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    NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 The d and f block elements

    Edited By Shivam Jadoun | Updated on Aug 16, 2022 12:37 PM IST | #CBSE Class 12th

    NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 'The d and f block elements' - The general and physical properties of d-block and f-block elements have been discussed in chapter 8 NCERT Class 12 Chemistry solutions. The NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 solutions has all the answers pertaining to questions based on such properties. The d-block elements are elements of groups 3 to 12 of the periodic table. Also, check NCERT solutions for class 12 other subjects.

    NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 The d and f block elements
    NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 The d and f block elements

    The elements of the f -block are those in which the 4f and 5f orbitals are filled. In NCERT Solutions for d and f block elements Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8, you will find all the topic-wise questions given in NCERT Class 12 Chemistry book. These exercise-wise NCERT solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 will help you to learn better.

    There are three series of the d block elements, 3d series (Sc to Zn), 4d series (Y to Cd) and 5d series (La to Hg, except Ce to Lu). The fourth 6d series which begins with Ac is still incomplete. The two series of the f-block elements, (4f and 5f) are known as lanthanoids and actinoids, respectively. You will find all the NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 8 in this article.

    Also Read :

    Exercise-wise NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 'The d and f Block Elements'

    Below, we have provided the NCERT Class 12 Chemistry solutions for exercises 8.1 to 8.10 of Chapter 8:


    Question 8.1 Silver atom has completely filled d-orbitals (4d^{10}) in its ground state. How can you say that it is a transition element?

    Answer :

    Silver atom(atomic no. = 47) has completely filled d-orbital in its ground state(4 d^{10} ). However, in +2 oxidation state, the electron of d-orbitals get removed. As a result, the d-orbital become incomplete( d^{9} ) . Hence it is a transition element.

    Question 8.2 In the series Sc (z=21) to Zn (z=30), the enthalpy of atomisation of zinc is the lowest, i.e., 126 \; kJ \; mol^{-1} . Why?

    Answer :

    The enthalpy of atomisation of zinc is lowest due to the absence of an unpaired electron, which is responsible for metallic bonding in the elements. Therefore, the inter-atomic bonding is weak in zinc( Zn ). Hence it has a low enthalpy of atomisation.

    Question 8.3 Which of the 3d series of the transition metals exhibits the largest number of oxidation states and why?

    Answer :

    In 3d series of transition metals Manganese shows largest number of oxidation states because it has highest number of unpaired electrons in its d -orbitals.So, that by removing its all electrons we get different oxidation states.
    Example- MnO_{2}(+4),\:MnO_{4}^{-}(+7),\:MnO(+2) etc.

    Question 8.4 The E^{\ominus }(M^{2+}/M) value for copper is positive (+0.34V) . What is possible reason for this? (Hint: consider its high \Delta _{a}H^{\ominus } and low \Delta _{hyd}H^{\ominus } )

    Answer :

    The E^{\ominus }(M^{2+}/M) value for metal depends on-

    • Sublimation energy
    • Ionisation energy
    • Hydration energy

    Copper has a high value of atomisation enthalpy and low hydration energy. Thus, as a result, the overall effect is E^{\ominus }(M^{2+}/M) for copper is positive.

    Question 8.5 How would you account for the irregular variation of ionisation enthalpies (first and second) in the first series of the transition elements?

    Answer :

    The irregular variation in ionisation enthalpies is due to the extra stability of the configuration like d^{0}\ ,d^{5}\ ,d^{10} because these states are extremely stable and have high ionisation enthalpies.
    In the case of chromium ( Cr ) has low 1st IE because after losing one electron it attains stable configuration ( d^{5} ). But in the case of Zinc ( Zn ), the first IE is very high, because we remove an electron from a stable configuration(3 d^{10},4s^{2} ).
    The second IE is much higher than the 1st IE. This is because it becomes difficult to remove an electron when we already did that and it already has a stable configuration (such as d^{0}\ ,d^{5}\ ,d^{10} ). For example elements such as Cr^{+} and Cu^{+} the second IE is extremely high because they already in a stable state. And we know that removal of an electron from a stable state requires a lot of energy.

    Question 8.6 Why is the highest oxidation state of a metal exhibited in its oxide or fluoride only?

    Answer :

    Oxygen and fluorine are strong oxidising agents and both of their oxides and fluorides are highly electronegative in nature and also small in size. Because of these properties, they can oxidise the metal to its highest oxidation states.

    Question 8.7 Which is a stronger reducing agent Cr^{2+} or Fe^{2+} and why ?

    Answer :

    Cr +2 is a better reducing agent as compared to Fe +2 , as this can be explained on the basis of standard electrode potential of Cr +2 (-0.41) and Fe +2 (+0.77).

    It can also be explained on the basis of their electronic configuration achieved. Cr +2 obtained d 3 configuration whereas Fe +2 gets d 5 configuration upon reduction. It is known that d 3 is more stable than d 5 . So Cr +2 is a better reducing agent as compared to Fe +2 .

    Question 8.8 Calculate the ‘spin only’ magnetic moment of M^{2+}\; _{(aq)} ion (Z=27) .

    Answer :

    Atomic number (Z)= 27
    So the electronic configuration cobalt ( Co ) is 3d^{7}, 4s^{2}
    M^{2+}\; _{(aq)} ion means, it loses its two electrons and become d^{7} configuration. And it has 3 unpaired electrons
    So, \mu = \sqrt{n(n+2)} , where n = no. of unpaired electron
    by putting the value of n= 3
    we get, \mu = \sqrt{15}
    \approx 4\ BM

    Question 8.9 Explain why Cu^{+} ion is not stable in aqueous solutions?

    Answer :

    Cu^{+} ion is unstable in aq. solution and disproportionate to give Cu^{2+} and Cu
    2Cu^{+}(aq)\rightarrow Cu^{2+}(aq)+Cu(s)
    The hydration energy release during the formation of Cu^{2+} compensates the energy required to remove an electron from d^{10} -configuration.

    Question 8.10 Actinoid contraction is greater from element to element than lanthanoid contraction. Why?

    Answer :

    Actinoid contraction is greater from element to element than lanthanoid contraction. The reason behind it is the poor shielding effect of 5 f (in actinoids) orbitals than 4 f orbitals( in lanthanoids). As a result, the effective nuclear charge experienced by valence electrons is more in actinoids than lanthanoids elements.

    NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 The d and f block elements- Exercise Questions

    Question 8.1(i) Write down the electronic configuration of:

    (i)\; Cr^{3+}

    Answer :

    Chromium has atomic number 24. So, nearest noble gas element is Argon ( Ar )
    So electronic configuration of (i)\; Cr^{3+} = [Ar]^{18}3d^{3}4s^{0}


    Question 8.1(ii) Write down the electronic configuration of:

    (ii)Pm^{3+}

    Answer :

    Atomic number of promethium is 61 and the nearest noble gas is xenon( Xe )
    So, atomic configuration of Pm^{3+}=[Xe]^{54}4f^{4}

    Question 8.1(iii) Write down the electronic configuration of:

    (iii)Cu^{+}

    Answer :

    Atomic number of copper is 29 and previous noble element is Argon ( Ar )
    the electronic configuration of Cu^{+}=[Ar]^{18}3d^{10}

    Question 8.1(iv) Write down the electronic configuration of:

    (iv)\; Ce^{4+}

    Answer :

    The atomic number of cerium ( Ce ) is 58 and the previous noble element is Xenon ( Xe )
    The electronic configuration of Ce^{4+}=[Xe]^{54}4f^{0}

    Question 8.1(v) Write down the electronic configuration of:

    (v)\; Co^{2+}

    Answer :

    The atomic number of cobalt (Co) is 27 and the previous noble element is Argon ( Ar )
    Thus elelctronic configuration of Co^{2+}=[Ar]^{18}3d^{7}4s^{0}

    Question 8.1(vi) Write down the electronic configuration of:

    (vi)\; Lu^{2+}

    Answer :

    The atomic number of lutetium is 71 and the previous noble element is Xe (xenon)
    the electronic configuration of Lu^{2+}=[Xe]^{54}4f^{14}5d^{1}6s^{0}

    Question 8.1(vii) Write down the electronic configuration of:

    (vii)\; Mn^{2+}

    Answer :

    The atomic number of Mangnese is 25 and the previous noble element is Ar (argon)
    So, the electronic configuration of Mn^{2+}= [Ar]^{18}3d^{5}4s^{0}

    Question 8.1(viii) Write down the electronic configuration of:

    (viii)\; Th^{4+}

    Answer :

    The atomic number of thorium (Th) is 90 and the previous noble gas elelment is Xenon (Xe)
    So, the elelctronic configuration of Th^{4+}= [Rn]^{86}5f^{0}

    Question 8.2 Why are Mn^{2+} compounds more stable than Fe^{2+} towards oxidation to their +3 state?

