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# NCERT Class 11 Physics Chapter 8 Notes Gravitation - Download PDF

Edited By Vishal kumar | Updated on Mar 19, 2024 11:57 AM IST

## Revision Notes for CBSE Class 11 Physics Chapter 8 Gravitation - Free PDF Download

Welcome to the reliable Gravitation class 11 notes prepared by Careers360's subject experts! Our Chapter 8 notes on Gravitation for Class 11 Physics are an invaluable resource for both board exams and competitive tests such as JEE and NEET. These meticulously crafted class 11 physics chapter 8 notes delve into the complexities of gravitational force, elucidating its importance in the universe.

From galaxies to meteoroids, every celestial component is examined, providing a thorough understanding of this natural phenomenon. Sir Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica paved the way for understanding gravity, and our Gravitation notes class 11 cover the basics, such as the inverse-square law and fundamental equations.

Furthermore, these meticulously curated cbse class 11 physics ch 8 notes are available in PDF format, making them accessible without the need for an internet connection. Prepare for your engineering exams with ease, as our notes enable you to excel time and again, free of charge. Additionally, with NEET allocating a 2% weightage to this chapter and JEE typically featuring one question from it, our ch 8 physics class 11 notes provide invaluable insights to help you ace these competitive exams.

Also, students can refer,

## Newton's Law of Gravitation

Definition

Every particle of matter attracts each other with a force proportional to its masses multiplied by the square of its distance.

Mathematical Form

If m1 and m2 are the particle’s masses and the distance between them is r, the force of attraction Famong the particles is given by

(G is the universal constant of gravitation.)

Vector Form

The force F21 exerted on the particle m2 by the particle m1 is given by:

Where r12 cap is a unit vector drawn from particle m1 to particle m2

Similarly,

• ### Universal Constant for Gravitation

The universal gravitation constant is given as

S.I. unit

C.G.S. unit

Value of G

Dimensions of G

• ### Variation in ‘g’

Condition: Gravitational Acceleration Above the Earth's Surface

Let M and R be the mass and radius of the earth, respectively, and g signify the gravity-induced acceleration at the surface. Assume a mass of m is placed on the surface of the earth.

The body's mass,' mg,' is the same as the gravitational force acting on it.

Assume the body is now raised to a height h above the earth's surface, its weight is now mg, and the gravitational force acting on it is:

Dividing,

Gravitational acceleration at a Very Small Height

If h << R, then neglecting the high powers of ‘h’ we get

• ### Satellite

A satellite is a smaller body that spins around a larger body under the influence of its gravitation. It could be natural or man-made.

1. Because the moon revolves around the earth, it is considered a satellite. Jupiter has a total of sixteen satellites orbiting it. These satellites are referred to as natural satellites.

2. A human-built artificial satellite is one that has been sent into a circular orbit. The first satellite, SPUTNIK–I, was launched by the Soviet Union, whereas the first satellite, ARYABHATTA, was launched by India.

Minimum Two-Stage Rocket is Used to Project a Satellite in a Circular Orbit Around a Planet

Assume that a satellite is launched from the earth's surface using a single-stage launching method. Once the rocket's fuel is ignited, the rocket begins to ascend. The rocket reaches its maximum velocity when all of the fuels have been used up.

1. The rocket escapes into space with the satellite if its maximum velocity is equal to or greater than the escape velocity, exceeding the earth's gravitational force.

2. If the rocket's greatest velocity is less than escape velocity, it will be unable to defy the earth's gravitational attraction, and both the rocket and the satellite will eventually crash to the ground.

As a result, a single-stage rocket will not be able to place a satellite into a circular orbit around the Earth. As a result, a launching device is required to place a satellite into a circular orbit around the earth.

Kepler’s law:

Kepler gave three laws of planetary motion. They are:

• First law: All planets revolve in an elliptical orbit with the Sun as focus.

• Second law: Irrespective of the orbit, the planet covers equal areas in equal intervals of time.

• Third law: The orbital period of the planet is proportional to the orbit’s size. The cube of the mean distance of a planet from the Sun is proportional to the square of its orbital period T. r3/T2=constant

Different Cases of Projection:

When a satellite is lifted to a specific height above the earth and then projected horizontally, the following four scenarios may occur, depending on the amount of horizontal velocity.

