NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organism
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organism: Have you ever assumed that how the species of any organism survive years to years? In the solutions you easily find the answer of such questions is reproduction. It becomes a vital process and without this process, species cannot survive for long. Through the reproduction in organisms class 12, you will be able to solve all the doubts and questions of this chapter. These solutions will help student score good marks in the exams.
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The solutions provided in the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 are beneficial in enhancing conceptual knowledge. You will get to know that it's reproduction through which species continue to live through millions of years unless threatened by natural or anthropogenic extinction. If you are looking for the answers of any other class from 6-12 then NCERT solutions are there for you as it's the easiest way to get all the solutions of NCERT.
In case, you have any doubts or queries in solving these questions then reproduction in organisms class 12 will help you to solve them.
- NCERT Class 12th Biology Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms Notes
- NCERT Class 12th Biology Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms Exemplar
NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms
Q1. Why is reproduction essential for organisms according to biology class 12 chapter 1?
Reproduction refers to the process of production of offsprings by living organisms. The offsprings produced are similar to their parents. These offsprings grow and become reproductively mature to leave their progenies. Therefore, this process repeats itself and a continuity of species is maintained generation after generation. If reproduction would not have been there, species would not be able to leave their progenies and sooner or later they might extinct. Thus, reproduction is essential for living organisms.
Q2. Which is a better mode of reproduction: sexual or asexual? Why?
Among sexual and asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction is considered to be a better mode of reproduction. It is mainly because sexual reproduction tends to create more amount of variations among the organisms. It involves two parents which contribute the 50% of their genomes each to the zygote. As a result of this, offsprings have father's characters, mother's characters and some other unique characters also. The variations caused by sexual reproduction are essential as they help organisms in adjusting to dynamic environmental condition and responsible for survival and gradual evolution of species. On the contrary, in asexual reproduction, single parent produces the offspring and thus, these offsprings are similar to their parent. Due to this, they have no advantage over organisms produced by sexual reproduction. Thus, sexual reproduction is a better mode of reproduction then asexual reproduction.
Q3. Why is the offspring formed by asexual reproduction referred to as clone?
The term clone refers to a group of genetically and morphologically similar individuals. In asexual reproduction, a single organism is able to give rise to offsprings. Due to this, the offsprings thus produced are copies of their parents. These offsprings are exact replicas of each other also. That is why the offsprings produced by asexual reproduction are referred to as a clone.
Q4. Offspring formed due to sexual reproduction have better chances of survival. Why? Is this statement always true?
During sexual reproduction male and female gametes from male and female individuals respectively fuse with each other and form zygote. This zygote contains new combinations of DNA/genes that are a result of recombination and crossing over. Due to the presence of these new combinations of DNA, variations are caused. These variations allow organisms to survive in unfavourable conditions. This is the reason why offsprings formed due to sexual reproduction have better chances of survival over those formed due to asexual reproduction.
The above statement is not always true, because there have been instances when continuous sexual reproduction among species of a given population, causes a reduction in yield and reduces the chances of survival. It mainly occurs because, sometimes due to recombination, less desired combinations of DNA/genes are formed and they make species vulnerable to extreme conditions. Thus, the statement, offspring formed due to sexual reproduction have better chances of survival is not always true.
Q5. How does the progeny formed from asexual reproduction differ from those formed by sexual reproduction?
The progeny formed from asexual reproduction differs from that formed from sexual reproduction in the following ways:
Progeny formed from asexual reproduction
Progeny formed from sexual reproduction
These are formed from single parent
Their formation requires the involvement of two parents i.e. a male and female
The process of formation does not involve meiosis and crossing over
Formation of gametes involves meiosis and crossing over
These progenies are copies of their parents and of each other
These progenies are different from their parents and from each other
These progenies do not show genetic variations
These progenies show genetic variation due to crossing over and recombination
NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 1 reproduction in organism:
Q6. Distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction. Why is vegetative reproduction also considered as a type of asexual reproduction?
Differences between sexual and asexual reproduction are as follows:
It involves a single parent
It involves two parents
There is no requirement of sex organs and gametes
Gamete formation occurs in sex organs
It involves somatic cells of the body
it involves germ cells of the body
Offsprings produced in asexual reproduction are exactly similar to their parent
offsprings produced in sexual reproduction are different from their parents
It occurs rapidly
It is a slow process
It occurs in unicellular organisms, lower invertebrates, plants etc.
