can pursue a BMC (Bachelor of Mass Communication), B.M.M. (Bachelor of Mass Media), or MAJMC (MA in Journalism and Mass Communication) to become a reporter. While we sit at home reporters travel to locations to collect information that carries a news value.  

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    Linguistic meaning is related to language or Linguistics which is the study of languages. A career as a linguistic meaning, a profession that is based on the scientific study of language, and it's a very broad field with many specialities. Famous linguists work in academia, researching and teaching different areas of language, such as phonetics (sounds), syntax (word order) and semantics (meaning). 

    Other researchers focus on specialities like computational linguistics, which seeks to better match human and computer language capacities, or applied linguistics, which is concerned with improving language education. Still, others work as language experts for the government, advertising companies, dictionary publishers and various other private enterprises. Some might work from home as freelance linguists. Philologist, phonologist, and dialectician are some of Linguist synonym. Linguists can study French, German, Italian

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    Product Manager

    A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

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    Quality Controller

    A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

    A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

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    Production Manager

    Production Manager Job Description: A Production Manager is responsible for ensuring smooth running of manufacturing processes in an efficient manner. He or she plans and organises production schedules. The role of Production Manager involves estimation, negotiation on budget and timescales with the clients and managers. 

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    Team Lead

    A Team Leader is a professional responsible for guiding, monitoring and leading the entire group. He or she is responsible for motivating team members by providing a pleasant work environment to them and inspiring positive communication. A Team Leader contributes to the achievement of the organisation’s goals. He or she improves the confidence, product knowledge and communication skills of the team members and empowers them.

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    Quality Systems Manager

    A Quality Systems Manager is a professional responsible for developing strategies, processes, policies, standards and systems concerning the company as well as operations of its supply chain. It includes auditing to ensure compliance. It could also be carried out by a third party. 

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    A career as a merchandiser requires one to promote specific products and services of one or different brands, to increase the in-house sales of the store. Merchandising job focuses on enticing the customers to enter the store and hence increasing their chances of buying a product. Although the buyer is the one who selects the lines, it all depends on the merchandiser on how much money a buyer will spend, how many lines will be purchased, and what will be the quantity of those lines. In a career as merchandiser, one is required to closely work with the display staff in order to decide in what way a product would be displayed so that sales can be maximised. In small brands or local retail stores, a merchandiser is responsible for both merchandising and buying. 

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    Procurement Manager

    The procurement Manager is also known as  Purchasing Manager. The role of the Procurement Manager is to source products and services for a company. A Procurement Manager is involved in developing a purchasing strategy, including the company's budget and the supplies as well as the vendors who can provide goods and services to the company. His or her ultimate goal is to bring the right products or services at the right time with cost-effectiveness. 

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    Production Planner

    Individuals who opt for a career as a production planner are professionals who are responsible for ensuring goods manufactured by the employing company are cost-effective and meets quality specifications including ensuring the availability of ready to distribute stock in a timely fashion manner. 

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    Product Manager

    A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

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    ITSM Manager

    ITSM Manager is a professional responsible for heading the ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) or (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) processes. He or she ensures that operation management provides appropriate resource levels for problem resolutions. The ITSM Manager oversees the level of prioritisation for the problems, critical incidents, planned as well as proactive tasks. 

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    Information Security Manager

    Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

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    Computer Programmer

    Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

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    Computer System Analyst

    Individuals in the computer systems analyst career path study the hardware and applications that are part of an organization's computer systems, as well as how they are used. They collaborate closely with managers and end-users to identify system specifications and business priorities, as well as to assess the efficiency of computer systems and create techniques to boost IT efficiency. Individuals who opt for a career as a computer system analyst support the implementation, modification, and debugging of new systems after they have been installed.

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    Test Manager

    A Test Manager is a professional responsible for planning, coordinating and controlling test activities. He or she develops test processes and strategies to analyse and determine test methods and tools for test activities. The test manager jobs involve documenting tests that have been carried out, analysing and evaluating software quality to determine further recommended procedures. 

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    Azure Developer

    A career as Azure Developer comes with the responsibility of designing and developing cloud-based applications and maintaining software components. He or she possesses an in-depth knowledge of cloud computing and Azure app service. 

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    Deep Learning Engineer

    A Deep Learning Engineer is an IT professional who is responsible for developing and managing data pipelines. He or she is knowledgeable about analyzing and storing data collected from various sources.  A Career as a Deep Learning Engineer needs to help the  data scientists and analysts to create effective data sets.

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