1. If the projection velocity is smaller than the critical velocity, the satellite will move in an elliptical orbit, but the point of projection will be apogee, and the spacecraft will approach the earth with its perigee point at 180o. If it enters the atmosphere as it approaches perigee, it loses energy and spirals downward. It will continue to fly in an elliptical orbit if it does not enter the atmosphere.

2.If the projected velocity achieves the critical velocity, the satellite will move in a circular orbit around the planet.

3. The satellite will be in an elliptical orbit with an apogee greater than the predicted height if the projected velocity is more than the critical velocity but less than the escape velocity.

4. The satellite goes in a parabolic path if the projection velocity is equal to the escape velocity.

5. If the projection velocity is greater than the escape velocity, the orbit will become hyperbolic, escaping the earth's gravitational attraction and continuing to travel indefinitely.

• ### Orbital Velocity

Definition

The orbital velocity of a satellite is the horizontal velocity with which it must be propelled from a point above the earth's surface in order to circle in a circular orbit around the earth.

An Expression for the Critical Velocity of a Satellite Revolving Around the Earth

Assume that a mass m satellite is elevated to a height h above the earth's surface and then projected horizontally with an orbital velocity ve. The satellite starts moving around the globe in a circular orbit with a radius of R + h, where R is the earth's radius.

The gravitational force acting on the satellite is

where Mis the mass of the earth and Gis the constant of gravitation.

For circular motion,

Centrifugal force = Centripetal force

• ### Gravitational Field

The space that surrounds any mass is known as a gravitational field. Any additional mass brought into this space is subjected to gravitational attraction. In a word, the area in which any mass field of gravity experiences a gravitational pull.

• ### Gravitational Potential

The gravitational potential at any place in a gravitational field is defined as the work necessary to transfer a unit mass from infinity to that point.

1. At a distance r from a point mass M, the gravitational potential (V) is given by:

2. The potential energy of a unit mass is converted from the work done on it. As a result, the gravitational potential at any point equals the potential energy of a unit mass positioned there.

3. The gravitational potential energy (P.E.) of a small point mass m put in a gravitational field at a position where the gravitational potential is V is given by

• Expressions for Different Energies of Satellite

1. Potential Energy (P.E.):

The satellite is at a distance (R + h) from the centre of the earth.

2. Kinetic Energy (K.E.):

The Revolution of satellites around circular orbit is having critical velocity (vc). Hence its kinetic energy is given by:

3. Total Energy (T.E.):

4. Binding Energy (B.E.)

T.E. = -(B.E.)

• ### Escape Velocity of a Body

Condition: The body is at rest on Earth’s surface, Escape velocity is:

The escape velocity is the smallest velocity at which a body can be launched from the earth's surface and yet escape the planet's gravitational field.

As a result, if a body or a satellite is given the escape velocity, its projection kinetic energy equals its binding energy.

Kinetic Energy of projection = Binding Energy

• ### Weightlessness

1. A feeling of weightlessness is similar to a moving satellite since it alludes to the gravitational force that draws a body towards the earth's centre. It isn't due to the fact that the weight is zero.

2. A gravitational pull exerts on an astronaut when he is on the surface of the earth. This gravitational force is equal to an astronaut's weight, and an astronaut exerts this force on the earth's surface. The earth's surface produces an equal and opposite reaction, and he feels his weight on the ground as a result of this reaction.

3. An astronaut on an orbiting spacecraft experiences the same acceleration towards the earth's centre as the satellite, and this acceleration is equal to the acceleration due to the earth's gravity.

As a result, the astronaut has no impact on the satellite's floor. The astronaut, of course, is unaffected by the floor's reaction force. Because there is no reaction, the astronaut has a sense of weightlessness. (In other words, he has no concept of how heavy he is.)

• Gravity

Gravity is the force of attraction exerted by the earth on a body lying on or near the earth's surface towards its centre. Gravity, often known as the earth's gravitational force, is a type of gravity.

The force of attraction exerted by the earth on the body towards its centre is defined as its weight. Gravitational pull or weight has the same units and measurements as a force.

