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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Edited By Irshad Anwar | Updated on Sep 14, 2023 02:41 PM IST | #CBSE Class 12th

NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Biology Principles of Inheritance and Variation

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation: Have you ever wondered why an elephant always gives birth only to a baby elephant and not any other animal? Or why a mango seed forms only a mango plant and not any other plant? In NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Solutions, you will get answers to such interesting topics. CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 will provide questions and answers based on two important topics: that are Inheritance and variation. In order to study for the board exams, students can use these NCERT Solutions for Class 12. Additionally, chapter 5 biology Class 12 NCERT solutions are available for free download in PDF format. Scroll down to learn more about CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 5.

Chapter 5 Biology Class 12 NCERT Solutions: Inheritance is the process by which characters are passed on from parent to progeny, as it is the basis of heredity. Variation is the degree by which progeny differ from their parents. Biology Class 12 Chapter 5 will provide you answers related to questions based on variation among living beings. Students can download Principles of Inheritance and Variation Class 12 NCERT PDF for a better experience. Also, go through the NCERT solutions, if you want answers from any other class (6-12) then, it is the easiest way to get all solutions of the NCERT.

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation Excercise: Questions and answers

Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions are given in sequence as per the ncert textbook data:

Principles of Inheritance and Variation NCERT Solutions

Q1. Mention the advantages of selecting pea plant for experiment by Mendel.

Answer:

The advantages of selecting garden pea ( Pisum sativum ) for experiments by Mendel were –

1. Pea has many visibly distinct contrasting characters.

2. The life span of the pea plant is short and they produce many seeds in one generation.

3. Pea flowers are bisexual and show self-pollination, reproductive whorls being enclosed by corolla.

4. It is easy to artificially cross-pollinate the pea flowers. The hybrids thus produced were fertile.

Principles of Inheritance and Variation Class 12 Solutions:

Q2. Differentiate between the following

(a) Dominance and Recessive

Answer:

Dominance
Recessive
The phenomenon wherein a factor (allele) expresses itself in the presence or absence of its dominant factor, is called dominance.
It can only express itself in the absence of its dominant factor.
It forms a complete functional enzyme that perfectly expresses it.
It forms an incomplete defective enzyme which fails to express itself when present with its dominant allele, i.e., in heterozygous condition.

(b) Homozygous and Heterozygous

Answer:

Homozygous
Heterozygous
It contains two similar alleles for a particular trait. E.g TT, tt
It contains two dissimilar alleles for a particular trait. E.g. Tt
It can produce only one gametes
It can produce two types of gametes

(c) Monohybrid and Dihybrid

Answer:

Monohybrid
Dihybrid
It involves a cross between individuals differing in only one pair of characters
It is a cross between individuals differing in two pairs of contrasting characters.
The cross between tall (TT) and dwarf (tt) pea plants is monohybrid
The cross between plants having yellow round (YYRR) seeds with those having green wrinkled (yyrr) seeds is dihybrid

Principles of Inheritance and Variation Class 12 NCERT Solutions:

Q3. A diploid organism is heterozygous for 4 loci, how many types of gametes can be produced?

Answer:

Loci refer to the place on the chromosome where genes are positioned. So, we can say that loci and genes are synonyms of each other. If a diploid organism is heterozygous for 4 loci then it will have four contrasting traits Aa, Bb, Cc, Dd and during meiosis 16 different kinds of gametes will be formed.

Q4. Explain the Law of Dominance using a monohybrid cross.

Answer:

According to Mendel’s law of dominance. traits are controlled by two different forms of the same gene. These alternative forms of a gene are called alleles. Among the two alleles, one is dominant while the other one is recessive. The dominant allele suppresses the expression of the recessive allele. Therefore whenever the two alleles are present together, the dominant one masks the expression of the recessive allele. However, it doesn't mean that the recessive allele has lost its existence. It remains hidden in F1 generation and reappears in the next generation. A monohybrid cross is given below.

