NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Science Heredity and Evolution – Free PDF Download
NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 9 - The name of this chapter is Heredity and Evolution. NCERT Class 10 Science solutions chapter 9 will help the students to clear all the doubts and check their answers after solving the questions. Referring to the NCERT solutions for Heredity and Evolution Class 10 Science chapter 9, we will know that there are several things that we genetically get from our parents. Such as the colour of eyes, curly hair, etc. This is termed as heredity. It is advisable to go through NCERT solutions for class 10 to score good marks in the exams. In addition to this, they must complete the NCERT Class 10 Science syllabus at the earliest to revise in a better way. Read further to know the NCERT solutions for Class 10 Science chapter 9 and other details.
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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Heredity and Evolution: Students can compare their answers to the model responses by using the in-depth solutions to the NCERT textbook questions. The exercises and in-text questions in the NCERT textbooks are briefly explained in the Chapter-wise NCERT solutions for class 10 science. The NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Science Chapter 9 will give you a solid foundation for competitive exams like JEE, NEET, UPSC, etc. NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution is covered in detail in the following paragraphs.
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution- Important Topics
Let's take a quick look at the topics and subtopics covered in the class 10 biology heredity and evolution NCERT solutions before diving into the specifics of the NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution:
Heredity And Evolution
Accumulation Of Variation During Reproduction
Rules for the Inheritance of Traits – Mendel’s Contributions
How do these traits get Expressed
Acquired and Inherited Traits
Evolution And Classification
Tracing Evolutionary Relationships
Evolution by Stages
Evolution Should Not Be Equated With ‘Progress’
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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Intext Questions
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution: topic 9.1 Page Number 143
Q. 1. If a trait A exists in 10% of a population of an asexually reproducing species and a trait B exists in 60% of the same population, which trait is likely to have arisen earlier?
Trait B is more likely to have arisen earlier because it has a higher percentage of the population and in asexual reproduction, traits are carried over to the next generation with minimal changes in the traits.
For example, all the sugarcanes in the field which reproduce asexually, have almost similar characteristics, however, the animals and human which reproduce sexually, have more chances of traits in the next generation.
Q. 2. How does the creation of variations in a species promote survival?
Variation in our characteristics occurs due to sexual reproduction and inaccurate copying of DNA. The varied characteristics which fit for surviving passes on to the next generation more easily and the characteristics which are not favourable for surviving will get vanish after some generation.
Favourable variations help a species to adapt to changes in their environment and they promote survival of a species.
Heredity and Evolution Class 10: Topic 9.2 Solutions, Page Number 147
Q. 1. How do Mendel’s experiments show that traits may be dominant or recessive?
Mendal Conducted many experiments by crossing the Tall plants and Short plants. he found that the trait Tall which appears in the first generation also appeared in the second generation with 75 % in number. and the trait short appeared in the second generation by 25% in number. Hence he concluded that trait Tall is Dominant and the trait short is recessive.
in other words:
Tall + Tall = Tall
Tall + Short = Tall
Short + Tall = Tall
Short + Short = Short
As we can see there are 3 out of 4 Tall in the Next Generation. Hence it is a dominant trait.
Hence by this experiment, he showed that traits can be Dominant or Recessive.
Q. 2. How do Mendel’s experiments show that traits are inherited independently?
In Mandel's one of the experiments he crossed the Pure breeding Tall plants having round seed with Short plants having wrinkled seed. here he found some of the new traits like Tall plant having wrinkled seed and Short plants having round seed.
Tall and Round + Short and Wrinkled = Tall and Round + Tall and Wrinkled +Short and Wrinkled + Short and Round
( Previous Trait) (New Trait) (Previous Trait ) (New Trait)
Those new traits would not have been there if traits are inherently dependent.
And hence he concluded that traits are inherited independently
Q. 3. A man with blood group A marries a woman with blood group O and their daughter has blood group O. Is this information enough to tell you which of the traits – blood group A or O – is dominant? Why or why not?
No, This information is not sufficient to conclude any trait dominant or recessive. this is because we don't know the blood group of all offsprings.
The given blood group A can be AA or AO, so we can't really draw any conclusion from it.
Q. 4. How is the sex of the child determined in human beings?
Half the male gametes have X-chromosomes and the other half have Y-chromosomesThe human male has one X-chromosome and one Y-chromosome. In other words, The human male has one X-chromosome and one Y-chromosome On the other hand, all-female gametes have only X-chromosomes. If a sperm carrying Y-chromosome fertilizes an ovum then the child born will be a boy.