    Answer :

    Mn^{2+}= 1s^2,2s^2p^6,3s^2p^6d^5\:\:\:(Half\:filled \:d-orbital)

    Fe^{2+}= 1s^2,2s^2p^6,3s^2p^6d^6

    In +2 oxidation state of manganese has more stability than +2 oxidation state of iron, it is because half filled and fully filled d-orbitals are more stable and Mn^{2+} has half filled electron stability Manganese ( Mn^{2+} ) has d^{5} configuration so it wants to remain in this configuration. On the other hand, Fe^{2+} has d^{6} configuration and after losing one electron it becomes d^{5} configuration and attains its stability. That's why Mn^{2+} compounds more stable than Fe^{2+} towards oxidation to their +3 state.

    Question 8.3 Explain briefly how +2 state becomes more and more stable in the first half of the first row transition elements with increasing atomic number?

    Answer :

    According to our observation, except scandium, all other elements of the first row shows +2 oxidation state. On moving from Sc to Mn the atomic number increases from 21 to 25 and also the increasing number of electrons in 3d orbitals from d^{1} - d^{5} . when metals lose two electrons from its 4s orbital then they achieve +2 oxidation state. Since the number of d electrons in (+2) state increases from Ti(+2) - Mn(+2) , the stability of the +2 oxidation state increases as d-orbitals is becoming more and more half filled.

    Mn(+2) has d^{5} configuration, which is half filled (it makes it highly stable)

    Question 8.4 To what extent do the electronic configurations decide the stability of oxidation states in the first series of the transition elements? Illustrate your answer with examples.

    Answer :

    Elements of the first half of the transition series exhibit many oxidation states. manganese shows the maximum number of oxidation states (+2 to +7). The stability of +2 oxidation states increases with the increase in atomic number (as more number of electrons are filled in d-orbital). However, the Sc does not exhibit +2 oxidation states, its EC is 3d^{1}4s^{2} . It loses all three electrons to attain stable d^{0} -configuration (noble gas configuration). Ti(IV) and V(+5) are stable for the same reason. In the case of manganese, (+2) oxidation state is very stable because of half-filled d-electron( d^{5} -configuration).

    Question 8.5 What may be the stable oxidation state of the transition element with the following d electron configurations in the ground state of their atoms : 3d^{3}, 3d^{5}, 3d^{8} \; and\; 3d^{4} ?

    Answer :

    3d^{3}
    Vanadium (atomic number- 23)
    E.C = [Ar]^{18}3d^{3}4s^{2} ,
    So the stable oxidation states are (+2, +3, +4, +5)

    3d^{5}
    Manganese (atomic number = 25)
    E.C = [Ar]^{18}3d^{5}4s^{2} ,
    So the stable oxidation state are (+2, +4, +6, +7)

    3d^{5}
    chromium (atomic number = 24)
    E.C = [Ar]^{18}3d^{5}4s^{1} ,
    So the stable oxidation state are (+3, +4, +6)

    3d^{4}
    No elements has d^{4} electronic configuration in their ground state.

    Question 8.6 Name the oxometal anions of the first series of the transition metals in which the metal exhibits the oxidation state equal to its group number.

    Answer :

    Following oxometal anions of the first series that exhibits the oxidation state equal to its group number-

    1. Vanadate (VO_{3}^{-})
      Group number of vanadium (V) is 5 and here the oxidation state is also +5
    2. Chromate ion (CrO_{4}^{2-})
      Group number of chromium is (VIB) and the oxidation state is +6
    3. Permanganate ion (MnO_{4}^{-})
      Group number of (Mn) is VIIB and here the oxidation number is also +7

    Question 8.7 What is lanthanoid contraction? What are the consequences of lanthanoid contraction?

    Answer :

    On moving along the lanthanoid series, the atomic number is gradually increased by one. It means the no. of electrons and protons of the atom is also increases by one. And because of it the effective nuclear charge increases (electrons are adding in the same shell, and the nuclear attraction overcomes the interelectronic repulsion due to adding of a proton). Also, with the increase in atomic number, the number of electrons in orbital also increases. Due to the poor shielding effect of the electrons, the effective nuclear charge experienced by an outer electron is increased, and also the attraction of the nucleus for the outermost electron is increased. As a result, there is a gradual decrease in the atomic size as an increase in atomic number. This is known as lanthanoid contraction.

    Consequences of Lanthanoid contraction-

    • Similarities in the properties of second and third transition series
    • Separation of lanthanoid can be possible due to LC.
    • Due to LC, there is variation in basic strength of hydroxide of lanthanoid. (basic strength decrease from La(OH)_{3}-Lu(OH)_{3} ).

    Question 8.8 What are the characteristics of the transition elements and why are they called transition elements? Which of the d-block elements may not be regarded as the transition elements?

    Answer :

    Transition elements are those which have partially filled d or f orbitals. These elements lie in the d-block and show transition properties between s block and p-block. Thus these are called transition elements.

    Zn,Hg,Cd are not considered as transition elements due to the fully filled d-orbitals.

    Question 8.9 In what way is the electronic configuration of the transition elements different from that of the non transition elements?

    Answer :

    Transition elements have paritally filled d -orbitals. Thus general electronic configuration of transition elements is
    (n-1)d^{1-10}ns^{0-2}

    Non-transition elements either have fully filled d- orbital or do not have d- orbitals. Therefore general electronic configuration is
    ns^{1-2} or ns^{2}np^{1-6}

    Question 8.10 What are the different oxidation states exhibited by the lanthanoids?

    Answer :

    In lanthanoid +3 oxidation states are more common. Ln(III) compounds are most predominant. However, +2 and +4 oxidation also formed by them in the solution or solid compounds.

    Question 8.11(i) Explain giving reasons:

    (i) Transition metals and many of their compounds show paramagnetic behaviour.

    Answer :

    Paramagnetism is arising due to the presence of unpaired electron. And we know that transition metals have unpaired electrons in their -orbitals. That's why they show paramagnetic behaviour.

    Question 8.11(ii) Explain giving reasons:

    (ii) The enthalpies of atomisation of the transition metals are high.

    Answer :

    Transition metals have high effective nuclear charge and also high outer most electrons. Thus they form a very strong metallic bond and due to these, transition elements have a very high enthalpy of atomisation.

    Question 8.11(iii) Explain giving reasons:

    (iii) The transition metals generally form coloured compounds.

    Answer :

    Most of the complex of transition elements are coloured. This is due to the absorption of radiation from visible light region to excite the electrons from its one position to another position in d-orbitals. In the presence of ligands, d-orbitals split into two sets of different orbital energies. Here transition of electron takes place and emit radiation which falls on the visible light region.

    Question 8.11(iv) Explain giving reasons:

    (iv) Transition metals and their many compounds act as good catalyst.

    Answer :

    The catalytic activity of transition metals is because of two reasons-

    1. They provide a suitable surface for the reaction to occurs.
    2. Ability to show variable oxidation states and form complexes, transition metals also able to form intermediate compounds and thus they give the new path, which has lower activation energy for the reaction.

    Question 8.12 What are interstitial compounds? Why are such compounds well known for transition metals?

    Answer :

    Transition metals contain lots of interstitial sites. These elements trap the other elements which are small in sizes such as Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen in their interstitial site of the crystal lattice as a result forms interstitial compounds.

    Question 8.13 How is the variability in oxidation states of transition metals different from that of the non transition metals? Illustrate with examples.

    Answer :

    In transition metals, the variation of oxidation states id from +1 to the highest oxidation number, by removing all its valence electrons. Also in transition metals, the oxidation number is differed by one unit like ( Fe^{3+}-Fe^{2+} ; Fe^{3+}-Fe^{2+} ). But in non-transition elements, the oxidation states are differed by two (+2 and +4 or +3 and +5 etc.)

    Question 8.14 Describe the preparation of potassium dichromate from iron chromite ore. What is the effect of increasing pH on a solution of potassium dichromate?

    Answer :

    potassium dichromate is obtained from the fusion of chromite ore (FeCr_{2}O_{4}) with sodium and potassium carbonate in the free supply of air.

