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The Class 11 Physics chapter 13 notes (Kinetic theory) are notes of the NCERT chapter Kinetic theory. NCERT Class 11 Physics chapter 13 notes provide an overview of the chapter on Kinetic theories.

The main topics covered in Kinetic theory Class 11 notes are

Molecular nature of matter

Behavior of gases

Kinetic theory of ideal gases

Law of equipartition of energy

Specific heat capacity

Mean Free Path

In Class 11 Kinetic theory notes all these topics are important from the perspective of the CBSE exam and can be noted, all of these topics are relevant to the CBSE exam and can be obtained by downloading from Class 11 Physics chapter 13 notes pdf download. Kinetic theory Class 11 notes cover the summary of the chapter. The CBSE Class 11 Physics chapter 13 notes do not include the necessary derivations. The NCERT notes for Class 11 Physics chapter 13 or notes for class 11 physics chapter 13 are extremely beneficial for revision.

**Additionally, students can refer to**

- NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Physics Chapter 13 Kinetic Theory
- NCERT Exemplar Class 11 Physics Chapter 13 Solutions Kinetic Theory

Some properties of gases

Gases can be compressed easily.

Gases have neither a definite volume nor a definite shape.

When a substance is in the gaseous state, its density is very small in comparison to the density in its solid or liquid state.

**Boyle’s Law:** At constant temperature, the volume V of a given mass of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure P, according to this law.

If P₁ and V₁ are the initial pressure and volume, and P₂ and V₂ are the final pressure and volume for a given mass of a gas at constant temperature, then

A graph is drawn between P and V for a gas at different constant temperatures T₁, T₂, and T₃ (T₁> T₂>T₃).

The gases do not obey Boyle’s law strictly under all conditions of pressure and temperature, gas only obey Boyle’s law only at low pressures and high temperatures.

**Charles’ Law:**- At constant pressure the volume of the given mass of a gas increases by part of its volume at 0℃ for 1℃ rise in temperature is called Charles's law.

Charles’ Law in terms of absolute temperature:- Let at constant pressure, the volume of a given mass of a gas at 0℃, t₁℃ and t₂℃ are V₀, V₁ and V₂ respectively. T₁ and T₂ are the absolute temperatures corresponding to t₁℃ and t₂ ℃. By Charles' Law

Therefore at constant pressure, the volume of a given mass of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. This is Charles’ Law in terms of absolute temperature.

A graph is drawn between T and V for a gas at three different constant pressures P₁, P₂, and P₃ ( P₁> P₂>P₃).

Perfect Gas ( or ideal gas):- A gas whose properties are similar to the properties of a real gas at infinitely low pressure such an imaginary gas is called perfect gas or ideal gas. There are following properties of perfect gas:

It strictly obeys Boyle's Law, Charles’ Law and the law of pressure under all conditions of temperature and pressure.

Its pressure coefficient and volume coefficient are exactly equal to each other.

Its molecules are infinitesimally small.

There is no force attraction between its molecules.

Let initially pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas are P₁, V₁, and T₁respectively and finally change to P₂ V₂, and T₂ respectively. Now,

i. Let the temperature of the gas kept constant at T₁ and the pressure is changed from P₁ to P₂. If in this process the volume changes from V₁ to V’ then by Boyle’s law,

ii. Let the pressure of the gas is kept constant at P₂ and its absolute temperature is changed from T₁ to T₂. If in this process the volume of the gas changes from V’ to V₂ then by Charles’ law,

From eqn (i) and (ii), we have

Hence for a gas, the volume of PV/T remains constant. Let this constant be equal to K, then

We can write K = nk, k is the same for all gases. It is called Boltzmann constant.

If P, V, and T are the same, then n is also the same for all gase.

If we take 1 gram-molecule (1 mole) of a gas-constant it will be the same for all gases. Then it is called the universal gas constant and it is represented by R. Then,

Where R = Nk, where N = avogadro’s number and k = Boltzmann constant.

It is called the ideal gas equation or perfect gas equation.