1650524481119

In this cross, it can be seen that in F1 generation only tall plants were seen, no plant was dwarf. However in the F2 generation, the F1 progeny was self crossed, three genotypes were observed, among these, the hybrids were showing the dominant trait.

Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Question Answer:

Q5. Define and design a test-cross.

Answer:

A test cross is a cross between an individual showing a dominant trait with the one having its homozygous recessive trait in order to know whether the dominant trait is homozygous or heterozygous. If the ratio of a test cross is 1:1, it shows that the dominant trait is heterozygous.

1650524707863

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation:

Q6. Using a Punnett Square, workout the distribution of phenotypic features in the first filial generation after a cross between a homozygous female and a heterozygous male for a single locus.

Answer:

In guinea pigs, homozygous female with white coat colour (bb) is cross with the heterozygous male having black coat colour (Bb). The male gamete will produce two types of gametes i.e. B and b while female will produce only one type of gamete which is b. The F1 progeny will show both individuals with black coat colour and white coat colour in a ratio of 1:1. Here, the phenotypic, as well as the genotypic ratio, will be 1:1.

Parents(male/female) Bb bb

Gametes B b b

Crossing Bb : bb

Black coat colour : White coat colour

Genotypic ratio- Bb:bb 1:1

Phenotypic ratio- Black coat colour : white coat colour 1:1

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Principles of Inheritance and Variation:

Q7. When a cross in made between tall plant with yellow seeds (TtYy) and tall plant with green seed (Ttyy), what proportions of phenotype in the offspring could be expected to be

(a) tall and green.

Answer:

The cross between a tall plant with yellow seeds (TtYy) and tall plant with green seeds (Ttyy) is as follows:

1650524766798

Hence, there will be plants showing three tall and green seed trait.

(b) dwarf and green.

Answer:

The cross between tall plant with yellow seeds (TtYy) and tall plant with green seed (Ttyy), will look like

1650524795896

Hence there will be only one plant with dwarf and green seed trait.

Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 NCERT Solutions:

Q8. Two heterozygous parents are crossed. If the two loci are linked what would be the distribution of phenotypic features in F1 generation for a dihybrid cross?

Answer:

Linkage refers to the physical association of genes on the same chromosomes. The genes that show linkage are called linked genes. These linked genes show the same kind of inheritance pattern and are inherited together in the next generation. For example, a cross between yellow body and white eyes and wild type parent in a Drosophila will produce wild type and yellow-white progenies. It is because yellow bodied and white-eyed genes are linked. Therefore, they are inherited together in progenies. The percentage of parental types and recombinant types is 98.7% and 1.3% respectively.

Q9. Briefly mention the contribution of T.H. Morgan in genetics.

Answer:

Contribution of T.H. Morgan in genetics

1. T.H Morgan discovered the chromosomal theory of inheritance.

2. He carried out many dihybrid crosses on Drosophila to study sex-linked disease.

3. Morgan discovered the phenomena called linkage to define the physical association of genes and recombination to describe the origin of non-parental gene combination.

Class 12 Principles of Inheritance and Variation NCERT Solutions:

Q10 . What is pedigree analysis? Suggest how such an analysis, can be useful.

Answer:

The analysis of inherited traits in several generations of a family is called the pedigree analysis. The inheritance of a particular trait is represented in a family tree over several generations. It is used to trace the inheritance of a particular trait, abnormality and disease. By pedigree analysis, genetic counsellors can help in preventing certain genetic disorders like haemophilia, sickle cell anaemia in the future generation of that family.

Q11. How is sex determined in human beings?