    4FeCr_{2}O_{4}+8Na_{2}CO_{3}+7O_{2}\rightarrow 8Na_{2}CrO_{4}+2Fe_{2}O_{3}+8CO_{2}

    Sodium chromate is filtered and acidified with sulphuric acid ( H_{2}SO_{4} ) to form sodium dichromate, 2Na_{2}CrO_{4}+2H^{+}\rightarrow Na_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7}+2Na^{+}+H_{2}O can be crystallised

    2Na_{2}CrO_{4}+2H^{+}\rightarrow Na_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7}+2Na^{+}+H_{2}O

    Sodium dichromate is more soluble than potassium dichromate. So, treat the solution of dichromate with the potassium chloride( KCl )

    Na_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7}+KCl\rightarrow K_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7}+2NaCl

    The chromate and dichromate are interconvertible in aqueous solution at pH 4


    Structures of chromate and dichromate ion
    15948971176621594897115588

    Question 8.15(i) Describe the oxidising action of potassium dichromate and write the ionic equations for its reaction with:

    (i) iodide

    Answer :

    Potassium dichromate (K_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7}) act as a strong oxidising agent in acidic medium. It takes the electron to get reduced.
    (K_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7}) oxidises iodide to iodine

    \\Cr_{2}O^{2-}_{7}+14H^{+}+6e^{-}\rightarrow 2Cr^{3+}+7H_{2}O\\ 2I^{-}\rightarrow I_{2}+2e^{-}]\times 3\\ ----------------------\\ Cr_{2}O^{2-}_{7}+14H^{+}+6I^{-}\rightarrow 2Cr^{3+}+3I_{2}+7H_{2}O
    In first reaction oxidation state of chromium reduced from +6 to +3

    Question 8.15(ii) Describe the oxidising action of potassium dichromate and write the ionic equations for its reaction with:

    (ii) iron(II) solution

    Answer :

    Potassium dichromate react with (Fe^{2+}) ion to produce solution of (Fe^{3+}) ion and chromium reduced to +3 oxidation state.
    \\Cr_{2}O_{7}^{2-}+14H^{+}+6e^{-}\rightarrow 2Cr^{3+}+7H_{2}O\\ Fe^{2+}\rightarrow Fe^{3+}+e^{-}]\times 6

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    \\Cr_{2}O_{7}^{2-}+14H^{+}+Fe^{2+}\rightarrow 2Cr^{3+}+7H_{2}O+ 6Fe^{3+}

    Question 8.15(iii) Describe the oxidising action of potassium dichromate and write the ionic equations for its reaction with:

    (iii)\; H_{2}S

    Answer :

    Potassium dichromate oxidise H_{2}S (hydrogen sulphide ) to sulphur (zero oxidation state)
    The oxidising action of dichromate ion is -
    \\Cr_{2}O_{7}^{2-}+14H^{+}+6e^{-}\rightarrow 2Cr^{3+}+7H_{2}O\\ H_{2}S\rightarrow S + 2H^{+}+2e^{-}]\times 3
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Cr_{2}O_{7}^{2-}+14H^{+}+3H_{2}S\rightarrow 2Cr^{3+}+3S+7H_{2}O

    Question 8.16(i) Describe the preparation of potassium permanganate. How does the acidified permanganate solution react with

    (i) iron

    Write the ionic equations for the reactions .

    Answer :

    Potassium permanganate can be prepared from the fusion of pyrolusite ore( MnO_{2} ) with an alkali metal hydroxide and an oxidising agent (like KNO_{3} ). This gives dark green K_{2}MnO_{4} . It disproportionates in acidic or neutral medium to give permanganate.

    \\2MnO_{2}+4KOH+O_{2}\rightarrow 2K_{2}MnO_{4}+2H_{2}O\\ 3MnO_{4}^{2-}+4H^{+}\rightarrow 2MnO_{4}^{-}+MnO_{2}+H_{2}O

    (i)Acidified permanganate ion reacts with iron-

    \\MnO_{4}^{-}+8H^{+}+5e^{-}\rightarrow Mn^{2+}+4H_{2}O\\ Fe^{2+}\rightarrow Fe^{3+}+e^{-}]\times 5
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    MnO_{4}^{-}+5Fe^{2+}+8H^{+}\rightarrow Mn^{2+}+ 5Fe^{3+}+4H_{2}O\\

    Question 8.16(ii) Describe the preparation of potassium permanganate. How does the acidified permanganate solution react with

    (ii)\; SO_{2}

    Write the ionic equations for the reaction.

    Answer :

    Reaction of acidified permanganate solution with sulphur dioxide ( SO_{2} ). It oxidises the SO_{2} to sulphuric acid ( H_{2}SO_{4} )
    Here are the reactions-

    \\MnO_{4}^{2-}+6H^{+}+5e^{-}\rightarrow Mn^{2+}+3H_{2}O]\times 2\\ SO_{2}+2H_{2}O+O_{2}\rightarrow 4H^{+}+2SO_{4}^{2-}+2e^{-}]\times 5
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    2MnO_{4}^{2-}+10SO_{2}+4H_{2}O+5O_{2}\rightarrow 2Mn^{2+}+10SO_{4}^{2-}+8H^{+}

    Question 8.16(iii) Describe the preparation of potassium permanganate. How does the acidified permanganate solution react with

    (iii) oxalic acid

    Write the ionic equations for the reactions.

    Answer :

    When acidified permanganate solution react with oxalic acid ( H_{2}C_{2}O_{4} ) it converts oxalic acid into carbon dioxide ( CO_{2} )
    Here are the reacions-

    \\MnO_{4}^{-}+8H^{+}+5e^{-}\rightarrow Mn^{2+}+4H_{2}O]\times 2\\ C_{2}O_{4}^{2-}\rightarrow 2CO_{2}+2e^{-}]\times 5
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    2MnO_{4}^{2-}+5C_{2}O_{4}^{2-}+16H^{+}\rightarrow 2Mn^{2+}+10CO_{2}+8H_{2}O overall reaction

    Question 8.17(i) For M^{2+}/M and M^{3+}/M^{2+} systems the E^{\ominus } values for some metals are as follows:

    \\Cr^{2+}/Cr\; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; -0.9V\\Mn^{2+}/Mn\; \; \; \; \; \; \; \;\; \; -1.2V\\Fe^{2+}/Fe\; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; -0.4V

    \\Cr^{3+}/Cr^{2+}\; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; -0.4V\\Mn^{3+}/Mn^{2+}\; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; +1.5V\\Fe^{3+}/Fe^{2+}\; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; +0.8V

    Use this data to comment upon:
    (i) the stability of Fe^{3+} in acid solution as compared to that of Cr^{3+} or Mn^{3+}

    Answer :

    The E^{\Theta } value of Fe^{3+}/Fe^{2+} is higher than that of Cr^{3+}/Cr^{2+} but less than that of Mn^{3+}/Mn^{2+} . So, the reduction of ferric ion ( Fe^{3+} ) to ferrous ion( Fe^{2+} ) is easier than Mn^{3+}/Mn^{2+} but as not easy as Cr^{3+}/Cr^{2+} . Hence ferric ion is more stable than manganese ion( Mn^{3+} ), but less stable than chromium ion( Cr^{3+} ).

    Order of relative stablities of different ions is-

    Mn^{3+}<Fe^{3+}<Cr^{3+}

    Question 8.17(ii) For M^{2+}/M and M^{3+}/M^{2+} systems the E^{\ominus } values for some metals are as follows:

    \\Cr^{2+}/Cr\; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; -0.9V\\Mn^{2+}/Mn\; \; \; \; \; \; \; \;\; \; -1.2V\\Fe^{2+}/Fe\; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; -0.4V

    \\Cr^{3}/Cr^{2+}\; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; -0.4V\\Mn^{3+}/Mn^{2+}\; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; +1.5V\\Fe^{3+}/Fe^{2+}\; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; +0.8V

    Use this data to comment upon:

    (ii) the ease with which iron can be oxidised as compared to a similar process for either chromium or manganese metal.

    Answer :

    From the values of E^{o} , the order of oxidation of the given metal to the divalent cation is-

    Mn>Cr>Fe

    Question 8.18(i) Predict which of the following, will be coloured in aqueous solution?

    Ti^{3+}, \:V^{3+}\:,\:Cu^+,\:Sc^{3+},\:Mn^{3+},\:Fe^{3+}\: and \:Co^{2+}

    Answer :

    Ions which have incomplete d-orbital, they are able to do d-d transition, which is responsible for colour. And those which has vacant d-orbitals or complete d -orbitals are colourless

    Ti^{3+} =[Ar]3d^{1}
    Purple
    V^{3+} =[Ar]3d^{1}
    green
    Sc^{3+} =[Ar]3d^{0}
    colourless
    Mn^{2+} =[Ar]^{18}d^{5}4s^{0}
    pink
    Fe^{3+} =[Ar]^{18}3d^{5}4s^{0}
    yellow
    Co^{2+} =[Ar]^{18}d^{7}4s^{0}
    blue pink
    Cu^{+} =[Ar]^{18}3d^{10}4s^{0}
    colourless

    From the table, we notice that Sc^{3+} and Cu^{+} have 3d^{0} and 3d^{10} configuration, so their aqueous solutions are colourless. All others are coloured in aqueous medium.

    Question 8.18(ii) Predict for the following, will be coloured in aqueous solution? Give reason.

    (ii)\; V^{3+}

    Answer:

    Yes, V^{3+} (vanadium) ions has coloured aqueous solution because vanadium has two electron in its d -orbitals, as a result d-d transition will occur and which is responsible for colour of the solution.

