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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms

Edited By Irshad Anwar | Updated on Sep 13, 2023 08:45 PM IST | #CBSE Class 12th

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 - Reproduction in Organisms: Have you ever assumed that how the species of any organism survive for years and years? In the NCERT Solutions, you can easily find the answer to such questions, as it is reproduction. It becomes a vital process, and without this process, species cannot survive for long. Through Reproduction in Organisms Class 12, you will be able to solve all the doubts, questions and answers of this chapter from the NCERT Textbook. These Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions will help students score well in the exams. In case you have any doubts or queries about solving these questions, then download and get help from NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms.

NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Biology Reproduction in Organisms

Class 12 study materials can be very helpful for Class 12 students in order to perform well in the upcoming competitive exams as well as in the exam itself. The answers provided in the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 are beneficial in enhancing conceptual knowledge. In Reproduction in Organism Class 12 Solutions, you will get to know that it's reproduction through which species continue to live for millions of years unless threatened by natural or anthropogenic extinction.

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If you are looking for the answers to any other class from 6–12, then NCERT Solutions are there for you. In Reproduction in Organism Class 12 NCERT Solutions, all the questions of this chapter given in the exercise from the textbook are answered here. Students can refer to these answers to prepare for the examinations, as it's the easiest way to get all the Solutions of NCERT.

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NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Biology Reproduction in Organisms

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 - Reproduction in Organisms (Solved Excercise)

All the Reproduction in Organisms Class 12 Questions and Answers are given below:

Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 Question Answer

Q1. Why is reproduction essential for organisms according to biology class 12 chapter 1?

Answer:

Reproduction refers to the process of production of offsprings by living organisms. The offsprings produced are similar to their parents. These offsprings grow and become reproductively mature to leave their progenies. Therefore, this process repeats itself and a continuity of species is maintained generation after generation. If reproduction would not have been there, species would not be able to leave their progenies and sooner or later they might extinct. Thus, reproduction is essential for living organisms.

Q2. Which is a better mode of reproduction: sexual or asexual? Why?

Answer:

Among sexual and asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction is considered to be a better mode of reproduction. It is mainly because sexual reproduction tends to create more amount of variations among the organisms. It involves two parents which contribute the 50% of their genomes each to the zygote. As a result of this, offsprings have father's characters, mother's characters and some other unique characters also. The variations caused by sexual reproduction are essential as they help organisms in adjusting to dynamic environmental condition and responsible for survival and gradual evolution of species. On the contrary, in asexual reproduction, single parent produces the offspring and thus, these offsprings are similar to their parent. Due to this, they have no advantage over organisms produced by sexual reproduction. Thus, sexual reproduction is a better mode of reproduction then asexual reproduction.

Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 NCERT Solutions

Q3. Why is the offspring formed by asexual reproduction referred to as clone?

Answer:

The term clone refers to a group of genetically and morphologically similar individuals. In asexual reproduction, a single organism is able to give rise to offsprings. Due to this, the offsprings thus produced are copies of their parents. These offsprings are exact replicas of each other also. That is why the offsprings produced by asexual reproduction are referred to as a clone.

Q4. Offspring formed due to sexual reproduction have better chances of survival. Why? Is this statement always true?

Answer:

During sexual reproduction male and female gametes from male and female individuals respectively fuse with each other and form zygote. This zygote contains new combinations of DNA/genes that are a result of recombination and crossing over. Due to the presence of these new combinations of DNA, variations are caused. These variations allow organisms to survive in unfavourable conditions. This is the reason why offsprings formed due to sexual reproduction have better chances of survival over those formed due to asexual reproduction.

The above statement is not always true, because there have been instances when continuous sexual reproduction among species of a given population, causes a reduction in yield and reduces the chances of survival. It mainly occurs because, sometimes due to recombination, less desired combinations of DNA/genes are formed and they make species vulnerable to extreme conditions. Thus, the statement, offspring formed due to sexual reproduction have better chances of survival is not always true.

Class 12 Reproduction in Organisms NCERT Solutions

Q5. How does the progeny formed from asexual reproduction differ from those formed by sexual reproduction?

Answer:

The progeny formed from asexual reproduction differs from that formed from sexual reproduction in the following ways:


Progeny formed from asexual reproduction
Progeny formed from sexual reproduction
1
These are formed from single parent
Their formation requires the involvement of two parents i.e. a male and female
2
The process of formation does not involve meiosis and crossing over
Formation of gametes involves meiosis and crossing over
3
These progenies are copies of their parents and of each other
These progenies are different from their parents and from each other
4
These progenies do not show genetic variations
These progenies show genetic variation due to crossing over and recombination

Q6. Distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction. Why is vegetative reproduction also considered as a type of asexual reproduction?