Answer:

Sex determination in human beings

In humans, out of 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 pairs are exactly the same in males and females called autosomes. However, a pair of the X chromosome is present in females and XY in males. During spermatogenesis, male produce two types of gametes (sperms), 50% carries Y chromosome and remaining 50% contain X chromosome. On the other hand, female produces only one kind of gamete (ovum) having X chromosomes only. When sperm having Y chromosome fertilizes the ovum the sex of the baby is male and when sperm carrying X chromosome fertilizes the egg, the sex of the baby is female. 1650524990353

Principles of Inheritance and Variation Class 12 Questions and Answers:

Q12. A child has blood group O. If the father has blood group A and mother blood group B, work out the genotypes of the parents and the possible genotypes of the other offsprings.

Answer:

If the child has O blood group than it is evident that parents are heterozygous. Thus, the genotype of the father will be I^{A}i and that of the mother will be I^{B}i . The child having blood group O will have genotype ii . The other children may have genotypes I^{A}i (A blood group), I^{B}i (B blood group) and I^{A}I^{B} (AB blood group).

1650525035476

Q13 . Explain the following terms with example

(a) Co-dominance

Answer:

Codominance-

It refers to the phenomenon of two alleles lacking dominance-recessive relationship and both expressing themselves in the heterozygous condition. In human beings, ABO blood grouping is controlled by gene I . The gene has three alleles I A, I B and i. One person may have any two of these three alleles. Among these alleles, I A, I B are dominant over i . Alleles I^{A} and I^{B} . When I A and I B are present together, both express themselves because of co-dominance.

(b) Incomplete dominance

Answer:

Incomplete dominance-

Incomplete dominance is the phenomenon of neither of the two alleles being dominant so that expression in the hybrid is a fine mixture or intermediate between the expressions of two alleles. In snapdragon ( Mirabilis jalapa) , there are two types of pure breeding plants, red flowered and white flowered. On crossing the two, F1 plants possess pink flowers. On selfing them, F2 generation has 1red: 2 pink: 1white. The pink flower is due to incomplete dominance

Class 12 Biology Ch 5 Question Answer:

Q14. What is point mutation? Give one example.

Answer:

Point mutation - When a mutation occurs in a single base pair of DNA, it is termed as a point mutation.e.g. Sickle cell anaemia.

Q15. Who had proposed the chromosomal theory of the inheritance?

Answer:

Sutton and Baveri in 1902 proposed the chromosomal theory of inheritance.

Chapter 5 Biology Class 12 NCERT Solutions:

Q16. Mention any two autosomal genetic disorders with their symptoms.

Answer:

The two autosomal genetic disorders are as follows

1. Sickle cell anaemia – It is an autosome linked recessive trait in which mutant haemoglobin molecules undergo polymerization under low oxygen tension causing a change in the shape of the RBC from biconvex disc to elongated sickle like structure. The defect is caused by the substitution of Glutamic acid (Glu) by Valine (Val) at the sixth position of the beta globin chain of the haemoglobin molecule. The substitution of amino acid in the globin protein results due to the single base substitution at the sixth codon of the beta-globin gene from GAG to GUG. Symptoms include rapid heart rate, breathlessness, delayed growth and puberty, weakness, fever, decreased fertility etc.

2. Down syndrome - It is an autosomal genetic disorder caused by trisomy of chromosome 21. Symptoms of Down syndrome include short stature with a round head, protruding tongue, slanting eyes, broad short hands etc.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 - Principles of Inheritance and Variation
According to Ch 5 Bio Class 12 Mendel proposed the principles of inheritance, which are today referred to as ‘Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance’. There are different types of law that you will study in the principle of inheritance and variation NCERT PDF. For example:   
  • Law of Dominance
  • Law of Segregation
  • Law of Independent Assortment, etc.
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Chapter 5 Biology Class 12 NCERT Solutions

After going through Biology Chapter 5 Class 12 thoroughly, you will be able to solve all questions. If you have any problems in solving them, then Biology Class 12 Chapter 5 solutions are there for you.Try to attempt all the questions given in Biology Class 12 chapter 5 solutions by yourself. If you have any dilemma or do not get the correct answers, then don't worry, Principles of Inheritance and Variation Class 12 Solutions will help you out in a better way. CBSE NCERT solutions for biology Class 12 chapter 5 principles of inheritance and variation is also helpful for the preparation of competitive exams like NEET along with the 12th board exam. It will also boost your knowledge.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 - Principles of Inheritance and Variation is categorised under the Unit Genetics and Evolution. One can easily infer that the Unit, taken as a whole, carries close to 18 marks based on previous trends. This means that about 25% of the questions on the test are covered by the Unit. Biology class 12 chapter 5 principles of inheritance and variation is helpful if you want to understand the concepts like the work of Mendel and all the laws given by him.