The gas equation for μ moles of gas will be

Unit of R:- Unit of R is Jmol⁻¹K⁻¹

Dimension of R:- [ML²T⁻²?⁻¹].

Numerical value of R:- The value of R is 8.31Jmol⁻¹K⁻¹.

Following are the fundamental assumptions of kinetic theory of gases:

A gas is composed of a large number of tiny invisible, perfectly elastic particles, called the molecules.

The molecules are always in a state of continuous motion with varying velocities in all possible directions.

The molecules traverse the straight path between any two collisions.

The size of the molecules is infinitely small compared to the average distance traversed by a molecule between any two consecutive collisions . The distance between any two consecutive collisions is called the free path and the average distance between any two consecutive collisions is called the mean free path.

The time of collisions is negligible as compared with the time taken to traverse the free path.

The collisions between molecules and with the walls are perfectly elastic so that there is no loss of kinetic energy in the collisions.

The molecules exert no force on each other except when they collide and the whole of the molecules energy is kinetic.

The volume of the molecules is negligible as compared to the volume of a vessel containing gas.

The inter molecular distances in a gas is much larger than that of a solid or liquid and the molecules of a gas are free to move in the entire space available to them.

When a certain mass of a perfect gas is confined with a vessel the molecule frequently collides with the walls of the vessel and is reflected from the walls.During the collision with the walls each molecule suffers a change in momentum .

According to Newton ‘s second law of motion the rate of momentum is equal to the force exerted .Thus,it exerts a pressure on the walls . This pressure may be calculated on the basis of postulates of kinetic theory of gases

Let us consider a perfect gas contained in a cubical vessel of side (l) and perfectly elastic walls. Let n be the total total number of molecules of a gas in the vessel and m is the mass of the molecule. Let the sides of the cube represent mutually perpendicular X, Y, and Z-axes.

Consider a molecule molecule P moving in a random direction with velocity v_{1}. Let v_{1x}, v_{1y}, and v_{1z} be the components of the velocity along three mutually perpendicular X, Y, and Z axes , respectively.

Then

The component of velocity with which the molecule P will strike the face DEFA is v_{1x} and the momentum of the molecule X- direction before collisions

As the molecule and the wall are perfectly elastic, during collision speed of the molecule does not change and only the direction of velocity is changed.

Therefore, The momentum along X- axis after collisions

The change in the momentum during one collision along X-axis

The molecule suffering reflection at face DEFA traverses a distance l and strikes the faceCGBO. It is equal to the force exerted on it. Hence, the force exerted by the molecule on the wall A will be mv_{x}^{2}/l Since there are n molecules, the total force exerted on the wall A is given by

Where v_{xn} is the x-component of velocity of the molecule 1, v_{x2} of molecule 2,.... And so on. Since the area of the wall is l^{2}, the pressure on the wall A is given by

But l^{3}= V

Now, is the average value of v_{x}^{2} for all the n molecules. This can be written as

.

Therefore,

We know that for any molecule, we have

Because this equation is true for every molecule, this will also be true for the mean value of all the molecules.

Therefore from eqn (ii), we have

or

This is the equation for the pressure of the gas.

is called the mean- square velocity of the molecules. Since, mn is the mass of the whole gas and V is the volume so, mn/V is the density ⍴ of the gas therefore, the above expression can be written as

Again,

Where is the transnational kinetic energy of the gas per unit volume. Thus, the pressure is equal to two-thirds of its transnational kinetic energy per unit volume.

It states that the total kinetic energy of a dynamical system consisting of a large number of particles in thermal equilibrium is equally distributed among all degrees of freedom 0.5KT, and the energy associated with each degree of freedom is where k is the Boltzmann constant and T is the absolute temperature of the system.

Thus, the average kinetic energy of a molecule per degree of freedom is 0.5KT which is the law of equipartition of energy.