It occurs in higher organisms
Vegetative reproduction is considered to be a type of asexual reproduction because
1. Vegetative reproduction is uniparental i.e. it involves a single parent.
2. The reproductive propagules of vegetative reproduction are somatic cells as in asexual reproduction.
3. Meiosis and fertilisation are absent in vegetative reproduction.
4. Vegetative reproduction does not cause variations. The offsprings produced are similar to their parent
Q7. What is vegetative propagation? Give two suitable examples.
Vegetative propagation is a method of asexual reproduction in plants. In this method, a vegetative part of a plant gives rise to new plants. This vegetative part which has the ability to produce new plants is called vegetative propagule. Some common vegetative propagules are runner, rhizome, sucker, tuber, offset, bulb etc. Vegetative propagation is of two types i.e. natural vegetative propagation and artificial vegetative propagation. In natural vegetative propagation, a vegetative structure detaches from the parent plant and give rise to new plants. Artificial vegetative propagation includes methods developed by horticulturists to readily develop multiple plants through vegetative propagation.
The examples of vegetative propagation are:
1. Vegetative propagation by roots: Roots of some plants can develop adventitious buds to form new plants e.g. Dalbergia , guava, poplar, Albizia, Murraya etc. Fleshy roots such as those of sweet potato, tapioca, Dahlia etc. also develop adventitious buds and form new plants.
2. Vegetative propagation by leaves: The leaves of some plants develop buds over them. From these buds, new plants arise. E.g Bryophyllum .
All organisms have to reach a particular growth stage before they attain reproductive maturity. This pre-reproductive period of growth is called juvenile phase in animals. In plants, this phase is known as the vegetative phase. The duration of the juvenile phase varies in different organisms.
Reproductive phase refers to that phase of an organisms' life cycle in which it attains reproductive maturity and become able to produce gametes and mate. This phase is marked by certain hormonal changes.
The senescent phase refers to the post-reproductive phase in which an organism not just loses its reproductive potential but also the rate of metabolism slows down and there is deterioration of vital activities of the body.
Q9. Higher organisms have resorted to sexual reproduction in spite of its complexity. Why?
Higher organisms have resorted to sexual reproduction because sexual reproduction enables these organisms to survive during unfavorable conditions. It tends to induce genetic variability in these organisms which further becomes a cause of the evolution of better-adapted species.
Q10. Explain why meiosis and gametogenesis are always interlinked?
Meiosis refers to the cell division which causes a reduction in the number of chromosomes by half and gametogenesis is the formation of male and female gametes. These two terms are often interlinked because gamete formation in diploid organisms occurs through meiosis only. The number of chromosomes in diploid organisms must be reduced to half because if this doesn't happen then the zygote after fertilisation would have 4n ploidy. Thus, gametogenesis and meiosis are interlinked.
NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 1 reproduction in organism:
Q11. Identify each part in a flowering plant and write whether it is haploid (n) or diploid (2n).
The ovary is the part of the flower and its ploidy is 2n.
The anther is the male reproductive part of a flower. It is diploid (2n) i.e. it consists of 2 sets of chromosomes.
The egg is the female gamete and is formed by meiosis so it is haploid (n).
Male gametes in plants are formed by mitosis in pollen grain which is a haploid structure. Thus, male gametes are haploid (n).
A zygote is formed after fertilisation of male and female gametes which are haploid (n). Thus, zygote is diploid (2n).
Q12. Define external fertilisation. Mention its disadvantages.
External fertilisation refers to the fusion of male and female gametes outside the body of the organism. The disadvantages of external fertilisation are as follows:
1. External fertilisation requires an aquatic medium
2. Offsprings produced are highly vulnerable to predators
3. Parental care is not provided to offsprings
Q13. Differentiate between a zoospore and a zygote.
The differences between zoospore and zygote are as follows:
It is an asexual reproductive body
It is the result of sexual reproduction
Zoospores contain flagella, so they are motile
The zygote does not contain flagella, so it is non-motile
Zoospores can be haploid in some organisms and diploid in some others
A zygote is formed as a result of
Zoospores give rise to new individuals after germination
The zygote undergoes development to form an embryo which gives rise to new individual
These are formed in lower organisms
The zygote is formed in higher plants and animals
NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 1 reproduction in organism:
Q14. Differentiate between gametogenesis from embryogenesis.
Differentiation between gametogenesis and embryogenesis is as follows:
The process of formation of gametes is called gametogenesis
The process of formation of the embryo is called embryogenesis
This process involves meiotic divisions that lead to the formation of gametes
This process involves mitotic division that leads to the development of a zygote into an embryo
Gametogenesis leads to fertilisation
embryogenesis is followed by organogenesis
Q15. Describe the post-fertilisation changes in a flower.