On the other hand, if a sperm carrying X-chromosomes fertilizes an ovum then the child born will be a girl.
X + X = Girl
X + Y = Boy.
Heredity and Evolution: topic 9.3, Page Number 150
Q. 1. What are the different ways in which individuals with a particular trait may increase in a population?
The different ways in which individuals with a particular trait may increase in a population are
1) Natural Selection: if a trait is useful to the population, it will increase naturally.
2) Genetic Drift: if a population faces any accidents such that the majority of the population get killed, then the remaining ones can pass their genes to the next generation and increase the population of their traits.
3) Sexual Selection: some traits also increases in choosing a suitable partner for mating. if there is mating between male and female, their offspring will contain their traits and the population with that trait increases. So, sexual selection of partner plays a much more important role than we realize. for example, most of the creativity traits like music and art skills are the result of sexual selection.
Q. 2. Why are traits acquired during the life-time of an individual not inherited?
The traits acquired during the lifetime of an individual are not inherited because acquired traits involve a change in non-reproductive tissues and do not affect the genetic makeup like DNA.
Hence they can not be transferred sexually to the next generation.
Q. 3. Why are the small numbers of surviving tigers a cause of worry from the point of view of genetics ?
1) The small number member in a population does not produce a large variation in the genes which are essential for the survival of the species.it means Small numbers of tigers mean that fewer possible variations of genes are available.
2) If any natural calamity occurs or any disease spreads and kills these small numbers of surviving tigers, they will become extinct resulting in the loss of these genes forever.
3) Less number of species means less number of diversity and a lesser number of traits which reduces the chances of adaptability with respect to change in the environment.
Heredity and Evolution Topic 9.4 Questions, Page Number 151
Q. 1. What factors could lead to the rise of a new species?
The factors could lead to the rise of a new species are :
1) Natural Selection
2) Method of Genetic Drift
3) Gene Variation on Mutation
4)Geographical and environmental factors
Q. 2. Will geographical isolation be a major factor in the speciation of a self-pollinating plant species? Why or why not?
No. Geographical isolation prevents the transfer of pollen among different plants. whereas, if the plant is self-pollinating which means they pollen are transferred from the same plant, The Geographical isolation cannot prevent speciation in this case.
However, there is some possibility of some environmental change which could result in some variation.
Q. 3. Will geographical isolation be a major factor in the speciation of an organism that reproduces asexually? Why or why not?
No. Geographical isolation prevents gene flow between populations of a species that reproduces sexually. whereas asexual reproduction generally involves only one individual. In an asexually reproducing organism, variations can occur only when the copying of DNA is not accurate.
Therefore, geographical isolation cannot prevent the formation of new species in an asexually reproducing organism.
Heredity and Evolution Topic 9.5 Solutions, Page Number 156
Q. 1. Give an example of characteristics being used to determine how close two species are in evolutionary terms.
The similar kind of organs is one such evidence that is used to determine how close two species are related. The presence of feathers in dinosaurs and birds indicates that they are evolutionarily related. Dinosaurs had feathers, not for flying but instead, these feathers provided insulation to these warm-blooded animals. However, the feathers in birds are used for flight.
This proves that reptiles and birds are closely related and that the evolution of wings started in reptiles,
Also if we consider the example of Human and Ape, the body style of both is similar and hence they are closely related in evolutionary terms.
Q. 2. Can the wing of a butterfly and the wing of a bat be considered homologous organs? Why or why not?
Homologous organs have different look and perform a completely different function, however, shares a common basic structure. wing of a butterfly and the wing of a bat performs a similar function but have a different basic structure. wings of a butterfly are membrane supported by muscles and wings of a bat is the body skeleton.
Hence they are not the homologous organ rather analogous organ because they perform the same function.
Q. 3. What are fossils? What do they tell us about the process of evolution?
Fossils are dead remains (may be a part of the organism or the whole organism) of plants, animals or any other organisms that existed on earth in the past
Fossils help us in many ways like,
(i) They give great insight into the evaluation. for example, the pattern of fossil distribution gives us an idea of the time in history when various species were formed and extinct.
(ii) They help us in establishing evolutionary relations between present organisms. Example: Archaeopteryx (connecting link between reptiles and birds).