Root mean-Square (rms) Speed of gas molecule

The speeds of the individual molecules of a gas vary over a wide range. Let v₁, v₂, and v₃…...vₙ. Be the speed of molecules of a gas. Then, the root-mean-square speed of the molecules is defined as the square root of the mean of the squares of the speeds of the all gas molecules, and it is denoted by rms. Thus,

We know that the pressure of a gas is given by

Interpretation of temperature on the basis of Kinetic theory

Let us consider 1 gram molecule of a gas at absolute temperature, T, occupying a volume V. According to Kinetic theory, the pressure of the gas

mN = M

Comparing eqn (ii) and (iii)

Thus, the root mean square speed of the molecules of a gas is directly proportional to the square root of the absolute temperature of the gas.

Relation between temperature and molecular kinetic energy:-

Average kinetic energy of one molecule =

R/N = k (Boltzmann constant)

It means different gase at the same temperature have the same average kinetic energy per molecule and this energy is directly proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas.

**Boyle’s Law**

We know

According to kinetic theory, the average kinetic energy of translation of molecules of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature,

i.e., at a given temperature, average kinetic energy of a gas is constant and N is also constant, so eqn (i)

= constant at a given temperature

This is Boyle's Law.

Charles’s law:-

From eqn(i)

Also the average K.E. of a molecule,

for constant value P.

Thus at a given pressure for a given mass of a gas, the volume is directly proportional to the absolute temperature. This is Charles' law.

Mean free Path:-The average distance traversed by a molecule between two successive collisions is defined as the mean free path.

Thus, if λ₁, λ₂, λ₃, ….λₙ are the successive free paths traversed in the total time t, then,

If N is the total no. of collisions suffered, then

We know that,

But by experiment Maxwell found that

The mean free path is inversely proportional to the number of molecules per unit volume (n) which is proportional to the density of the gas.

For N molecule of an ideal gas, we have

This is the mean free path of the molecules of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature and inversely proportional to the pressure of the gas.

Avagadro’s Number: The Avagadro’s number is the number of molecules in 1 mole of a substance. It is denoted by N and its value is 6.0221 X 10 ²³.

**Significance of NCERT Class 11 Physics Chapter 13 Notes**

Kinetic theory Class 11 notes can be used to review the chapter and get a better understanding of the big topics can be used to go over the chapter again and get a better understanding of the major points covered. Also, these NCERT Class 11 Physics chapter 13 notes are useful for the Class 11 CBSE Physics Syllabus and competitive exams such as VITEEE, BITSAT, JEE Main, NEET, etc. Download all these notes from Class 11 Physics chapter 13 notes pdf download or Kinetic theory Class 11 notes pdf download

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Download EBook1. What is the law of equipartition of energy?

It states that the total kinetic energy of a dynamical system consisting of a large number of particles in thermal equilibrium is equally divided among all its degrees of freedom, and the energy contained with each degree of freedom is kT/2 where k signifies the Boltzmann constant and T signifies the system's absolute temperature

2. What is the significance of this chapter for the CBSE Board Exam?

From the CBSE Class 11 Physics chapter 13 notes, Students can expect 2 to 4 marks question.

3. Write the Kinetic theory assumption of gases from Class 11 Physics chapter 2 notes and Class 11 Physics chapter 13 notes, Kinetic theory Class 11 notes.

Following are the fundamental assumptions of kinetic theory of gases:

A gas is composed of a large number of tiny invisible, perfectly elastic particles, called the molecules.

The molecules are always in a state of continuous motion with varying velocities in all possible directions.

The molecules traverse the straight path between any two collisions.

The size of the molecules is infinitely small compared to the average distance traversed by a molecule between any two consecutive collisions . The distance between any two consecutive collisions is called the free path and the average distance between any two consecutive collisions is called the mean free path.

The time of collisions is negligible as compared with the time taken to traverse the free path.

The collisions between molecules and with the walls are perfectly elastic so that there is no loss of kinetic energy in the collisions.

The molecules exert no force on each other except when they collide and the whole of the molecules energy is kinetic.

The volume of the molecules is negligible as compared to the volume of a vessel containing gas.

The inter molecular distances in a gas is much larger than that of a solid or liquid and the molecules of a gas are free to move in the entire space available to them.

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