    Question 8.18(iii) Predict for the following, will be coloured in aqueous solution? Give reason.

    (iii)\; Cu^{+}

    Answer :

    No, Cu^{+} aqueous solution has no color because it has fully filled d-orbitals. So, that d-d transition will not happen, which is responsible for colour.
    electronic configuration of Cu^{+} = [Ar]^{18}3d^{10}4s^{0}

    Question 8.18(iv) Predict for the following, will be coloured in aqueous solution? Give reason.

    (iv)\; Sc^{3+}

    Answer :

    No, aqueous solution of Sc^{3+} ion will have no colour because it has empty d-orbitals. Thus the d-d transition will ot happen (due absence of electron), which is responsible for colour.
    The electronic configuration of Sc^{3+} =[Ar]^{18}3d^{0}4s^{0}

    Question 8.18(v) Predict for the following, will be coloured in aqueous solution? Give reason.

    (v)\; Mn^{2+}

    Answer :

    Yes, the aqueous solution of Mn^{2+} (manganese ion) will be coloured due to half filled electron in it d -orbitals( d^{5} ) and because of that d-d transition will occurs , which is responsible for colour.
    the electronic configuration of Mn^{2+} =[Ar]^{18}d^{5}4s^{0}

    Question 8.18(vi) Predict for the following, will be coloured in aqueous solution? Give reason.

    (vi)\; Fe^{3+}

    Answer :

    Yes, the aqueous solution of Fe^{3+} (ferric ion) will be coloured due to half filled electron in it d -orbitals( d^{5} ) and because of that d-d transition will occurs , which is responsible for colour
    electronic configuration of
    Fe^{3+} =[Ar]^{18}3d^{5}4s^{0}

    Question 8.18(vii) Predict for the following, will be coloured in aqueous solution? Give reason.

    (vii)\; Co^{2+}

    Answer :

    Yes, the aqueous solution of Co^{2+} (ferric ion) will be coloured due to presence of electron in it d -orbitals( d^{7} ) and because of that d-d transition will occurs , which is responsible for colour
    electronic configuration of
    Co^{2+} =[Ar]^{18}d^{7}4s^{0}

    Question 8.19 Compare the stability of +2 oxidation state for the elements of the first transition series.

    Answer :

    According to our observation, except scandium, all other elements of the first row shows +2 oxidation state. On moving from Sc to Mn the number of oxidation states increases but from Mn to Zn number of oxidation states decreases due to a decrease in unpaired electrons. The stability of +2 oxidation state increase on moving from Sc to Zn due to increase in difficulty level of removal of the third electron from d -orbital.

    Sc
    Ti
    V
    Cr
    Mn
    Fe
    Co
    Ni
    Cu
    Zn
    +3




    +2
    +3
    +4



    +2
    +3
    +4
    +5


    +2
    +3
    +4
    +5
    +6

    +2
    +3
    +4
    +5
    +6
    +7
    +2
    +3
    +4

    +6

    +2
    +3
    +4



    +2
    +3
    +4



    +1
    +2




    +2





    Question 8.20(i) Compare the chemistry of actinoids with that of the lanthanoids with special reference to:

    (i) electronic configuration

    Answer :

    The general electronic configuration of actinoids series is [Rn]^{86}5f^{1-14}6d^{0-1}7s^{2} and that for lanthanoids are [Xe]^{54}4f^{1-14}5d^{0-1}6s^{2} . 5 f orbitals do not deeply participate in bonding to a large extent.

    Question 8.20(ii) Compare the chemistry of actinoids with that of the lanthanoids with special reference to:

    (ii) atomic and ionic sizes

    Answer :

    Similar to lanthanoids, actinoids also shows actinoid contraction. But the contraction is greater in actinoids because of poor shielding effects of 5f orbitals

    Question 8.20(iii) Compare the chemistry of actinoids with that of the lanthanoids with special reference to:

    (iii) oxidation state

    Answer :

    The principle oxidation state of lanthanoids are +3, but sometimes it also shows +2 and +4 oxidation states. This is due to the extra stability of fully- filled and half filled orbitals.
    Actinoids have a greater range of oxidation states due to comparable energies of and it also has principle oxidation state is +3 but have more compounds in +3 oxidation states than lanthanoids.

    Question 8.20(iv) Compare the chemistry of actinoids with that of the lanthanoids with special reference to:

    (iv) chemical reactivity.

    Answer :

    In lanthanoid series, an earlier member of the series is more reactive, and that is comparable to . with an increase in atomic number, lanthanoids starts behaving similar to aluminium.
    Actinoids are highly reactive metals, especially when they are finally divided. When we add them into the water, they give a mixture of oxide and hydride. Actinoids combine with most of the non-metals at moderate temperature. Alkalies have no action on these actinoids metals

    Question 8.21(i) How would you account for the following:

    (i) Of the d^{4} species, Cr^{2+} is strongly reducing while manganese(III) is strongly oxidising.

    Answer :

    Cr^{2+} is strongly reducing in nature. It has d^{4} configuration. By losing one electron it gets oxidised to Cr^{3+} (electronic configuration d^{3} ) which can be written as t^{3}_{2g} and it is a more stable configuration. On the other hand Mn^{3+} has also d^{4} configuration by accepting one electron it gets reduced and act as strongly oxidising agent(electronic configuration d^{5} ). Thus it is extra stable due to half -filled with d-orbital.

    Question 8.21(ii) How would you account for the following:

    (ii) Cobalt(II) is stable in aqueous solution but in the presence of complexing reagents it is easily oxidised.

    Answer :

    Cobalt (II) is more stable in aq. solution but in presence of strong field ligand complexing agents, it gets oxidised to Cobalt (III). Though the third ionisation energy of Co is high but the CFSE ( crystal field stabilisation energy ) is very high in presence of strong field ligand which overcomes the ionisation energy.

    Question 8.21(iii) How would you account for the following:

    (iii) The d^{1} configuration is very unstable in ions.

    Answer :

    The d^{1} configuration is very unstable in ions because after losing one more electron it attains stable d^{0} configuration.

    Question 8.22 What is meant by ‘disproportionation’? Give two examples of disproportionation reaction in aqueous solution.

    Answer :

    In a chemical reaction a substances gets oxidised as well as reduced simultaneously is called disproportionation reaction. For examples-

    • 3CrO_{4}^{3-}(V)+8H^{+}\rightarrow 2CrO_{4}^{2-}(VI)+Cr^{3+}(III)+4H_{2}O
    • 3MnO_{4}^{2-}(VI)+4H^{+}\rightarrow 2MnO_{4}^{-}(VII)+MnO_{2}(IV)+2H_{2}O

    Question 8.23 Which metal in the first series of transition metals exhibits +1 oxidation state most frequently and why?

    Answer :

    In the first transition series, Cu (copper) exhibits +1 oxidation states most frequently. This is because Cu^{+} has stable electronic configuration of [Ar]3d^{10} . the fully filled d-orbital makes it highly stable.

    Question 8.24(i) Calculate the number of unpaired electrons in the following gaseous ions:

    (i) Mn^{3+}

    Answer :

    The number of unpaired electron in Mn^{3+} is 4
    Mn^{3+}(Z=25) =\left [ Ar \right ] 3d^{4}
    after losing 3 electron, Mn has 4 electron left.

    Question 8.24(ii) Calculate the number of unpaired electrons in the following gaseous ions:

    (ii)\; Cr^{3+}

    Answer :

    Electronic configuration of chromium is Cr = 3d^{5}4s^{1} . The number of unpaired electron in Cr^{3+} is 3
    Cr^{3+}(Z=24) =\left [ Ar \right ] 3d^{3}
    after losing 3 electron, Cr has 3 electron left d-orbital

    Question 8.24(iii) Calculate the number of unpaired electrons in the following gaseous ions:

    (iii)\; V^{3+}

    Answer :

    Electronic configuration of V = 3d^{3}4s^{2} . The number of unpaired electron in V^{3+} is 2
    V^{3+}(Z=23) =\left [ Ar \right ] 3d^{2}
    after losing 3 electron, V has 2 electron left d-orbital

    Question 8.24(iv) Calculate the number of unpaired electrons in the following gaseous ions:

    (iv)\; Ti^{3+}

    Answer :

    Electronic configuration of Ti= 3d^{2}4s^{2} . The number of unpaired electron in Ti^{3+} is 1
    Ti^{3+}(Z=22) =\left [ Ar \right ] 3d^{1}
    after losing 3 electron, Ti has 1 electron left d-orbital

    Question 8.24 Which one of these is the most stable in aqueous solution?