Heredity and Evolution Class 10 Topic 9.6 Solutions, Page Number: 158
Q. 1. Why are human beings who look so different from each other in terms of size, colour and looks said to belong to the same species?
Human beings who look so different from each other in terms of size, color and looks said to belong to the same species because their genetic makeup is similar and have the same organization at the genetic level. We all have the same number of chromosome and we breed among ourselves to produce fertile offspring.
Q. 2. In evolutionary terms, can we say which among bacteria, spiders, fish and chimpanzees have a ‘better’ body design? Why or why not?
Evaluation should not be equated with progress or any kind of better quality like better body design. Evaluation simply creates a more complex body design. And this does not mean that simple body design is inefficient. for example, a bacteria has a very simple body but still is the most cosmopolitan organism found on the earth. They can survive deep sea, hot spring, and even icy-cold freezing environment.
So, we can't really say there's a better body design as these organisms evolved in the different-different environment and made changes in their body structure according to "Their " need.
Heredity and Evolution Class 10 NCERT Exercise Solutions
Q. 1. A Mendelian experiment consisted of breeding tall pea plants bearing violet flowers with short pea plants bearing white flowers. The progeny all bore violet flowers, but almost half of them were short. This suggests that the genetic make-up of the tall parent can be depicted as
As half the progenies are short, this implies that the parent plant also will have a collection of short genes. Also since all progenies bore violet flowers, the violet color is dominant over white.
Hence TtWW might be the correct answer.
Q. 2. An example of homologous organs is
(a) our arm and a dog’s fore-leg.
(b) our teeth and an elephant’s tusks.
(c) potato and runners of grass.
(d) all of the above.
Homologous organs have the same origin but different function. all the given option have the same origin and hence correct option is d.
Q. 3. In evolutionary terms, we have more in common with
(a) a Chinese school-boy.
(b) a chimpanzee.
(c) a spider.
(d) a bacterium.
We are human beings like a Chinese boy. Thus, option (a) is correct.
Both human and Chinese boy are of the same ancestry and belongs to Homo Sapiens .
Q. 4. A study found that children with light-coloured eyes are likely to have parents with light-coloured eyes. On this basis, can we say anything about whether the light eye colour trait is dominant or recessive? Why or why not?
For considering a trait as dominant or recessive, we need the information of a minimum of 3 generations.
If the grandparent, parent and the children. all have the light colored eye, then we can conclude that light eye color is a dominent trait.
Q. 5. How are the areas of study – evolution and classification – interlinked?
Classification involves grouping of organisms into a formal system based on similarities and differences. Two species are more closely related if they have more characteristics in common and if two species are closely related then it means they have a more recent common ancestor.
We classify organisms according to their characteristics which is similar to the things we analyze in evaluation. Hence both areas of study are interlinked.
Q. 6. Explain the terms analogous and homologous organs with examples.
Analogous organs: Those organs which have different basic structure but have a similar appearance and perform similar functions are called analogous organs. Example - wings of bird and insect.
Homologous organs: Those organs which have the same basic structure but different functions are called homologous organs. Example: forelimb of humans and forelimb of lizard.
Q. 7. Outline a project which aims to find the dominant coat colour in dogs.
(i) Select two varieties of dogs one with white coat color, the other with black coat color.
(ii) Crossbreed them taking a male dog from one variety and bitch (female dog) from the other variety.
(iii) Observe the color of offsprings of the F1 generation.
(iv) Now, bring about breeding among the organisms of the F1 generation.
(v) Observe the coat color of organisms (pups) of F2 generation and note the variations in coat color.
(vi) Draw conclusions on the basis of your study.
One of the probable inheritance patterns may be as given below.
Phenotypic ratio = 3 : 1,
Black coat colour (3) : White coat colour (1)
Q. 8. Explain the importance of fossils in deciding evolutionary relationships.
Fossils provide us evidence about many things like:
1) The organisms that lived long ago in the past.
2) Connecting links between two groups. for example, the feather in some dinosaurs means that birds are very closely related to reptiles.
3)The development of any particular species by evaluation.
4) The time period of the organisms.
5) Simple to complex body design journey.
Q. 9. What evidence do we have for the origin of life from inanimate matter?
The evidence for the origin of life from inanimate matter was provided through an experiment, conducted in 1953, by Stanley L. Miller and Harold C. Urey.
