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The NCERT chapter Living World discusses the world of the living. The Class 11 The living world notes cover a brief outline of the chapter Living World. The main topics covered in The notes for Class 11 Biology Class 11 notes pdf download.—definition of living, different characters of life, diversity of the living world, different taxonomic categories and various taxonomic aids. Class 11 Biology chapter 1 also notes all the basic concepts in the chapter. The details of taxonomy and classification are not covered in The Living World Class 11 notes Biology chapter 1 notes and living world Class 11 notes pdf download is available for students of Class 11.
Also, students can refer,
For defining living, we look at definitive characters that are shown by the organisms. These characters are described below in brief:
Young individuals grow in size, biomass and in number. The multicellular living beings grow in size by cell division. Plants show cellular division throughout their lifespan while in animals this stops after a certain period. The non-living beings differ here from living beings as their growth is on the surface while the growth of the living organisms is from the inside.
Any living being generates the following generation possessing its features. Living organisms reproduce through asexual methods such as spore formation, fragmentation, budding, fission etc. Alongside it sexual reproduction, i.e., the production of gametes is also seen. Non-living beings are incapable of producing identical offspring i.e., replicating themselves.
The atoms of different elements and different molecules of chemicals make up living and non-living beings. But in living beings, these molecules are constantly broken and made into some other molecules. Such changes or chemical interactions are known as metabolism. Metabolism taking place outside any living cell is not considered as living or non-living rather it becomes an integral part of the existence of a living being.
The most basic level of organization of a living being is the cellular level. Each living being is made up of cells. The unicellular organisms perform all their life functions using only one cell while multicellulars show different levels of the organization. We can refer to the cell as a structural and functional unit of life. In multicellular organisms, cells of the same or different features performing common functions are called tissues. The tissues together form the organs which unitedly forms an organ system. All the organ systems collectively run the body of multicellular organisms.
All living beings can recognize both internal and external stimuli and they respond to those accordingly. Alterations in light intensity, temperature, touch, presence of chemicals, etc., hormones and enzymes in the body often act as stimuli. For example, a plant kept in a shady place near a window moves its branches and leaves towards it to reach more light intensity.
All these properties of living beings are not individually created at the molecular levels; rather they develop as a result of interactions among different molecules which constitute the cells and their organelles. Thus, we can define a living being as an interactive system that replicates, evolves and regulates itself and can respond to external stimuli. Also, all the current and extinct living beings are linked to one another through genetic materials.
A variety of living organisms are observed around us. The known number of species of a living being may be currently around 1.7-1.8 million which maybe only 15-20% of the actual number. This variety of plants and animals that lives in any particular habitat or all around the world includes a diversity of genetic materials, community as well as diversity in the ecosystem. Here in Class 11 Biology chapter, 1 Living World notes we describe this diversity in the living world as biodiversity.
The word biodiversity was first used by W. Rosen in 1985. It refers to the variation of lifeforms on earth from the genetic level to the ecosystems. The examples of variable aspects of diversity can be observed in the following—
1. The members of one species of an ecosystem show variation in their morphology and structure.
2. Reproductive variation among species of the same ecosystem.
3. Morphological variations among species of the same nature in the same ecosystem, etc.
For such a large variety of species and to study different aspects of their life is necessary and to do so a universal study system was needed. From there development of taxonomy and classification took place which we are going to discuss here in The Living World Class 11 notes Biology chapter 1 notes.
Different species come with different names which change with languages and places. Thus, a standardised naming process was necessary for scientific purposes. This process is called nomenclature. But to name an organism, we need to know all of its characters and features. Thus, a standard identification process was also required.
In The Living World Class 11 Biology chapter 1 notes pdf, the concept of nomenclature is discussed below.
The nomenclature process is guided through international codes that provide rules and regulations. They are— International Code for Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) and the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN).
Each living being has a scientific name composed of a generic and a specific epithet. Such a two-term composed naming process is known as binomial nomenclature. This process was first given by Carolus Linnaeus in 1753.
In NCERT notes for Class 11 Biology chapter 1, all the other rules followed while naming an organism through binomial nomenclature are discussed below.
It should be Latinised.
The name must be written in italics and if handwritten, the two parts of the name must be underlined separately.
The first letter of the generic epithet is a capital letter while that of a specific epithet is a small letter.
A short form of the scientist’s name who first described the species is added after the specific epithet. This is not italicised.
Example: Mangifera indica L., is the scientific name of mango. The generic epithet here is Mangifera while the specific epithet is indica. The letter L. at the end represents Linnaeus who named the plant.
As studying all individual organisms separately is not possible for one person in his lifetime, scientists can come up with the idea of classification where all organisms are grouped as per similar characteristics.
In NCERT notes for class 11 biology chapter 1, the concept of classification is discussed below.
Based upon similar characteristics, the living beings are placed in different groups. These groups are called taxa. This process of placing different organisms in taxa is known as taxonomy. According to G. H. M. Lawrence, taxonomy handles three aspects—identification, nomenclature and classification of organisms.
Man did not stop after classification. Their curiosity has led them to know relationships among different species. The branch of biology dealing with this interrelationship among species leading towards their origin and evolution is known as systematics. This word was coined by Linnaeus in his book Systema Naturae.
Each step of classification involves several steps each of which expresses a rank or category and these are arranged in a definite higher to lower order. This is known as a taxonomic hierarchy. These ranks are the taxa (singular: taxon) are of seven types.
In The Living World Class, 11 notes Biology chapter 1 notes, different taxonomic categories are discussed separately.