    \\(i)Mn^{3+}\\(ii)Cr^{3+}\\(iii)V^{3+}\\(iv)Ti^{3+}

    Answer :

    Cr^{3+} is the most stable in the aqueous solution solution because it attains the t^{3}_{2g} configuration, which is stable d- configurtaion.
    Electronic configuration of Cr^{3+} = [Ar]3d^{3}4s^{0}

    Question 8.25(i) Give examples and suggest reasons for the following feature of the transition metal chemistry:

    (i) The lowest oxide of transition metal is basic, the highest is amphoteric/acidic.

    Answer :

    The lowest oxidation states of transition metals are basic because some of their valence electrons are not participating in bonding. Thus they have free electrons, which they can donate and act as a base. In the higher oxide of transition metals, valence electron of their participate in bonding, so they are unavailable. But they can accept electrons and behave as an acid. For example MnO (+2)- behave as a base and Mn_{2}O_{7} (+7)behave as an acid.

    Question 8.25(ii) Give examples and suggest reasons for the following feature of the transition metal chemistry:

    (ii) A transition metal exhibits highest oxidation state in oxides and fluorides .

    Answer :

    Oxygen and fluorine are a strong oxidizing agent because of their small in size and high electronegativity. So, they help transition metals to exhibit the highest oxidation states. Examples of oxides and fluorides of transition metals are OsF_{6}(+6) and V_{2}O_{5}(+5)

    Question 8.25(iii) Give examples and suggest reasons for the following feature of the transition metal chemistry:

    (iii) The highest oxidation state is exhibited in oxoanions of a metal.

    Answer :

    Oxygen is a strong oxidizing agent because of its small in size and high electronegativity. Thus oxo-anions of metals shows the highest oxidation state.
    For example- KMnO_{4} , here manganese shows +4 oxidation state.

    Question 8.26(i) Indicate the steps in the preparation of:

    (i) K_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7} from chromite ore .

    Answer :

    (i) P otassium dichromate is obtained from the fusion of chromite ore (FeCr_{2}O_{4}) with sodium and potassium carbonate in the free supply of air.

    4FeCr_{2}O_{4}+8Na_{2}CO_{3}+7O_{2}\rightarrow 8Na_{2}CrO_{4}+2Fe_{2}O_{3}+8CO_{2}

    (ii) Sodium chromate is filtered and acidified with sulphuric acid ( H_{2}SO_{4} ) to form sodium dichromate, (Na_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7}.2H_{2}O) can be crystallised

    2Na_{2}CrO_{4}+2H^{+}\rightarrow Na_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7}+2Na^{+}+H_{2}O

    (iii) Sodium dichromate is more soluble than potassium dichromate. So, treat the solution of dichromate with the potassium chloride( KCl )

    Na_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7}+KCl\rightarrow K_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7}+2NaCl

    The chromate and dichromate are interconvertible in aqueous solution at pH 4


    Structures of chromate and dichromate ion
    15948970926161594897089960

    Question 8.26(ii) Indicate the steps in the preparation of:

    (ii) KMnO_{4} from pyrolusite ore.

    Answer :

    Potassium permanganate can be prepared from the fusion of pyrolusite ore( MnO_{2} ) with an alkali metal hydroxide and an oxidising agent (like KNO_{3} ).

    This gives dark green K_{2}MnO_{4} . It disproportionates in acidic or neutral medium to give permanganate.

    \\2MnO_{2}+4KOH+O_{2}\rightarrow 2K_{2}MnO_{4}+2H_{2}O\\ 3MnO_{4}^{2-}+4H^{+}\rightarrow 2MnO_{4}^{-}+MnO_{2}+H_{2}O

    Question 8.27 What are alloys? Name an important alloy which contains some of the lanthanoid metals. Mention its uses .

    Answer :

    It is a solid solution of two or more elements in a metallic matrix. Alloys possess different physical properties than component materials.
    An important alloy of lanthanoid is mischmetal.

    uses-

    • mischmetal is used in cigarettes and gas lighters
    • Used in flame-throwing tanks
    • It is used in tracer bullets and shells

    Question 8.28 What are inner transition elements? Decide which of the following atomic numbers are the atomic numbers of the inner transition elements : 29, 59, 74, 95, 102, 104.

    Answer :

    Inner transition metals are those in which the last electrons are filled in f-orbitals. The elements in which 4f and 5f are filled are called f block elements. 59, 95 and 102 are the inner transition elements.

    Question 8.29 The chemistry of the actinoid elements is not so smooth as that of the lanthanoids. Justify this statement by giving some examples from the oxidation state of these elements .

    Answer :

    Lanthanoid primarily shows three oxidation states +2, +3, and +4 and out of these +3 is most common in lanthanoids. they show limited no. of oxidation states due to the large difference in energies of 4 f , 5 d and 6 s orbitals. But, actinoids shows large no. of oxidation state because they have comparable energy difference in 5 f ,6 d and 7 s orbitals. For example U and Pu exhibits +3, +4, +5 and +6 oxidation states.

    Question 8.30 Which is the last element in the series of the actinoids? Write the electronic configuration of this element. Comment on the possible oxidation state of this element .

    Answer :

    The last element of the actinoid series is Lawrencium ( Lr ). Its atomic number is 103. The electronic configuration of Lr is [Rn]^{86}5f^{14}6d^{1}7s^{2} .
    The possible oxidation state of lawrencium is +3 because after losing 3 electrons it becomes a stable molecule.

    Question 8.31 Use Hund’s rule to derive the electronic configuration of Ce^{3+} ion, and calculate its magnetic moment on the basis of ‘spin-only’ formula.

    Answer :

    Electronic configuration of Ce= 1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{6}4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{6}4f^{1}5d^{1}6s^{2}
    Magnetic moment can be calculated as \mu = \sqrt{n(n+2)} , where n= no. of unpaired electrons

    in Cerium n = 2
    So, by putting the value of n we get \mu = \sqrt{2(2+2)}= \sqrt{8}=2.828BM

    Question 8.32 Name the members of the lanthanoid series which exhibit +4 oxidation states and those which exhibit +2 oxidation states. Try to correlate this type of behaviour with the electronic configurations of these elements.

    Answer :

    Members of the lanthanoids which exhibits +4 oxidation states are- Ce, Pr,Nd,Tb,Dy
    members who exhibit +2 oxidation states = Nd,Sm,Eu,Tm,Yb

    After losing 4 electrons Ce^{4+} attains stable configuration [Xe] and also the same thing happen to Tb = [Xe]4f^{7}

    In the case of Eu and Yb , after losing two electrons they also get their stable electronic configuration.
    \\Eu^{2+}=[Xe]4f^{7}\\ Yb^{2+}= [Xe]4f^{14}

    Question 8.34 Write the electronic configurations of the elements with the atomic numbers 61, 91, 101, and 109.

    Answer :

    Atomic number = 61, Promethium
    the electronic configuration is [Xe]^{54}4f^{5}5d^{0}6s^{2}

    atomic number = 91, protactinium
    the electronic configuration is [Rn]^{86}5f^{2}6d^{1}7s^{2}

    Atomic number = 101, Mendelevium
    the electronic configuration is [Rn]^{86}5f^{13}6d^{0}7s^{2}

    Atomic number = 109, Meitnerium
    the electronic configuration is [Rn]^{86}5f^{14}6d^{7}7s^{2}

    Question 8.35(i) Compare the general characteristics of the first series of the transition metals with those of the second and third series metals in the respective vertical columns. Give special emphasis on the following points:

    (i) electronic configurations

    Answer :

    Electronic configurations-
    In 1st, 2nd and 3rd transition metal series 3 d , 4 d and 5 d orbitals are used respectively. In first series copper and zinc show unusual electronic configuration.

    \\Cr = 3d^54s^1\\ Cu = 3d^{10}4s^9

    In the second transition series different electron configuration shown by following metals,

    Mo (42) = 4d 5 5s 1 , Tc (43) = 4d 6 5s 1 , Ru (44) = 4d 7 5s 1 , Rh (45) = 4d 8 5s 1, Pd (46) = 4d 10 5s 0 , Ag (47) = 4d 10 5s 1

    In 3rd series there are also some metals which show this types of behaviour such as;

    W (74) = 5d 4 6s 2 , Pt (78) = 5d 9 6s 1


    Question 8.35(ii) Compare the general characteristics of the first series of the transition metalswith those of the second and third series metals in the respective vertical columns. Give special emphasis on the following points:

    (ii) oxidation states

    Answer :

    In each of the three transition series, the no. of oxidation state is minimum at the extremes and the highest at the middle of the row. In the first transition series, the +2 and +3 oxidation state are quite stable. Elements of first transition series metals form stable compounds of +2 and +3 oxidation state. But the stability of +2 and +3 oxidation state decreases in second and third series.
    Second and third transition series metals formed complexes in which their oxidation state is high ( WCl_{6},ReF_{7} ) and in first transition series ( [Co(NH_{3})_{6}]^{3+}, [Ti(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{3+} ) are stable complexes.