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Important topics of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation:

Important Topics in NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Principles of Inheritance and Variation:

Section Name
Topic Name
5PRINCIPLES OF INHERITANCE AND VARIATION
5.1Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance
5.2Inheritance of One Gene
5.3Inheritance of Two Genes
5.4Sex Determination
5.5Mutation
5.6Genetic Disorders
5.7MUTATION
5.8GENETIC DISORDERS
5.9Summary

Important subtopics of Biology Class 12 Chapter 5 NCERT Solutions:

  • 5.2.1 - Law of Dominance
  • 5.2.2 - Law of Segregation
  • 5.2.2.1 - Incomplete Dominance
  • 5.2.2.2 - Co-dominance
  • 5.3.1 - Law of Independent Assortment
  • 5.3.2 - Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
  • 5.3.3 - Linkage and Recombination
  • 5.4.1 - Sex Determination in Humans
  • 5.4.2 - Sex Determination in Honey Bee
  • 5.8.1 - Pedigree Analysis
  • 5.8.2 - Mendelian Disorders
  • 5.8.3 - Chromosomal Disorders

Highlights of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 - Principles of Inheritance and Variation

  • The Questions and answers are written in the best possible way using simple language that makes solutions of Ch 5 Bio Class 12 easier to read and understand
  • In the inheritance and variation exercise, Points are used to frame Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 important questions and answers to help understand quickly.
  • Content for principles of inheritance and variation NCERT solutions is derived from the textbook by the subject expert.
  • Principles of inheritance and variation Class 12 NCERT solutions are as per the latest CBSE Syllabus and guidelines.
  • Principles of inheritance and variation Class 12 NCERT download links are readily available and easily accessible for free.
  • Important topics are listed in the principles of inheritance and variation Class 12 NCERT PDF.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology- Chapter wise

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 - Subjectwise

NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Solutions


We Hope that you will ace your board examination with the help of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation.

Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

1. What are the important topics of NCERT Solutions for biology class 12 chapter 5?

These are the important topics of NCERT Solutions for biology class 12 chapter 5 :

  • Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance   

  • Inheritance of One Gene   
  • Law of Dominance   
  • Law of Segregation   
  • Inheritance of Two Genes   
  • Sex Determination   
  • Mutation   
  • Genetic Disorders   
  • Mutation
  • Genetic disorders
2. How to download class 12 biology chapter 5 notes principle of inheritance and variation ncert pdf?

NCERT class 12 biology chapter 5 pdf download can be done using online webpage to PDF converter tool. To score well in the examination, follow the NCERT syllabus and solve the exercise given in the NCERT Book. To practice more problems, students must refer to NCERT Exemplar.

3. what are the mendel's laws of inheritance given in biology class 12 chapter 5 pdf?

As Mendel proposed the principles of inheritance, which are today referred to as ‘Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance’. There are different types of law that you will study in the principle of inheritance and variation ncert pdf. For example:   

  •    Law of Dominance   
  •    Law of Segregation   
  •    Law of Independent Assortment, etc.  
4. Why should I refer to the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 5?