Species: This is the group of organisms with similar characters and an interbreed. They are reproductively isolated. Example: Mango plants found all over the world are included in indica species.
Genus: Different species of similar characters are accumulated under the genus taxon. Example: Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa and Ficus elastica are all added under the Ficus genus even though these three are entirely different plants.
Family: Taxa of one or more genera with similar characters. For example, Solanum, Petunia, Atropa, etc. are members of Family Solanaceae.
Order: This taxonomic category includes related families (one or more) with some common characteristics. Example: Felidae and Canidae are added under order Carnivora.
Class: This taxonomic category includes closely related orders of one or more numbers. Example: Class Mammalia includes order Carnivora and order Primata.
Division or phylum: This taxon includes classes of common features. Example: Spermatophyta division includes two classes Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. In animals, the division has named a phylum.
Kingdom: The largest or highest taxonomic category is called a kingdom. All the plants are placed under Kingdom Plantae while all animals are placed under Kingdom Animalia.
To store and preserve these data of taxonomy and systematics as well as utilise them, we need some aids or tools. Here in The Living World Class 11 Biology chapter 1 notes, we will discuss them.
Taxonomic tools can be defined as means to preserve, identify and classify different specimens. These specimens may be in living condition or maybe in preserved condition.
Different taxonomic aids are discussed separately in The Living World Class 11 notes Biology chapter 1.
A herbarium is a depository of plant specimens dried, pressed and preserved on special sheets. These specimens are arranged as any known and accepted system of classification.
In class 11 living world notes the importance of Herbarium is given below:
It gives us knowledge and information regarding the flora of a specific location.
It helps to give information and general features of the species. It helps in the identification of species.
It helps regarding the classification of new species.
It provides research and job facilities to taxonomists.
Botanical gardens are places to cultivate and maintain species of plants of local flora as well as those brought from distant countries.
The Living World Class 11 Biology chapter 1 notes the Botanical garden is given below:
Helps in the conservation of endangered and threatened plant species.
Ex-situ conservation of many plant species is done.
Most of the botanical garden serves as a herbarium depository.
It provides materials for the study of biosystematics.
Museums are places where art and educational material are exhibited to common people and those collections are available for study and observations.
In class 11 living world notes the importance of museums is given below:
Museums help in the preservation of collected plants and animal species.
The collections are used for the taxonomic study of different taxa.
Provides information regarding local flora and fauna.
Zoo or zoological parks are enclosed areas where wild animal species are conserved in captivity. In many zoological parks, high standard and care is maintained so the animals may live under more natural conditions.
In class 11 living world notes the importance of Zoological Park is given below:
Zoological parks are important for the ex-situ conservation of wild animals.
Breeding programmes are carried out in zoological parks.
These are important recreation centres and are used for mass awareness about wild species.
Important research tool for studying animal behaviour and life.
Based on contrasting characters, especially similarities and dissimilarities among different species, the key is prepared as a taxonomic aid for the identification of plants and animals. The two-opposite option for each character is given and each choice leads us to different species. Though we need different taxonomic keys for different taxa.
Apart from these aids, Flora, manuals, monographs and catalogues also help us to identify, classify and name different species.
Significance of NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 1 Notes
Class 11th notes on the living world will be helpful in revising the chapter and getting a sense of the main themes discussed. By covering the fundamental topics of the CBSE Biology syllabus in Class 11, these NCERT Class 11 Biology chapter 1 notes can also be used to study for the competitive exams such as VITEEE, BITSAT, JEE MAIN, NEET, and others.
When you are not connected to the internet you can use the Class 11 Biology chapter 1 notes PDF download to study.
NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 1 Notes
In NCERT notes for Class 11 Biology chapter 1. Is a brief of the main topics and covered in Class 11 living world notes and can be used for revising the living world.
The main topics covered in the NCERT Book are—definition of living, different characters of life, diversity of the living world, different taxonomic categories and various taxonomic aids are given shortly in NCERT Class 11 Biology chapter 1 notes.
The NCERT Class 11 biology chapter 1 Living world is in the scope of the CBSE Board Exam as well as in NEET. In the CBSE Board Exam, students can expect 4 to 6 marks questions from the chapter living world. With the help of notes for Class 11 Biology chapter 1, they will be able to revise all the main topics. The Living World Class 11 notes Biology chapter 1 notes pdf download is available to the students.
We can express Biodiversity as the variety among living beings coming from different ecosystems as well as variations in the levels of genetic, morphological, anatomical etc.
The critical properties of living are—
A living organism shows growth and development which is permanent.
The cellular organisation is observed in living beings.
Metabolism takes place in the cells of living organisms.
A living organism is capable of reproduction and thus creates future generations.
A living being shows responses toward internal or external stimuli.
A group of organisms with one or more common features are placed at a specific level in the hierarchy of classification. This group is called a taxon (plural: taxa). For example, all the birds are placed in class Aves which is a taxon. Similarly, genus, species, family etc., are all examples of taxa.
The full forms are given below—
ICZN: International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
ICBN: International Code for Botanical Nomenclature.
For identification of the plant, he may use taxonomic keys and monographs. He may also use herbaria and preserved specimens of plants which will help him to identify the key features of the plant and based on which put it in the specific taxon. Then he will use Rules given by ICBN for naming the plant if it is a new species.
In the case of a hand-written scientific name, the generic and specific epithets must be underlined separately. In the case of printed scientific names, the font should be in italics form.
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Application Date:20 November,2023 - 19 December,2023
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