Answer:

Differences between sexual and asexual reproduction are as follows:

Asexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction
It involves a single parent
It involves two parents
There is no requirement of sex organs and gametes
Gamete formation occurs in sex organs
It involves somatic cells of the body
it involves germ cells of the body
Offsprings produced in asexual reproduction are exactly similar to their parent
offsprings produced in sexual reproduction are different from their parents
It occurs rapidly
It is a slow process
It occurs in unicellular organisms, lower invertebrates, plants etc.
It occurs in higher organisms

Vegetative reproduction is considered to be a type of asexual reproduction because

1. Vegetative reproduction is uniparental i.e. it involves a single parent.

2. The reproductive propagules of vegetative reproduction are somatic cells as in asexual reproduction.

3. Meiosis and fertilisation are absent in vegetative reproduction.

4. Vegetative reproduction does not cause variations. The offsprings produced are similar to their parent

Class 12 Reproduction in Organisms NCERT Solutions

Q7. What is vegetative propagation? Give two suitable examples.

Answer:

Vegetative propagation is a method of asexual reproduction in plants. In this method, a vegetative part of a plant gives rise to new plants. This vegetative part which has the ability to produce new plants is called vegetative propagule. Some common vegetative propagules are runner, rhizome, sucker, tuber, offset, bulb etc. Vegetative propagation is of two types i.e. natural vegetative propagation and artificial vegetative propagation. In natural vegetative propagation, a vegetative structure detaches from the parent plant and give rise to new plants. Artificial vegetative propagation includes methods developed by horticulturists to readily develop multiple plants through vegetative propagation.

The examples of vegetative propagation are:

1. Vegetative propagation by roots: Roots of some plants can develop adventitious buds to form new plants e.g. Dalbergia , guava, poplar, Albizia, Murraya etc. Fleshy roots such as those of sweet potato, tapioca, Dahlia etc. also develop adventitious buds and form new plants.

2. Vegetative propagation by leaves: The leaves of some plants develop buds over them. From these buds, new plants arise. E.g Bryophyllum .

Q8. Define

(a) Juvenile phase,

Answer:

All organisms have to reach a particular growth stage before they attain reproductive maturity. This pre-reproductive period of growth is called juvenile phase in animals. In plants, this phase is known as the vegetative phase. The duration of the juvenile phase varies in different organisms.

(b) Reproductive phase

Answer:

Reproductive phase refers to that phase of an organisms' life cycle in which it attains reproductive maturity and become able to produce gametes and mate. This phase is marked by certain hormonal changes.

(c) Senescent phase.

Answer:

The senescent phase refers to the post-reproductive phase in which an organism not just loses its reproductive potential but also the rate of metabolism slows down and there is deterioration of vital activities of the body.

Biology Chapter 1 Class 12

Q9. Higher organisms have resorted to sexual reproduction in spite of its complexity. Why?

Answer:

Higher organisms have resorted to sexual reproduction because sexual reproduction enables these organisms to survive during unfavorable conditions. It tends to induce genetic variability in these organisms which further becomes a cause of the evolution of better-adapted species.

Q10. Explain why meiosis and gametogenesis are always interlinked?

Answer:

Meiosis refers to the cell division which causes a reduction in the number of chromosomes by half and gametogenesis is the formation of male and female gametes. These two terms are often interlinked because gamete formation in diploid organisms occurs through meiosis only. The number of chromosomes in diploid organisms must be reduced to half because if this doesn't happen then the zygote after fertilisation would have 4n ploidy. Thus, gametogenesis and meiosis are interlinked.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organism:

Q11. Identify each part in a flowering plant and write whether it is haploid (n) or diploid (2n).

(a) Ovary

Answer:

Diploid (2n)

The ovary is the part of the flower and its ploidy is 2n.

(b) Antheranswer

Answer:

Diploid (2n)

The anther is the male reproductive part of a flower. It is diploid (2n) i.e. it consists of 2 sets of chromosomes.

(c) Egg

Answer:

Haploid (n).

The egg is the female gamete and is formed by meiosis so it is haploid (n).

(d) Pollen

Answer:

Haploid (n)

Pollen grains are haploid i.e. they contain one set of chromosomes

(e) Male gamete

Answer:

Haploid (n)

Male gametes in plants are formed by mitosis in pollen grain which is a haploid structure. Thus, male gametes are haploid (n).