The post fertilisation changes that occur in a flower are as follows:
1. Formation of zygote occurs in the ovule. zygote further develops into an embryo.
2. The ovary develops into the fruit while the ovary wall develops into pericarp.
3. Ovules develop into seeds
4. Sepals, petals and stamens wither and fall off while pistils remain attached to the plant.
Q16. What is a bisexual flower? Collect five bisexual flowers from your neighbourhood and with the help of your teacher find out their common and scientific names.
Bisexual flowers are those flowers which possess both male and female reproductive parts i.e. stamen and pistil respectively. Some of the common bisexual flowers that you will be able to collect in your neighbourhood are given below:
Q17. Examine a few flowers of any cucurbit plant and try to identify the staminate and pistillate flowers. Do you know any other plant that bears unisexual flowers?
Cucurbits bear unisexual flowers. These type of flowers bear either male or female reproductive organs. It means that a staminate flower bears only stamen i.e. male reproductive organ while pistillate flower contains only pistil i.e. female reproductive organ. So you can identify staminate and pistillate flowers on the basis of the presence of male and female parts respectively. Another example of a plant bearing unisexual flowers is maize.
Q18. Why are offspring of oviparous animals at a greater risk as compared to offspring of viviparous animals?
Oviparous organisms are those organisms that lay fertilized or unfertilized eggs whereas viviparous organisms are the ones that give birth to young ones. The offsprings of oviparous animals are considered to be at a greater risk as compared to offsprings of viviparous animals because of the following reasons:
1. In oviparous animals, the development of offsprings occurs outside the body of the organism and they do not get proper protection and nourishment as in viviparous organisms.
2. The offsprings of oviparous organisms develop inside eggs made of calcareous shells. These eggs are prone to attack by predators
Hence, offsprings of oviparous animals are at a greater risk as compared to offsprings of viviparous animals.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms
In the solutions, you will get to know all the answers to each and every question like if it is related to different types of reproduction that are:
- Asexual reproduction
- Sexual reproduction
Asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes. You will study that it is common in organisms that have a relatively simple organization such as the fungi, algae and some invertebrate animals. Whereas, sexual reproduction involves the formation and fusion of gametes. You will get answers related to such topics. In biology class 12 chapter 1, you will get interesting answers like it is also a complex and slow process as compared to asexual reproduction. Most of the higher animals reproduce almost entirely by the sexual method. Reproduction in organisms class 12 ncert pdf will give you all the answers with explanation and it will help you to score good marks in the exam as well as with this you can also prepare for your NEET exam. Solutions will help you understand the chapter and all its concepts very well. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology provides an in-depth understanding of all the pre-fertilization and post-fertilization events occurring in plants and animals.
Important topics of NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 1 reproduction in organism:
1.1 Asexual Reproduction
1.2 Sexual Reproduction
1.2.1 Pre-fertilisation Events
184.108.40.206 Gamete Transfer
1.2.3 Post-fertilisation Events
220.127.116.11 The Zygote
These NCERT class 12 topics discuss about the reproduction and how it is broadly classified into the asexual and sexual reproduction.
In the method of asexual reproduction, the topic explains the different types of asexual reproduction like budding in yeast, binary fission in amoeba. Chapter reproduction in organisms also explains about the clone and various vegetative propagules in angiosperms. Question based on this topic are given in the reproduction in organisms class 12 solutions.
Reproduction in organisms class 12 discuss about the formation and fusion of gametes. Sexual reproduction in organisms may be categorized into pre-fertilization, fertilization, and post- fertilization events. You can compare between asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction after reading the chapter reproduction in organisms.
Gamete transfer and gametogenesis are the pre-fertilization events while zygote and embryogenesis are the post-fertilization events. All the events of sexual reproduction have been explained in an easy and understanding language in this class12 ncert biology chapter. Sexuality and plant body type in organisms is explained also.
All the topics are important and students are advised to go through all the concepts mentioned in the topics. Questions from all the above topics are covered in this solution.
Key Features of NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms
- Readily available and easily accessible
- Easy download in the form of PDF
- The answers are prepared by subject experts.
- The content provided is easy to understand.
- It enhances the conceptual knowledge of the students.
- NCERT Solutions are also helpful for competitive exams.
With NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 1 pdf you will also get question and answers from the topic like eukaryotes and prokaryotes, where you will learn that prokaryotes and unicellular organisms reproduce asexually by cell division or binary fission of the parent cell. Reproduction in organism will tell you about so many important terms related to reproduction like clones, gametes, syngamy, embryogenesis, etc.