    Question 8.35(iii) Compare the general characteristics of the first series of the transition metalswith those of the second and third series metals in the respective vertical columns. Give special emphasis on the following points:

    (iii) ionisation enthalpies

    Answer :

    In all of the three transition series, the 1st ionisation energy increases from the left side to right side. But, there are some exceptions like the first ionisation enthalpies of the third transition series are more significant than those of the first and second transition series. This is happening due to the weak shielding effect of 4 electrons in the third series.
    Some elements in the second series have higher first IE than elements of the same column in the first transition series. There are also elements in the 2nd transition series whose first IE are lower than those of the elements corresponding to the same vertical column in the 1st transition series.

    Question 8.35(iv) Compare the general characteristics of the first series of the transition metals with those of the second and third series metals in the respective vertical columns. Give special emphasis on the following points:

    (iv) atomic sizes.

    Answer :

    Generally, atomic sizes decrease from left to right across the period. In among the three transition series, the size of the second series element is bigger than that of the first transition element of the same vertical group. But the atomic size of the third transition element is nearly the same as the element of the second transition series element. This is because of Lanthanoid contraction.

    Question 8.36 Write down the number of 3d electrons in each of the following ions: Ti^{2+}, V^{2+}, Cr^{3+}, Mn^{2+}, Fe^{2+}, Fe^{3+}, Co^{2+}, Ni^{2+} and\; \; Cu^{2+} . Indicate how would you expect the five 3d orbitals to be occupied for these hydrated ions (octahedral).

    Answer :

    For Ti^{2+} d-orvbital has two electron. So, filling of d-orbitals can be t^{2}_{2g}

    In V^{2+} d-orbital has three electron. So, the filling of d-orbital can be t^{3}_{2g}
    Similarily

    Cr^{3+} (Ions)
    d^{3} (No. of d electrons)
    t^{3}_{2g} (Filling of d-orbitals)
    Mn^{2+}
    d^{5}
    t^{3}_{2g}, e^{2}_{g}
    Fe^{2+}
    d^{6}
    t^{4}_{2g}, e^{2}_{g}
    Fe^{3+}
    d^{5}
    t^{3}_{2g}, e^{2}_{g}
    Co^{2+}
    d^{7}
    t^{5}_{2g}, e^{2}_{g}
    Ni^{2+}
    d^{8}
    t^{6}_{2g}, e^{2}_{g}
    Cu^{2+}
    d^{9}
    t^{6}_{2g}, e^{3}_{g}


    Question 8.37 Comment on the statement that elements of the first transition series possess many properties different from those of heavier transition elements.

    Answer :

    E lements of the first transition series possess many properties different from those of heavier transition elements in the following ways-

    1. The atomic size of the 1st transition series is smaller than those of 2nd and 3rd series elements. But due to lanthanoid contraction, atomic size of the 2nd series elements are nearly the same as 3rd series element of the corresponding same vertical group.
    2. In 1st transition series +2 and +3 oxidation states are more common but in the 2nd and 3rd series higher oxidation states are more common.
    3. The enthalpy of atomisation of first series elements is lower than 2nd and 3rd series elements.
    4. The melting and boiling point of the 1st transition series is less than that of heavier metals. This is because of strong metallic bonding in heavier metals.

    Question 8.38 What can be inferred from the magnetic moment values of the following complex species ?

    Example Magnetic Moment (BM)

    K_{4}[Mn(CN)_{6}) 2.2

    [Fe(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{2+} 5.3

    K_{2}[MnCl_{4}] 5.9

    Answer :

    Magnetic moment is given as - \mu = \sqrt{n(n+2)}
    Putting the value on n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (number of unpaired electrons in d-orbital)
    we get the value of \mu are 1.732, 2.83, 3.87, 4.899, 5.92 respectively.

    K_{4}[Mn(CN)_{6})
    By comparing with our calculation we get the values n nearest to 1. It means, in above compound d-orbital has one unpaired electron( Mn^{2+} = [d^{5}] ), which means CN is astrong field ligand that cause force pairing of the electron.

    [Fe(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{2+}
    After comparing with our calculation the nearest value of n = 4. Here iron is in +2 oxidation state ( d^{6} configuration). So, we can say that H_{2}O is a weak field ligand, which not cause any force pairing.

    K_{2}[MnCl_{4}]
    By observing we get the nearest value of n is 5. So, in this complex Manganese has d^{5} configuration. So, we conclude that Cl ligand does not cause any force pairing and hence it is a weak ligand.

    More about NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8

    It is an important chapter because it holds 5 marks out of 70 in the CBSE Board exam. The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 PDF are available for other classes and other subjects as well which are going to help you in competitive exams like JEE, NEET, BITS, VITEEE and KVPY etc.

    In NCERT Class 12 Chemistry chapter 8 solutions, there are eight sub-topics that cover essential concepts of d and f-block elements. The NCERT solutions for Class 12 Chemistry chapter 8 The d and f block elements are created by subject experts to give a clear understanding of the concept used to solve the NCERT questions. By referring to the Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 NCERT solutions, students can easily understand and solve questions well enough before their examination.

    Topics and Sub-topics of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 The D and F block elements

    • 8.1 Position in the Periodic Table
    • 8.2 Electronic Configurations of the d-Block Elements
    • 8.3 General Properties of the Transition Elements (d-Block)
    • 8.4 Some Important Compounds of Transition Elements
    • 8.5 The Lanthanoids
    • 8.6 The Actinoids
    • 8.7 Some Applications of d- and f-Block Elements

    NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry

    NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Subject-wise

    Benefits of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8

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    Also, check NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Solutions

    Also Check NCERT Books and NCERT Syllabus here:

    Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

    1. What are the important topics of this chapter?

    Below are the some important topics of this chapter:

    • Variable oxidation states of transition elements 

    • Formation of coloured ions by transition metal ions 

    • Lanthanoid contraction 

    • Oxidation states of actinides

    2. Where can I find complete solutions for NCERT Class 12 Chemistry?

    Click on the link to get all NCERT Solutions. Solutions for Class 6 to 12 are available for Science And Mathematics.

    3. What is the weightage of NCERT Class 12 Chemistry chapter 8 in JEE Mains?

    1 or 2 questions can be expected for JEE Main from the NCERT syllabus Chemistry chapter d and f Block elements Class 12.

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    hello,

    Yes you can appear for the compartment paper again since CBSE gives three chances to a candidate to clear his/her exams so you still have two more attempts. However, you can appear for your improvement paper for all subjects but you cannot appear for the ones in which you have failed.

    I hope this was helpful!

    Good Luck

    Hello dear,

    If you was not able to clear 1st compartment and now you giving second compartment so YES, you can go for your improvement exam next year but if a student receives an improvement, they are given the opportunity to retake the boards as a private candidate the following year, but there are some requirements. First, the student must pass all of their subjects; if they received a compartment in any subject, they must then pass the compartment exam before being eligible for the improvement.


    As you can registered yourself as private candidate for giving your improvement exam of 12 standard CBSE(Central Board of Secondary Education).For that you have to wait for a whole year which is bit difficult for you.


    Positive side of waiting for whole year is you have a whole year to preparing yourself for your examination. You have no distraction or something which may causes your failure in the exams. In whole year you have to stay focused on your 12 standard examination for doing well in it. By this you get a highest marks as a comparison of others.


    Believe in Yourself! You can make anything happen


    All the very best.

    Hello Student,

    I appreciate your Interest in education. See the improvement is not restricted to one subject or multiple subjects  and  we cannot say if improvement in one subject in one year leads to improvement in more subjects in coming year.

    You just need to have a revision of all subjects what you have completed in the school. have a revision and practice of subjects and concepts helps you better.

    All the best.

    If you'll do hard work then by hard work of 6 months you can achieve your goal but you have to start studying for it dont waste your time its a very important year so please dont waste it otherwise you'll regret.

    Yes, you can take admission in class 12th privately there are many colleges in which you can give 12th privately.