(f ) Zygote

Answer:

Diploid (2n)

A zygote is formed after fertilisation of male and female gametes which are haploid (n). Thus, zygote is diploid (2n).

Ch 1 Biology Class 12

Q12. Define external fertilisation. Mention its disadvantages.

Answer:

External fertilisation refers to the fusion of male and female gametes outside the body of the organism. The disadvantages of external fertilisation are as follows:

1. External fertilisation requires an aquatic medium

2. Offsprings produced are highly vulnerable to predators

3. Parental care is not provided to offsprings

Q13. Differentiate between a zoospore and a zygote.

Answer:

The differences between zoospore and zygote are as follows:

Zoospore
Zygote
It is an asexual reproductive body
It is the result of sexual reproduction
Zoospores contain flagella, so they are motile
The zygote does not contain flagella, so it is non-motile
Zoospores can be haploid in some organisms and diploid in some others
A zygote is formed as a result of
Zoospores give rise to new individuals after germination
The zygote undergoes development to form an embryo which gives rise to new individual
These are formed in lower organisms
The zygote is formed in higher plants and animals

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 - Reproduction in Organism:

Q14. Differentiate between gametogenesis from embryogenesis.

Answer:

Differentiation between gametogenesis and embryogenesis is as follows:

Gametogenesis
Embryogenesis
The process of formation of gametes is called gametogenesis
The process of formation of the embryo is called embryogenesis
This process involves meiotic divisions that lead to the formation of gametes
This process involves mitotic division that leads to the development of a zygote into an embryo
Gametogenesis leads to fertilisation
embryogenesis is followed by organogenesis

Q15. Describe the post-fertilisation changes in a flower.

Answer:

The post fertilisation changes that occur in a flower are as follows:

1. Formation of zygote occurs in the ovule. zygote further develops into an embryo.

2. The ovary develops into the fruit while the ovary wall develops into pericarp.

3. Ovules develop into seeds

4. Sepals, petals and stamens wither and fall off while pistils remain attached to the plant.

Class 12 Biology Ch 1 Question Answer

Q16. What is a bisexual flower? Collect five bisexual flowers from your neighbourhood and with the help of your teacher find out their common and scientific names.

Answer:

Bisexual flowers are those flowers which possess both male and female reproductive parts i.e. stamen and pistil respectively. Some of the common bisexual flowers that you will be able to collect in your neighbourhood are given below:

Common name
Scientific name
Rose
Rosa indica
Sadabahar
Catharanthus roseus
China rose
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Tulsi
Ocimum sanctum

Q17. Examine a few flowers of any cucurbit plant and try to identify the staminate and pistillate flowers. Do you know any other plant that bears unisexual flowers?

Answer:

Cucurbits bear unisexual flowers. These type of flowers bear either male or female reproductive organs. It means that a staminate flower bears only stamen i.e. male reproductive organ while pistillate flower contains only pistil i.e. female reproductive organ. So you can identify staminate and pistillate flowers on the basis of the presence of male and female parts respectively. Another example of a plant bearing unisexual flowers is maize.

Reproduction in Organism Class 12 Solutions

Q18. Why are offspring of oviparous animals at a greater risk as compared to offspring of viviparous animals?

Answer:

Oviparous organisms are those organisms that lay fertilized or unfertilized eggs whereas viviparous organisms are the ones that give birth to young ones. The offsprings of oviparous animals are considered to be at a greater risk as compared to offsprings of viviparous animals because of the following reasons:

1. In oviparous animals, the development of offsprings occurs outside the body of the organism and they do not get proper protection and nourishment as in viviparous organisms.

2. The offsprings of oviparous organisms develop inside eggs made of calcareous shells. These eggs are prone to attack by predators

Hence, offsprings of oviparous animals are at a greater risk as compared to offsprings of viviparous animals.

NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Biology Reproduction in Organisms

Important Topics and Subtopics in NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms:

Section Name
Topic Name
1
Reproduction in Organisms
1.1Asexual Reproduction
1.2Sexual Reproduction
1.3Summary
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These NCERT Class 12 topics discuss about the reproduction and how it is broadly classified into the asexual and sexual reproduction.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 - Reproduction in Organisms

In the Reproduction in Organism Class 12 NCERT Solutions, you will get to know all Questions and answers like if it is related to different types of reproduction that are:

  • Asexual reproduction
  • Sexual reproduction

Class 12 Reproduction in Organisms NCERT Solutions also explains how asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes. You will learn in Biology Chapter 1 Class 12 that it is common in organisms that have a relatively simple organization, such as fungi, algae, and some invertebrate animals. whereas sexual reproduction involves the formation and fusion of gametes. In Reproduction in Organism Class 12 Solutions, you will get answers related to such topics. You will also get interesting answers, like that it is also a complex and slow process as compared to asexual reproduction according to Biology Class 12 Chapter 1. Most of the higher animals reproduce almost entirely by sexual method.

