NCERT syllabus for Class 12 Biology
Updated on Jun 25, 2019 - 10:54 a.m. IST by Team Careers360
#CBSE Class 12th

NCERT syllabus for Class 12 Biology: National Council of Research and Training set the class 12 biology syllabus which is prescribed by CBSE and many State Board schools. CBSE strictly follows the NCERT syllabus for Class 12 Biology as this body puts forth very relevant information. The revised syllabus of NCERT is designed in a way to offer brief but informative knowledge to students. It also aims at giving the clear, sequential flow of concepts without over-emphasizing the information. By referring to NCERT Class 12 Biology syllabus, students can prepare for the board exams and a few competitive and scholarship exams such as KVPY, JEE Main, NEET. Biology is a theoretical subject, if studied thoroughly, students can score high in the CBSE class 12th exam. Candidates can find detailed class 12 Biology information as per the NCERT Syllabus, below.

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Read the article to know the NCERT syllabus for Class 12 Biology, marking scheme and Question Paper pattern.

NCERT CBSE syllabus for Class 12 Biology: Highlights

  • Usually, most of the questions are asked straight from the NCERT books for Class 12 Biology

  • NCERT syllabus for class 12 Biology helps the candidates to stick to important topics. It offers relevant information which is brief and to the point.

  • NCERT books are written in a very understandable and simple language which makes it easy for the students to clear the concepts.

  • NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology let the students clarify their doubts and related queries. It will help them to score well.

  • Units such as Genetics and Evolution, Reproduction, Biology and Human Welfare should be studied carefully as these units carry high weightage in CBSE class 12 syllabus

NCERT Class 12 Biology syllabus

Below mentioned are the chapter-wise important topics and marking scheme of CBSE class 12 biology syllabus.

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NCERT Chapter-wise Solution

Important Topics


Chapter 1 - Reproduction in organisms

Modes of reproduction - asexual and sexual reproduction; Reproduction; asexual reproduction - binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, etc


Chapter 2 - Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination - types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; post-fertilization events - development of endosperm and embryo, pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization, etc

Chapter 3 - Human Reproduction

Embryo development up to blastocyst formation, menstrual cycle, fertilisation, Male and Female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis - spermatogenesis and oogenesis, etc.

Chapter 4 - Reproductive Health

Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control - contraception and medical termination of pregnancy, need and methods, etc.

Chapter 5 - Principles of Inheritance And Variation

Chromosome theory of inheritance; linkage and crossing over; sex-linked inheritance - haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans, Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple alleles and inheritance, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance, etc.


Chapter 6 - Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Central dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation - lac operon, Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication, etc.

Chapter 7 - Evolution

Darwin's contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution, Origin of life; biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution (palaeontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence), etc.

Chapter 8 - Human Health and Disease

Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm) and their control, chickengunia, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, etc.


Chapter 9 - Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, Biofortification, Apiculture, tissue culture, single cell protein, etc.

Chapter 10 - Microbes in Human Welfare

Energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers, In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, etc.

Chapter 11 - Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).


Chapter 12 - Biotechnology and its Applications

Stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms, Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, etc.

Chapter 13 - Organisms And Population

Population and ecological adaptations; population interactions - mutualism, Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, competition, predation, parasitism, etc.


Chapter 14 - Ecosystem

Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession, etc.

Chapter 15 - Biodiversity and Conservation

Biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity, etc.

Chapter 16 - Environmental Issues

Agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change impact and mitigation; ozone layer depletion, Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control, etc.



Also, read NCERT Book for class 12 Physics

NCERT syllabus for Class 12 Biology Practical:

NCERT Class 12 biology practical syllabus is mentioned below:

Evaluation Scheme

One Major Experiment


One Minor Experiment


Slide Preparation




Practical Record + Viva Voce

Credit to the students’ work over the academic session may be given

Project Record + Viva Voce



Also, read NCERT syllabus for class 12 Chemistry

How to prepare for NCERT CBSE class 12 Biology?

  • Students are advised to solve as much NCERT questions as most of the time questions in board comes from these NCERT exercises.

  • Practice all the diagrams as it will help the students to clear the in-depth details of every topic. The diagrammatic information helps in better understanding.

  • Refer to NCERT solutions for Class 12 Biology. Doing this will help the candidates to know the way the question should be attempted in board exams.

  • Solve previous year question papers to know the exam pattern and weightage of several topics and prepare accordingly.

  • Try to jot down difficult biological terminology on paper many times in order to memorize it easily.

  • Revise the NCERT syllabus for class 12 biology and make the short notes of important topics subsequently to revise the same in less time.

Best Reference Books for Class 12 CBSE Biology:

NCERT syllabus for Class 12 Biology helps to prepare for class 12 board exams. But referring to some reference books helps the students to dig in more details about important topics. Some of the best reference books for class 12 biology are mentioned below:

  1. S.Chand’s Biology for class XII by B.P. Pandey

  2. Trueman’s Elementary Biology for Class 12 and NEET by K.N. Bhatia and M.P. Tyagi

  3. Together with Biology by S.Chand

  4. CBSE Biology Chapterwise Solved Papers class 12th by Arihant Expert

  5. Pradeep’s A Text Book of Biology class 12 by P.S. Dhami

  6. Biology by Campbell and Reece

Also, read NCERT Books for class 12 Chemistry

More like CBSE Class 12th

Questions related to CBSE Class 12th

Showing 33 out of 33 Questions

if Im "general pwd candidate",what is the minimum 12th percentage required to get into Nits?and also is there any separate minimum percentage required to get in individual subject?(i.e. general candidate minimum of 75% in required,so this means 75% in each subject or its total of all subjects)

Manish Singh 29th Feb, 2020

To get into any NITs,IIITs and  CFTIs a general candidate has to get 75% percentage aggregate in his\her class 12 or be in top 20 percentile in the board exams. For SC/ST/PwD candidate, 65% aggregate is required to be eligible to get admission in nits. No individual subjects marks are required.


Is grazing emergence same as critical angle?

Charvi Nayyar 29th Feb, 2020

hello aspirant

When the angle of incidence for a prism is 90 degree then the ray just grazes along the surface of the prism . This is known as grazing incidence and in this case the angle of refraction at the first refracting surface is equal to the critical angle of the material of the prism.

hope this helps


what will happen if I dont give one of my 12 improvement exam?plz reply fast plz?

shivam ranjan 24th Feb, 2020

hello aspirant...

There will not be any problem if you don't give improvement exam after applying for it as it is not mandatory exam. Your old result will remain valid even if you quit improvement exam.



1 View

is physical education included in Mark sheet which will increase the total??

TANUJ JAIN 24th Feb, 2020

Hi James,

As per my knowledge for CBSE Board the students will be graded for their physical education based on tests conducted by the school. However, it will be included in the mark sheet, but will not have an impact on the overall assessment of the student.

Hope this helped,

Thank You.


Will the overall aggregate be calculated out of all 5 subjects or the better 4?

Md Azmer 23rd Feb, 2020

Hello Aspirant,

The aggregated will be calculated with the best 4 subjects. But in some entrance it is all 5 subjects.

Good Luck

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