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    A block of mass 0.50 kg is moving with a speed of 2.00 ms-1 on a smooth surface. It strikes another mass of 1.00 kg and then they move together as a single body. The energy loss during the collision is

    Option 1)

    0.34\; J

    Option 2)

    0.16\; J

    Option 3)

    1.00\; J

    Option 4)

    0.67\; J

    A person trying to lose weight by burning fat lifts a mass of 10 kg upto a height of 1 m 1000 times.  Assume that the potential energy lost each time he lowers the mass is dissipated.  How much fat will he use up considering the work done only when the weight is lifted up ?  Fat supplies 3.8×107 J of energy per kg which is converted to mechanical energy with a 20% efficiency rate.  Take g = 9.8 ms−2 :

    Option 1)

    2.45×10−3 kg

    Option 2)

     6.45×10−3 kg

    Option 3)

     9.89×10−3 kg

    Option 4)

    12.89×10−3 kg

     

    An athlete in the olympic games covers a distance of 100 m in 10 s. His kinetic energy can be estimated to be in the range

    Option 1)

    2,000 \; J - 5,000\; J

    Option 2)

    200 \, \, J - 500 \, \, J

    Option 3)

    2\times 10^{5}J-3\times 10^{5}J

    Option 4)

    20,000 \, \, J - 50,000 \, \, J

    A particle is projected at 600   to the horizontal with a kinetic energy K. The kinetic energy at the highest point

    Option 1)

    K/2\,

    Option 2)

    \; K\;

    Option 3)

    zero\;

    Option 4)

    K/4

    In the reaction,

    2Al_{(s)}+6HCL_{(aq)}\rightarrow 2Al^{3+}\, _{(aq)}+6Cl^{-}\, _{(aq)}+3H_{2(g)}

    Option 1)

    11.2\, L\, H_{2(g)}  at STP  is produced for every mole HCL_{(aq)}  consumed

    Option 2)

    6L\, HCl_{(aq)}  is consumed for ever 3L\, H_{2(g)}      produced

    Option 3)

    33.6 L\, H_{2(g)} is produced regardless of temperature and pressure for every mole Al that reacts

    Option 4)

    67.2\, L\, H_{2(g)} at STP is produced for every mole Al that reacts .

    How many moles of magnesium phosphate, Mg_{3}(PO_{4})_{2} will contain 0.25 mole of oxygen atoms?

    Option 1)

    0.02

    Option 2)

    3.125 × 10-2

    Option 3)

    1.25 × 10-2

    Option 4)

    2.5 × 10-2

    If we consider that 1/6, in place of 1/12, mass of carbon atom is taken to be the relative atomic mass unit, the mass of one mole of a substance will

    Option 1)

    decrease twice

    Option 2)

    increase two fold

    Option 3)

    remain unchanged

    Option 4)

    be a function of the molecular mass of the substance.

    With increase of temperature, which of these changes?

    Option 1)

    Molality

    Option 2)

    Weight fraction of solute

    Option 3)

    Fraction of solute present in water

    Option 4)

    Mole fraction.

    Number of atoms in 558.5 gram Fe (at. wt.of Fe = 55.85 g mol-1) is

    Option 1)

    twice that in 60 g carbon

    Option 2)

    6.023 × 1022

    Option 3)

    half that in 8 g He

    Option 4)

    558.5 × 6.023 × 1023

    A pulley of radius 2 m is rotated about its axis by a force F = (20t - 5t2) newton (where t is measured in seconds) applied tangentially. If the moment of inertia of the pulley about its axis of rotation is 10 kg m2 , the number of rotations made by the pulley before its direction of motion if reversed, is

    Option 1)

    less than 3

    Option 2)

    more than 3 but less than 6

    Option 3)

    more than 6 but less than 9

    Option 4)

    more than 9

    Bio Medical Engineer

    The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

    4 Jobs Available
    Data Administrator

    Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

    4 Jobs Available
    GIS Expert

    GIS officer work on various GIS software to conduct a study and gather spatial and non-spatial information. GIS experts update the GIS data and maintain it. The databases include aerial or satellite imagery, latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates, and manually digitized images of maps. In a career as GIS expert, one is responsible for creating online and mobile maps.

    3 Jobs Available
    Database Architect

    If you are intrigued by the programming world and are interested in developing communications networks then a career as database architect may be a good option for you. Data architect roles and responsibilities include building design models for data communication networks. Wide Area Networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), and intranets are included in the database networks. It is expected that database architects will have in-depth knowledge of a company's business to develop a network to fulfil the requirements of the organisation. Stay tuned as we look at the larger picture and give you more information on what is db architecture, why you should pursue database architecture, what to expect from such a degree and what your job opportunities will be after graduation. Here, we will be discussing how to become a data architect. Students can visit NIT Trichy, IIT Kharagpur, JMI New Delhi

    3 Jobs Available
    Ethical Hacker

    A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.

    3 Jobs Available
    Data Analyst

    The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

    Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

    3 Jobs Available
    Geothermal Engineer

    Individuals who opt for a career as geothermal engineers are the professionals involved in the processing of geothermal energy. The responsibilities of geothermal engineers may vary depending on the workplace location. Those who work in fields design facilities to process and distribute geothermal energy. They oversee the functioning of machinery used in the field.

    3 Jobs Available
    Geotechnical engineer

    The role of geotechnical engineer starts with reviewing the projects needed to define the required material properties. The work responsibilities are followed by a site investigation of rock, soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest. The investigation is aimed to improve the ground engineering design and determine their engineering properties that include how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. 

    The role of geotechnical engineer in mining includes designing and determining the type of foundations, earthworks, and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be made. Geotechnical engineering jobs are involved in earthen and concrete dam construction projects, working under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. 

    3 Jobs Available
    Finance Executive

    A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.  

    3 Jobs Available
    Investment Banker

    An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance, and Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.

    3 Jobs Available
    Bank Branch Manager

    Bank Branch Managers work in a specific section of banking related to the invention and generation of capital for other organisations, governments, and other entities. Bank Branch Managers work for the organisations and underwrite new debts and equity securities for all type of companies, aid in the sale of securities, as well as help to facilitate mergers and acquisitions, reorganisations, and broker trades for both institutions and private investors.

    3 Jobs Available
    Treasurer

    Treasury analyst career path is often regarded as certified treasury specialist in some business situations, is a finance expert who specifically manages a company or organisation's long-term and short-term financial targets. Treasurer synonym could be a financial officer, which is one of the reputed positions in the corporate world. In a large company, the corporate treasury jobs hold power over the financial decision-making of the total investment and development strategy of the organisation.

    3 Jobs Available
    Product Manager

    A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

    3 Jobs Available
    Underwriter

    An underwriter is a person who assesses and evaluates the risk of insurance in his or her field like mortgage, loan, health policy, investment, and so on and so forth. The underwriter career path does involve risks as analysing the risks means finding out if there is a way for the insurance underwriter jobs to recover the money from its clients. If the risk turns out to be too much for the company then in the future it is an underwriter who will be held accountable for it. Therefore, one must carry out his or her job with a lot of attention and diligence.

    3 Jobs Available
    Bank Probationary Officer (PO)

    A career as Bank Probationary Officer (PO) is seen as a promising career opportunity and a white-collar career. Each year aspirants take the Bank PO exam. This career provides plenty of career development and opportunities for a successful banking future. If you have more questions about a career as  Bank Probationary Officer (PO), what is probationary officer or how to become a Bank Probationary Officer (PO) then you can read the article and clear all your doubts. 

    3 Jobs Available
    Operations Manager

    Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.

    3 Jobs Available
    Transportation Planner

    A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

    3 Jobs Available
    Conservation Architect

    A Conservation Architect is a professional responsible for conserving and restoring buildings or monuments having a historic value. He or she applies techniques to document and stabilise the object’s state without any further damage. A Conservation Architect restores the monuments and heritage buildings to bring them back to their original state.

    2 Jobs Available
    Safety Manager

    A Safety Manager is a professional responsible for employee’s safety at work. He or she plans, implements and oversees the company’s employee safety. A Safety Manager ensures compliance and adherence to Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) guidelines.

    2 Jobs Available
    Team Lead

    A Team Leader is a professional responsible for guiding, monitoring and leading the entire group. He or she is responsible for motivating team members by providing a pleasant work environment to them and inspiring positive communication. A Team Leader contributes to the achievement of the organisation’s goals. He or she improves the confidence, product knowledge and communication skills of the team members and empowers them.

    2 Jobs Available
    Structural Engineer

    A Structural Engineer designs buildings, bridges, and other related structures. He or she analyzes the structures and makes sure the structures are strong enough to be used by the people. A career as a Structural Engineer requires working in the construction process. It comes under the civil engineering discipline. A Structure Engineer creates structural models with the help of computer-aided design software. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Architect

    Individuals in the architecture career are the building designers who plan the whole construction keeping the safety and requirements of the people. Individuals in architect career in India provides professional services for new constructions, alterations, renovations and several other activities. Individuals in architectural careers in India visit site locations to visualize their projects and prepare scaled drawings to submit to a client or employer as a design. Individuals in architecture careers also estimate build costs, materials needed, and the projected time frame to complete a build.