Reproduction in Organism Class 12 Solutions will give you all the answers with explanations and it will help you to score good marks in the exam as well as with this you can also prepare for your NEET exam. Class 12 biology Chapter 1 question answer will help you understand the chapter and all its concepts very well. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology provides an in-depth understanding of all the pre-fertilization and post-fertilization events occurring in plants and animals.

More about Class 12th Biology Chapter 1 NCERT Solutions

In the method of asexual reproduction, the topic explains the different types of asexual reproduction, like budding in yeast, binary fission in amoeba. Chapter reproduction in organisms also explains about the clone and various vegetative propagules in angiosperms. Questions based on this topic are given in the reproduction in organisms class 12 solutions.

Reproduction in organisms Class 12 discuss about the formation and fusion of gametes. Sexual reproduction in organisms may be categorized into pre-fertilization, fertilization, and post- fertilization events. You can compare between asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction after reading the chapter reproduction in organisms.

Gamete transfer and gametogenesis are the pre-fertilization events, while zygote and embryogenesis are the post-fertilization events. All the events of sexual reproduction have been explained in an easy and understanding language in this Class 12 NCERT Biology Chapter. Sexuality and plant body type in organisms is explained also.

All the topics covered in reproduction in organisms Class 12 questions and answers are important and students are advised to go through all the concepts mentioned in the topics. Questions from all the above topics are covered in this solution.


Key Features of NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms

  • Class 12th Biology Chapter 1 NCERT Solutions are readily available and easily accessible
  • Reproduction in Organism Class 12 Solutions are easy to download in the form of PDF
  • The answers to ch 1 biology Class 12 are prepared by subject experts.
  • The content provided in Class 12 reproduction in organisms NCERT solutions is easy to understand.
  • Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 NCERT Solutions enhances the conceptual knowledge of the students.
  • Chapter 1 Biology Class 12 NCERT Solutions are also helpful for competitive exams.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 biology Chapter 1 PDF provides questions and answers from the topic like eukaryotes and prokaryotes, where you will learn that prokaryotes and unicellular organisms reproduce asexually by cell division or binary fission of the parent cell. Reproduction in organisms Class 12 will tell you about so many important terms related to reproduction like clones, gametes, syngamy, embryogenesis, etc.

Also Check NCERT Books and NCERT Syllabus here:

NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Solutions

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology- Chapter wise

NCERT Solutions for Class 12- Subject wise

We are sure that all your doubts will get cleared and accelerate prepararation for your examinations with the help of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 - Reproduction in Organisms.

Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

1. What are the important topics of reproduction in organisms class 12 in ncert syllabus?

Below are some important topics of reproduction in organisms class 12, check out.

  • Asexual Reproduction
  • Sexual Reproduction   
  • Pre-fertilisation Events   
  • Gametogenesis   
  • Gamete Transfer   
  • Fertilisation   
  • Post-fertilisation Events   
  • The Zygote   
  • Embryogenesis  
2. What are the benefits of reproduction in organisms class 12 ncert pdf?

the benefits of  reproduction in organisms class 12 ncert pdf are given below:

  • Solutions for biology class 12 chapter 1 provides such answers which are easy to understand and to remember them as well.

  • It will also help you to prepare for CBSE exams through reproduction in organisms class 12 reproduction in organism.
  • It also helps you to prepare for the NEET entrance exam along with your 12th board exam.
  • Reproduction in organisms class 12 ncert pdf are easy to access (any time, anywhere).
3. Write two examples of vegetative propagation with explanation given in reproduction in organisms class 12.

These examples of vegetative propagation  given in reproduction in organisms class 12 are:

  1. Vegetative propagation by roots: Roots of some plants can develop adventitious buds to form new plants e.g.  Dalbergia, guava, poplar,  Albizia, Murraya etc. Fleshy roots such as those of sweet potato, tapioca, Dahlia etc. also develop adventitious buds and form new plants.  