In the experiment, they assembled an atmosphere containing molecules like ammonia, methane and hydrogen sulfide, but no oxygen, over water. This was similar to the atmosphere that thought to exist on the early earth. This was maintained at a temperature just below 100°C and sparks were passed through the mixture of gases to simulate lightning.
At the end of a week, 15% of the carbon from methane, had been converted to simple compounds of carbon including amino acids which make up protein molecules and support the life in the basic form.
Thus, this experiment suggests that life on earth arose fresh.
Q. 10. Explain how sexual reproduction gives rise to more viable variations than asexual reproduction. How does this affect the evolution of those organisms that reproduce sexually?
Sexual reproduction causes more viable variations due to the following reasons:
1)Error in the copying of DNA, which are not highly significant.
2) Random segregation of paternal and maternal chromosome at the time of gamete formation.
3)Exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during the formation of gametes.
4) Accumulation of variations occurred due to sexual reproduction over generation after generation and selection by nature created wide diversity.
In the case of asexual reproduction, only the very small changes due to inaccuracies in DNA copying pass on the progeny. Thus, offsprings of asexual reproduction are more or less genetically similar to their parents. So, it can be concluded that evolution in sexually reproducing organisms proceeds at a faster pace than in asexually reproducing organisms.
Q. 11. How is the equal genetic contribution of male and female parents ensured in the progeny?
The inheritance of equal parent chromosomes ensures equal genetic contribution within the relative of male and female folk. There are 23 pairs of chromosomes. There is no pairing of all human chromosomes. The primary twenty-two trials are called autosomes out of those twenty-three pairs, and the remaining one pair is also thought to be sex chromosomes drawn as X and Y. Females have an ideal trial of 2 X sex chromosomes and males have an inappropriate trial of I X and I Y chromosome.
During the replication process, the male germ cell (haploid) fuses with the feminine gamete (haploid) resulting in the formation of the diploid fertilized ovum as the fertilization method takes place. Within the relative, the fertilized ovum receives the associated degree of equal contribution from the oldsters of genetic material. Of the comparatively twenty-three pairs of chromosomes, the parent contributes twenty-two autosomes and one X or sex chromosome, whereas the feminine parent contributes twenty-two autosomes and one chromosome.
Q. 12. Only variations that confer an advantage to an individual organism will survive in a population. Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not?
It is not always true. The variations that confer an advantage to an individual organism are definitely of more survival value because natural selection prefers these variations. But there are several other variations which, though do not provide an advantage to the organism in if present condition, survive and are inherited to the next generations. Such non-advantageous variations may become advantageous in future when the environmental conditions change.
For example, at this stage of evolution, The art, and music skills that we acquire doesn't give us any survival benefit but still called a good quality trait or variation.
Importance of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 9:
Generally, 4 types of questions are asked in class 10 science board exam i.e. very short answer type, short answer type, long answer type and practical based questions which are for 1 to 5 marks. In CBSE 2018 board exams, 3 questions were asked from this chapter for 10 marks. You can easily score these 10 marks if you know the solutions of Class 10 Science Chapter 9 NCERT solutions heredity and evolution.
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science - Chapter wise
|Chapter No.||Chapter Name|
|Chapter 1||Chemical Reactions and Equations|
|Chapter 2||Acids, Bases, and Salts|
|Chapter 3||Metals and Non-metals|
|Chapter 4||Carbon and Its Compounds|
|Chapter 5||Classification of Elements|
|Chapter 6||Life Processes|
|Chapter 7||Control and Coordination|
|Chapter 8||How do Organisms Reproduce?|
|Chapter 9||Heredity and Evolution|
|Chapter 10||Light Reflection and Refraction|
|Chapter 11||The Human Eye and The Colorful World|
|Chapter 13||Magnetic Effects of Electric Current|
|Chapter 14||Sources of Energy|
|Chapter 15||Our Environment|
|Chapter 16||Sustainable Management of Natural Resources|
Solutions of NCERT Class 10 - Subject-Wise
Benefits of NCERT Solutions for class 10 science chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution:
You will have the detailed CBSE NCERT solutions Class 10 Science for chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution in your hands. You can use them to understand the concepts as well as learn how to answer them in the board exams
Since practice is an essential part of your board exam preparation, check the questions asked in the previous papers on this chapter and match the questions asked. You can then use the solutions of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution to know the answers. If the same questions or similar ones are asked, you will be able to answer them.