    2 Jobs Available
    Landscape Architect

    Having a landscape architecture career, you are involved in site analysis, site inventory, land planning, planting design, grading, stormwater management, suitable design, and construction specification. Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of Central Park in New York introduced the title “landscape architect”. The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA) proclaims that "Landscape Architects research, plan, design and advise on the stewardship, conservation and sustainability of development of the environment and spaces, both within and beyond the built environment". Therefore, individuals who opt for a career as a landscape architect are those who are educated and experienced in landscape architecture. Students need to pursue various landscape architecture degrees, such as M.Des, M.Plan to become landscape architects. If you have more questions regarding a career as a landscape architect or how to become a landscape architect then you can read the article to get your doubts cleared. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Plumber

    An expert in plumbing is aware of building regulations and safety standards and works to make sure these standards are upheld. Testing pipes for leakage using air pressure and other gauges, and also the ability to construct new pipe systems by cutting, fitting, measuring and threading pipes are some of the other more involved aspects of plumbing. Individuals in the plumber career path are self-employed or work for a small business employing less than ten people, though some might find working for larger entities or the government more desirable.

    2 Jobs Available
    Orthotist and Prosthetist

    Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

    6 Jobs Available
    Pathologist

    A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.

    5 Jobs Available
    Veterinary Doctor

    A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.

    5 Jobs Available
    Gynaecologist

    Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

    4 Jobs Available
    Oncologist

    An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.

    3 Jobs Available
    Surgical Technologist

    When it comes to an operation theatre, there are several tasks that are to be carried out before as well as after the operation or surgery has taken place. Such tasks are not possible without surgical tech and surgical tech tools. A single surgeon cannot do it all alone. It’s like for a footballer he needs his team’s support to score a goal the same goes for a surgeon. It is here, when a surgical technologist comes into the picture. It is the job of a surgical technologist to prepare the operation theatre with all the required equipment before the surgery. Not only that, once an operation is done it is the job of the surgical technologist to clean all the equipment. One has to fulfil the minimum requirements of surgical tech qualifications. 

    Also Read: Career as Nurse

    3 Jobs Available
    Critical Care Specialist

    A career as Critical Care Specialist is responsible for providing the best possible prompt medical care to patients. He or she writes progress notes of patients in records. A Critical Care Specialist also liaises with admitting consultants and proceeds with the follow-up treatments. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Ophthalmologist

    Individuals in the ophthalmologist career in India are trained medically to care for all eye problems and conditions. Some optometric physicians further specialize in a particular area of the eye and are known as sub-specialists who are responsible for taking care of each and every aspect of a patient's eye problem. An ophthalmologist's job description includes performing a variety of tasks such as diagnosing the problem, prescribing medicines, performing eye surgery, recommending eyeglasses, or looking after post-surgery treatment. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Actor

    For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

    4 Jobs Available
    Radio Jockey

    Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

    A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.

    3 Jobs Available
    Acrobat

    Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

    3 Jobs Available
    Video Game Designer

    Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages. Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

    3 Jobs Available
    Talent Agent

    The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

    If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

    3 Jobs Available
    Videographer

    Careers in videography are art that can be defined as a creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than a simple recording of a simple event. It would be wrong to portrait it as a subcategory of photography, rather photography is one of the crafts used in videographer jobs in addition to technical skills like organization, management, interpretation, and image-manipulation techniques. Students pursue Visual Media, Film, Television, Digital Video Production to opt for a videographer career path. The visual impacts of a film are driven by the creative decisions taken in videography jobs. Individuals who opt for a career as a videographer are involved in the entire lifecycle of a film and production. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Multimedia Specialist

    A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Visual Communication Designer

    Individuals who want to opt for a career as a Visual Communication Designer will work in the graphic design and arts industry. Every sector in the modern age is using visuals to connect with people, clients, or customers. This career involves art and technology and candidates who want to pursue their career as visual communication designer has a great scope of career opportunity.

    2 Jobs Available
    Copy Writer

    In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism, Advertising, Marketing Management. Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

    5 Jobs Available
    Journalist

    Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

    3 Jobs Available
    Publisher

    For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

    3 Jobs Available
    Vlogger

    In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. Ever since internet cost got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, the career as vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the career as vlogger, how to become a vlogger, so on and so forth then continue reading the article. Students can visit Jamia Millia Islamia, Asian College of Journalism, Indian Institute of Mass Communication to pursue journalism degrees.

    3 Jobs Available
    Editor

    Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

    3 Jobs Available
    Advertising Manager

    Advertising managers consult with the financial department to plan a marketing strategy schedule and cost estimates. We often see advertisements that attract us a lot, not every advertisement is just to promote a business but some of them provide a social message as well. There was an advertisement for a washing machine brand that implies a story that even a man can do household activities. And of course, how could we even forget those jingles which we often sing while working?

    2 Jobs Available
    Photographer

    Photography is considered both a science and an art, an artistic means of expression in which the camera replaces the pen. In a career as a photographer, an individual is hired to capture the moments of public and private events, such as press conferences or weddings, or may also work inside a studio, where people go to get their picture clicked. Photography is divided into many streams each generating numerous career opportunities in photography. With the boom in advertising, media, and the fashion industry, photography has emerged as a lucrative and thrilling career option for many Indian youths.

    2 Jobs Available
    Social Media Manager

    A career as social media manager involves implementing the company’s or brand’s marketing plan across all social media channels. Social media managers help in building or improving a brand’s or a company’s website traffic, build brand awareness, create and implement marketing and brand strategy. Social media managers are key to important social communication as well.

    2 Jobs Available
    Product Manager

    A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

    3 Jobs Available
    Quality Controller

    A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

    A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

    3 Jobs Available
    Production Manager

    Production Manager Job Description: A Production Manager is responsible for ensuring smooth running of manufacturing processes in an efficient manner. He or she plans and organises production schedules. The role of Production Manager involves estimation, negotiation on budget and timescales with the clients and managers. 

    Resource Links for Online MBA 

    3 Jobs Available
    Team Lead

    A Team Leader is a professional responsible for guiding, monitoring and leading the entire group. He or she is responsible for motivating team members by providing a pleasant work environment to them and inspiring positive communication. A Team Leader contributes to the achievement of the organisation’s goals. He or she improves the confidence, product knowledge and communication skills of the team members and empowers them.

    2 Jobs Available
    Quality Systems Manager

    A Quality Systems Manager is a professional responsible for developing strategies, processes, policies, standards and systems concerning the company as well as operations of its supply chain. It includes auditing to ensure compliance. It could also be carried out by a third party. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Merchandiser

    A career as a merchandiser requires one to promote specific products and services of one or different brands, to increase the in-house sales of the store. Merchandising job focuses on enticing the customers to enter the store and hence increasing their chances of buying a product. Although the buyer is the one who selects the lines, it all depends on the merchandiser on how much money a buyer will spend, how many lines will be purchased, and what will be the quantity of those lines. In a career as merchandiser, one is required to closely work with the display staff in order to decide in what way a product would be displayed so that sales can be maximised. In small brands or local retail stores, a merchandiser is responsible for both merchandising and buying. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Procurement Manager

    The procurement Manager is also known as  Purchasing Manager. The role of the Procurement Manager is to source products and services for a company. A Procurement Manager is involved in developing a purchasing strategy, including the company's budget and the supplies as well as the vendors who can provide goods and services to the company. His or her ultimate goal is to bring the right products or services at the right time with cost-effectiveness. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Production Planner

    Individuals who opt for a career as a production planner are professionals who are responsible for ensuring goods manufactured by the employing company are cost-effective and meets quality specifications including ensuring the availability of ready to distribute stock in a timely fashion manner. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Information Security Manager

    Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

    3 Jobs Available
    Computer Programmer

    Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

    3 Jobs Available
    Product Manager

    A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

    3 Jobs Available
    ITSM Manager

    ITSM Manager is a professional responsible for heading the ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) or (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) processes. He or she ensures that operation management provides appropriate resource levels for problem resolutions. The ITSM Manager oversees the level of prioritisation for the problems, critical incidents, planned as well as proactive tasks. 

    3 Jobs Available
    .NET Developer

    .NET Developer Job Description: A .NET Developer is a professional responsible for producing code using .NET languages. He or she is a software developer who uses the .NET technologies platform to create various applications. Dot NET Developer job comes with the responsibility of  creating, designing and developing applications using .NET languages such as VB and C#. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Corporate Executive

    Are you searching for a Corporate Executive job description? A Corporate Executive role comes with administrative duties. He or she provides support to the leadership of the organisation. A Corporate Executive fulfils the business purpose and ensures its financial stability. In this article, we are going to discuss how to become corporate executive.

    2 Jobs Available
    DevOps Architect

    A DevOps Architect is responsible for defining a systematic solution that fits the best across technical, operational and and management standards. He or she generates an organised solution by examining a large system environment and selects appropriate application frameworks in order to deal with the system’s difficulties. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Cloud Solution Architect

    Individuals who are interested in working as a Cloud Administration should have the necessary technical skills to handle various tasks related to computing. These include the design and implementation of cloud computing services, as well as the maintenance of their own. Aside from being able to program multiple programming languages, such as Ruby, Python, and Java, individuals also need a degree in computer science.

    2 Jobs Available
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