Significance of NCERT Class 11 Physics Chapter 8 Notes

The NCERT Physics class 11 chapter 8 notes pdf help students thoroughly review the Gravitation chapter and understand its primary concepts. These Gravitation class 11 notes are invaluable not only for board exams, but also for competitive exams such as VITEEE, BITSAT, JEE Main, NEET, and others, because they thoroughly cover the key concepts outlined in the CBSE physics syllabus. Furthermore, the fact that these cbse class 11 physics ch 8 notes are available in PDF format allows students to study offline at any time and from any location.

## NCERT Class 12 Notes Chapter-Wise

 NCERT Class 11 Physics Chapter 1 Notes NCERT Class 11 Physics Chapter 2 Notes NCERT Class 11 Physics Chapter 3 Notes NCERT Class 11 Physics Chapter 4 Notes NCERT Class 11 Physics Chapter 5 Notes NCERT Class 11 Physics Chapter 6 Notes NCERT Class 11 Physics Chapter 7 Notes NCERT Class 11 Physics Chapter 8 Notes NCERT Class 11 Physics Chapter 9 Notes NCERT Class 11 Physics Chapter 10 Notes NCERT Class 11 Physics Chapter 11 Notes NCERT Class 11 Physics Chapter 12 Notes NCERT Class 11 Physics Chapter 13 Notes NCERT Class 11 Physics Chapter 14 Notes NCERT Class 11 Physics Chapter 15 Notes

### Subject Wise NCERT Solutions

 NCERT Books for Class 11 NCERT Syllabus for Class 11

1. What is Gravitational Potential?

In Class 11 Physics chapter 8 notes the amount of work required to transport a unit mass from infinity to that location without acceleration is the gravitational potential at that place.

2. State the Difference Between Mass and Weight.

The mass of an object according to Class 11 Gravitation notes is the amount of matter it contains, whereas its weight is the measure of the force exerted on it by gravity or the amount of gravitational attraction it experiences

3. What is escape velocity?

According to Gravitation Class 11 notes pdf download the minimal speed necessary by a non-propellant object to escape the Earth's gravitational influence is known as escape velocity.

The escape velocity (Ve) on Earth's surface is 11.2 km/s (this speed is 33 times the speed of sound).

4. State the characteristics of gravitational force.

In Class 11 Physics chapter 8 notes When two masses are separated by a certain distance, they are attracted to one other. The gravitational force is the name for this force. In Class 11, three important features of the gravitational pull are discussed. Because the force exists between the two particles and is independent of the medium that separates them, it is long-ranged in nature. Force and distance, for example, have an inversely proportionate connection. In nature, this power is enticing.

5. What are the primary derivations discussed in the Class 11 notes on gravitation?

The NCERT notes for Class 11 Physics chapter 8 do not include any derivations. This NCERT note summarizes the chapter's important points and equations and can be used to review the gravitation.

6. What is the significance of the Class 11 Physics Chapter 8 notes on gravity?

The Class 11 Physics Chapter 8 notes on Gravitation are an excellent resource for thoroughly reviewing the chapter and understanding its major concepts.

7. Are these notes useful only for board exams?

No, these notes are beneficial for a variety of competitive exams such as VITEEE, BITSAT, JEE Main, NEET, and others, as they cover the essential topics from the CBSE physics syllabus.

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A block of mass 0.50 kg is moving with a speed of 2.00 ms-1 on a smooth surface. It strikes another mass of 1.00 kg and then they move together as a single body. The energy loss during the collision is

 Option 1) Option 2) Option 3) Option 4)

A person trying to lose weight by burning fat lifts a mass of 10 kg upto a height of 1 m 1000 times.  Assume that the potential energy lost each time he lowers the mass is dissipated.  How much fat will he use up considering the work done only when the weight is lifted up ?  Fat supplies 3.8×107 J of energy per kg which is converted to mechanical energy with a 20% efficiency rate.  Take g = 9.8 ms−2 :

 Option 1) 2.45×10−3 kg Option 2)  6.45×10−3 kg Option 3)  9.89×10−3 kg Option 4) 12.89×10−3 kg

An athlete in the olympic games covers a distance of 100 m in 10 s. His kinetic energy can be estimated to be in the range

 Option 1) Option 2) Option 3) Option 4)

A particle is projected at 600   to the horizontal with a kinetic energy . The kinetic energy at the highest point

 Option 1) Option 2) Option 3) Option 4)

In the reaction,

 Option 1)   at STP  is produced for every mole   consumed Option 2)   is consumed for ever      produced Option 3) is produced regardless of temperature and pressure for every mole Al that reacts Option 4) at STP is produced for every mole Al that reacts .