Highlights of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution
- The NCERT (CBSE) Syllabus and Books are strictly followed in heredity and evolution class 10 solutions.
- heredity and evolution class 10 exercise answers are easy-to-understand and comprehensive
- you will find clear and concise solutions to class in the heredity and evolution PDF.
- The heredity and evolution class 10 NCERT solutions help clear doubt and give in-depth knowledge of concepts.
- Heredity and evolution class 10 NCERT solutions are prepared by subject matter experts in the easiest possible way.
- Stepwise solutions are provided here in class 10 heredity and evolution solutions.
- Diagrams are provided in class 10 science chapter 9 pdf wherever required to better understand.
- class 10 science ch 9 solutions will help you to score good marks in board exams.
- heredity and evolution class 10 questions and answers are accessible to everyone at any time anywhere without any difficulty.
Also Check NCERT Books and NCERT Syllabus here:
- NCERT Books Class 10 Science
- NCERT Syllabus Class 10 Science
- NCERT Books Class 10
- NCERT Syllabus Class 10
Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) - NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution
Question: What are analogous organs according to Chapter 9 of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science?
Organs from different species with similar functions are referred to as "analogous organs." Even though these organs' anatomical characteristics may vary, their functions are the same in all organisms. In order to understand the concepts clearly while completing the textbook questions, students can refer to Chapter 9 of the NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science. Both chapter-wise and exercise-wise solutions are available, which can be used by the students anytime, anywhere.
Question: Where can I find the complete solutions of NCERT class 10 Science ?
Complete solutions of NCERT class 10 Science: https://school.careers360.com/ncert/ncert-solutions-class-10-science
Question: What is the weightage of Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution in CBSE Class 10 board final exam ?
1-3 marks questions can be expected from Heredity and Evolution for CBSE Class 10 Science board exam. Students can study using NCERT book, NCERT exemplar and CBSE previous year papers.
Question: What are the topics covered in the Heredity and Evolution of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science?
The topics covered in Heredity and Evolution of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science are as follows:
- Laws of Inheritance
- Mendel’s Experiments
- Monohybrid Cross
- Dihybrid Cross
- Evolution and Its Theories
- Evidence of Evolution
Question: What are the important topics of Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Heredity and Evolution ?
Laws for Inheritance of Traits
Basic Concepts of Evolution
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Questions related to CBSE Class 10th
my sons dob is 13/02/2009 is hi eligible for 10th board exam in 2024,,from cbse. olz reply me
The eligibility age criteria for class 10th CBSE is 14 years of age. Since your son will be 15 years of age in 2024, he will be eligible to give the exam.
can Hindi marks be replace with IT 402(additional subject) in CBSE class 10th board
That totally depends on what you are aiming for. The replacement of marks of additional subjects and the main subject is not like you will get the marks of IT on your Hindi section. It runs like when you calculate your total percentage you have got, you can replace your lowest marks of the main subjects from the marks of the additional subject since CBSE schools goes for the best five marks for the calculation of final percentage of the students.
However, for the admission procedures in different schools after 10th, it depends on the schools to consider the percentage of main five subjects or the best five subjects to admit the student in their schools.
i got less marks in maths can it get replaced by additional hindi in cbse
Replacement of marks of additional subjects and your main course subject is not like they will swap the marks you got in Hindi and Mathematics on your marksheet. It works like if you calculate the total percentage you got in your class, you can take the marks of your additional subject to consider in place of the subject you have got the least marks in. CBSE schools consider this method only to release the merit list of their students.
If you're in 10th and aiming to get admission in 11th in any school, it depends on the schools if they consider your main five subject marks or the best five subject marks for the admission.
If you're in 12th and are trying for different colleges to get in, it depends on your course which you wish to study further and also some criterias and eligibility of the colleges. In most cases for general courses, colleges take the best three or best four subjects marks consideration for the admission process.
So, good luck.
when will cbse term 2 result will declare please tale
Central Board of Secondary Education will declare term 2 CBSE exam result 2022 for Class 10 in the third week of July. Please keep an eye on the official website or the link below for the latest information. Students need to enter their CBSE board roll number and other details to check term 2 cbseresults.nic.in 2022 Class 10 results. The board had announced the CBSE Class 10 results 2022 for term 1 on March 11, 2022.
cbse 10 claas bord result check now
Class 10 cbse results are not out yet. It is expected to be declared on 23rd of July. Keep checking the official website of cbse.