You should refer biology class 12 chapter 5 ncert solutions because

  • The answers are written in the best possible way using simple language that makes solutions of ch 5 bio class 12 easier to read and understand 
  • In the inheritance and variation exercise, Points are used to frame answers to help understand quickly.
  • Content for principles of inheritance and variation NCERT solutions is derived from the textbook by the subject expert.
  • principles of inheritance and variation class 12 NCERT solutions are as per the latest CBSE Syllabus and guidelines.
  • principles of inheritance and variation class 12 NCERT pdf download links are readily available and easily accessible for free. 
  • Important topics are listed in the principles of inheritance and variation class 12 NCERT pdf.

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A block of mass 0.50 kg is moving with a speed of 2.00 ms-1 on a smooth surface. It strikes another mass of 1.00 kg and then they move together as a single body. The energy loss during the collision is

Option 1)

0.34\; J

Option 2)

0.16\; J

Option 3)

1.00\; J

Option 4)

0.67\; J

A person trying to lose weight by burning fat lifts a mass of 10 kg upto a height of 1 m 1000 times.  Assume that the potential energy lost each time he lowers the mass is dissipated.  How much fat will he use up considering the work done only when the weight is lifted up ?  Fat supplies 3.8×107 J of energy per kg which is converted to mechanical energy with a 20% efficiency rate.  Take g = 9.8 ms−2 :

Option 1)

2.45×10−3 kg

Option 2)

 6.45×10−3 kg

Option 3)

 9.89×10−3 kg

Option 4)

12.89×10−3 kg

 

An athlete in the olympic games covers a distance of 100 m in 10 s. His kinetic energy can be estimated to be in the range

Option 1)

2,000 \; J - 5,000\; J

Option 2)

200 \, \, J - 500 \, \, J

Option 3)

2\times 10^{5}J-3\times 10^{5}J

Option 4)

20,000 \, \, J - 50,000 \, \, J

A particle is projected at 600   to the horizontal with a kinetic energy K. The kinetic energy at the highest point

Option 1)

K/2\,

Option 2)

\; K\;

Option 3)

zero\;

Option 4)

K/4

In the reaction,

2Al_{(s)}+6HCL_{(aq)}\rightarrow 2Al^{3+}\, _{(aq)}+6Cl^{-}\, _{(aq)}+3H_{2(g)}

Option 1)

11.2\, L\, H_{2(g)}  at STP  is produced for every mole HCL_{(aq)}  consumed

Option 2)

6L\, HCl_{(aq)}  is consumed for ever 3L\, H_{2(g)}      produced

Option 3)

33.6 L\, H_{2(g)} is produced regardless of temperature and pressure for every mole Al that reacts

Option 4)

67.2\, L\, H_{2(g)} at STP is produced for every mole Al that reacts .

How many moles of magnesium phosphate, Mg_{3}(PO_{4})_{2} will contain 0.25 mole of oxygen atoms?

Option 1)

0.02

Option 2)

3.125 × 10-2

Option 3)

1.25 × 10-2

Option 4)

2.5 × 10-2

If we consider that 1/6, in place of 1/12, mass of carbon atom is taken to be the relative atomic mass unit, the mass of one mole of a substance will

Option 1)

decrease twice

Option 2)

increase two fold

Option 3)

remain unchanged

Option 4)

be a function of the molecular mass of the substance.

With increase of temperature, which of these changes?

Option 1)

Molality

Option 2)

Weight fraction of solute

Option 3)

Fraction of solute present in water

Option 4)

Mole fraction.

Number of atoms in 558.5 gram Fe (at. wt.of Fe = 55.85 g mol-1) is

Option 1)

twice that in 60 g carbon

Option 2)

6.023 × 1022

Option 3)

half that in 8 g He

Option 4)

558.5 × 6.023 × 1023

A pulley of radius 2 m is rotated about its axis by a force F = (20t - 5t2) newton (where t is measured in seconds) applied tangentially. If the moment of inertia of the pulley about its axis of rotation is 10 kg m2 , the number of rotations made by the pulley before its direction of motion if reversed, is

Option 1)

less than 3

Option 2)

more than 3 but less than 6

Option 3)

more than 6 but less than 9

Option 4)

more than 9

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