How many moles of magnesium phosphate, will contain 0.25 mole of oxygen atoms?

 Option 1) 0.02 Option 2) 3.125 × 10-2 Option 3) 1.25 × 10-2 Option 4) 2.5 × 10-2

If we consider that 1/6, in place of 1/12, mass of carbon atom is taken to be the relative atomic mass unit, the mass of one mole of a substance will

 Option 1) decrease twice Option 2) increase two fold Option 3) remain unchanged Option 4) be a function of the molecular mass of the substance.

With increase of temperature, which of these changes?

 Option 1) Molality Option 2) Weight fraction of solute Option 3) Fraction of solute present in water Option 4) Mole fraction.

Number of atoms in 558.5 gram Fe (at. wt.of Fe = 55.85 g mol-1) is

 Option 1) twice that in 60 g carbon Option 2) 6.023 × 1022 Option 3) half that in 8 g He Option 4) 558.5 × 6.023 × 1023

A pulley of radius 2 m is rotated about its axis by a force F = (20t - 5t2) newton (where t is measured in seconds) applied tangentially. If the moment of inertia of the pulley about its axis of rotation is 10 kg m2 , the number of rotations made by the pulley before its direction of motion if reversed, is

 Option 1) less than 3 Option 2) more than 3 but less than 6 Option 3) more than 6 but less than 9 Option 4) more than 9

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3 Jobs Available
##### Journalist

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

3 Jobs Available
##### Editor

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

3 Jobs Available
##### Reporter

Individuals who opt for a career as a reporter may often be at work on national holidays and festivities. He or she pitches various story ideas and covers news stories in risky situations. Students can pursue a BMC (Bachelor of Mass Communication), B.M.M. (Bachelor of Mass Media), or MAJMC (MA in Journalism and Mass Communication) to become a reporter. While we sit at home reporters travel to locations to collect information that carries a news value.

2 Jobs Available
##### Corporate Executive

Are you searching for a Corporate Executive job description? A Corporate Executive role comes with administrative duties. He or she provides support to the leadership of the organisation. A Corporate Executive fulfils the business purpose and ensures its financial stability. In this article, we are going to discuss how to become corporate executive.

2 Jobs Available
##### Multimedia Specialist

A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications.

2 Jobs Available
##### Welding Engineer

Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues.

5 Jobs Available
##### Quality Controller

A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product.

A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

3 Jobs Available
##### Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.

3 Jobs Available

A QA Lead is in charge of the QA Team. The role of QA Lead comes with the responsibility of assessing services and products in order to determine that he or she meets the quality standards. He or she develops, implements and manages test plans.

2 Jobs Available
##### Structural Engineer

A Structural Engineer designs buildings, bridges, and other related structures. He or she analyzes the structures and makes sure the structures are strong enough to be used by the people. A career as a Structural Engineer requires working in the construction process. It comes under the civil engineering discipline. A Structure Engineer creates structural models with the help of computer-aided design software.

2 Jobs Available
##### Process Development Engineer

The Process Development Engineers design, implement, manufacture, mine, and other production systems using technical knowledge and expertise in the industry. They use computer modeling software to test technologies and machinery. An individual who is opting career as Process Development Engineer is responsible for developing cost-effective and efficient processes. They also monitor the production process and ensure it functions smoothly and efficiently.

2 Jobs Available
##### AWS Solution Architect

An AWS Solution Architect is someone who specializes in developing and implementing cloud computing systems. He or she has a good understanding of the various aspects of cloud computing and can confidently deploy and manage their systems. He or she troubleshoots the issues and evaluates the risk from the third party.

4 Jobs Available

An Azure Administrator is a professional responsible for implementing, monitoring, and maintaining Azure Solutions. He or she manages cloud infrastructure service instances and various cloud servers as well as sets up public and private cloud systems.

4 Jobs Available
##### Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

3 Jobs Available
##### Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.

3 Jobs Available
##### Information Security Manager

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack

3 Jobs Available
##### Automation Test Engineer

An Automation Test Engineer job involves executing automated test scripts. He or she identifies the project’s problems and troubleshoots them. The role involves documenting the defect using management tools. He or she works with the application team in order to resolve any issues arising during the testing process.

2 Jobs Available