After going through the CBSE NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 1 reproduction in organism you can easily answer most of the questions from the exercise of this chapter. And if still confused then don't worry just go through the chapter without missing any concept. Try to attempt all the given questions in NCERT.
Also Check NCERT Books and NCERT Syllabus here:
- NCERT Books Class 12
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NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Solutions
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Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) - NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organism
Question: How to download NCERT solutions of ncert book for class 12 Biology chapter 1 pdf?
To download class 12 Biology chapter 1 notes PDF, students can use the online webpage to pdf converter tools. To Score Well in the examination, follow NCERT syllabus and exercise given in the NCERT Book. To practice more problems, students can refer to NCERT exemplar.
Question: What are the difference between gametogenesis and embryogenesis given in biology class 12 chapter 1?
In, class 12th biology chapter 1 ncert solutions, differentiation between gametogenesis and embryogenesis is as follows:
Question: Write two examples of vegetative propagation with explanation given in reproduction in organisms class 12.
These examples of vegetative propagation given in reproduction in organisms class 12 are:
1. Vegetative propagation by roots: Roots of some plants can develop adventitious buds to form new plants e.g. Dalbergia, guava, poplar, Albizia, Murraya etc. Fleshy roots such as those of sweet potato, tapioca, Dahlia etc. also develop adventitious buds and form new plants.
2. Vegetative propagation by leaves: The leaves of some plants develop buds over them. From these buds, new plants arise. E.g Bryophyllum.
Question: What are the benefits of reproduction in organisms class 12 ncert pdf?
the benefits of reproduction in organisms class 12 ncert pdf are given below:
Solutions for biology class 12 chapter 1 provides such answers which are easy to understand and to remember them as well.
- It will also help you to prepare for CBSE exams through reproduction in organisms class 12 reproduction in organism.
- It also helps you to prepare for the NEET entrance exam along with your 12th board exam.
- Reproduction in organisms class 12 ncert pdf are easy to access (any time, anywhere).
Question: What are the important topics of reproduction in organisms class 12 in ncert syllabus?
Below are some important topics of reproduction in organisms class 12, check out.
- Asexual Reproduction
- Sexual Reproduction
- Pre-fertilisation Events
- Gamete Transfer
- Post-fertilisation Events
- The Zygote
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Questions related to CBSE Class 12th
i couldnt clear 1st compartment (which held in August 2022) cbse class 12th so can I give improvement in all subjects which to be held on March 2023. tell me a solution i need more than 75% in class 12th
Yes you can appear for the compartment paper again since CBSE gives three chances to a candidate to clear his/her exams so you still have two more attempts. However, you can appear for your improvement paper for all subjects but you cannot appear for the ones in which you have failed.
I hope this was helpful!
i was not able to clear 1st compartment and now I have to give 2nd compartment so can I give improvement exam next year? plz tell me very much tensed(cbse class 12th)
If you was not able to clear 1st compartment and now you giving second compartment so YES, you can go for your improvement exam next year but if a student receives an improvement, they are given the opportunity to retake the boards as a private candidate the following year, but there are some requirements. First, the student must pass all of their subjects; if they received a compartment in any subject, they must then pass the compartment exam before being eligible for the improvement.
As you can registered yourself as private candidate for giving your improvement exam of 12 standard CBSE(Central Board of Secondary Education).For that you have to wait for a whole year which is bit difficult for you.
Positive side of waiting for whole year is you have a whole year to preparing yourself for your examination. You have no distraction or something which may causes your failure in the exams. In whole year you have to stay focused on your 12 standard examination for doing well in it. By this you get a highest marks as a comparison of others.
Believe in Yourself! You can make anything happen
All the very best.
if i am giving improvement in one subject this year, will i be able to give improvement in more subjects next year?
I appreciate your Interest in education. See the improvement is not restricted to one subject or multiple subjects and we cannot say if improvement in one subject in one year leads to improvement in more subjects in coming year.
You just need to have a revision of all subjects what you have completed in the school. have a revision and practice of subjects and concepts helps you better.
All the best.
I got an RT for 2 subjects, so do I have to give exams for all the subjects in the coming year or just the 2. pls help me
You just need to give the exams for the concerned two subjects in which you have got RT. There is no need to give exam for all of your subjects, you can just fill the form for the two subjects only.
I will have my boards in Feb 2023 (Class 12) and I still havent completed 1 chapter in any subject (Physics, chemistry and maths) , My 11th concepts are not that great but its okish, I wanted to know that If I do start studying from 15th of August Can I get above 85?
If you'll do hard work then by hard work of 6 months you can achieve your goal but you have to start studying for it dont waste your time its a very important year so please dont waste it otherwise you'll regret.