  2. Vegetative propagation by leaves: The leaves of some plants develop buds over them. From these buds, new plants arise. E.g  Bryophyllum

4. What are the difference between gametogenesis and embryogenesis given in biology class 12 chapter 1?

In, class 12th biology chapter 1 ncert solutions, differentiation between gametogenesis and embryogenesis is as follows:  

  • Gametogenesis  
  • Embryogenesis  
  • The process of formation of gametes is called gametogenesis  
  • The process of formation of the embryo is called embryogenesis  
  • This process involves meiotic divisions that lead to the formation of gametes  
  • This process involves mitotic division that leads to the development of a zygote into an embryo  
  • Gametogenesis leads to fertilisation  
  • Embryogenesis is followed by organogenesis  
5. How to download NCERT solutions of ncert book for class 12 Biology chapter 1 pdf?

To download class 12 Biology chapter 1 notes PDF, students can use the online webpage to pdf converter tools. To Score Well in the examination, follow NCERT syllabus and exercise given in the NCERT Book. To practice more problems, students can refer to NCERT exemplar. 

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Good Luck

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A block of mass 0.50 kg is moving with a speed of 2.00 ms-1 on a smooth surface. It strikes another mass of 1.00 kg and then they move together as a single body. The energy loss during the collision is

Option 1)

0.34\; J

Option 2)

0.16\; J

Option 3)

1.00\; J

Option 4)

0.67\; J

A person trying to lose weight by burning fat lifts a mass of 10 kg upto a height of 1 m 1000 times.  Assume that the potential energy lost each time he lowers the mass is dissipated.  How much fat will he use up considering the work done only when the weight is lifted up ?  Fat supplies 3.8×107 J of energy per kg which is converted to mechanical energy with a 20% efficiency rate.  Take g = 9.8 ms−2 :

Option 1)

2.45×10−3 kg

Option 2)

 6.45×10−3 kg

Option 3)

 9.89×10−3 kg

Option 4)

12.89×10−3 kg

 

An athlete in the olympic games covers a distance of 100 m in 10 s. His kinetic energy can be estimated to be in the range

Option 1)

2,000 \; J - 5,000\; J

Option 2)

200 \, \, J - 500 \, \, J

Option 3)

2\times 10^{5}J-3\times 10^{5}J

Option 4)

20,000 \, \, J - 50,000 \, \, J

A particle is projected at 600   to the horizontal with a kinetic energy K. The kinetic energy at the highest point

Option 1)

K/2\,

Option 2)

\; K\;

Option 3)

zero\;

Option 4)

K/4

In the reaction,

2Al_{(s)}+6HCL_{(aq)}\rightarrow 2Al^{3+}\, _{(aq)}+6Cl^{-}\, _{(aq)}+3H_{2(g)}

Option 1)

11.2\, L\, H_{2(g)}  at STP  is produced for every mole HCL_{(aq)}  consumed

Option 2)

6L\, HCl_{(aq)}  is consumed for ever 3L\, H_{2(g)}      produced

Option 3)

33.6 L\, H_{2(g)} is produced regardless of temperature and pressure for every mole Al that reacts

Option 4)

67.2\, L\, H_{2(g)} at STP is produced for every mole Al that reacts .

How many moles of magnesium phosphate, Mg_{3}(PO_{4})_{2} will contain 0.25 mole of oxygen atoms?

Option 1)

0.02

Option 2)

3.125 × 10-2

Option 3)

1.25 × 10-2

Option 4)

2.5 × 10-2

If we consider that 1/6, in place of 1/12, mass of carbon atom is taken to be the relative atomic mass unit, the mass of one mole of a substance will

Option 1)

decrease twice

Option 2)

increase two fold

Option 3)

remain unchanged

Option 4)

be a function of the molecular mass of the substance.

With increase of temperature, which of these changes?

Option 1)

Molality

Option 2)

Weight fraction of solute

Option 3)

Fraction of solute present in water

Option 4)

Mole fraction.

Number of atoms in 558.5 gram Fe (at. wt.of Fe = 55.85 g mol-1) is

Option 1)

twice that in 60 g carbon

Option 2)

6.023 × 1022

Option 3)

half that in 8 g He

Option 4)

558.5 × 6.023 × 1023

A pulley of radius 2 m is rotated about its axis by a force F = (20t - 5t2) newton (where t is measured in seconds) applied tangentially. If the moment of inertia of the pulley about its axis of rotation is 10 kg m2 , the number of rotations made by the pulley before its direction of motion if reversed, is

Option 1)

less than 3

Option 2)

more than 3 but less than 6

Option 3)

more than 6 but less than 9

Option 4)

more than 9

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