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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 Biotechnology Principles and Processes

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 Biotechnology Principles and Processes

Edited By Irshad Anwar | Updated on Sep 19, 2023 02:29 PM IST | #CBSE Class 12th

Here you can access NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 Biotechnology Principles and Processes for free. Your search is over because we have comprehensive answers to every chapter of the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology, which are updated to the CBSE Syllabus 2022–23. Biotechnology is a field that deals with the combination of biology and technology. The techniques of using live organisms or enzymes taken from organisms to produce products and processes that are useful to humans For example, making curd, bread, or wine are all microbe-mediated processes. It could also be thought of as a form of biotechnology. NCERT Class 12 Biology Solutions Chapter 11 will provide you with all the questions and answers mentioned in this chapter.

In order to study for the board exams, students can use these NCERT Solutions for Class 12. Additionally, these biotechnology principles and processes NCERT solutions are available for free download in PDF format. It provides answers in accordance with the most recent CBSE Syllabus (2023–24) and the NCERT Textbook. Chapter 11 NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology discusses Biotechnology in detail. In biotechnology NCERT, so many other processes/techniques are also included in the process of biotechnology NCERT. For example, in vitro fertilisation leading to a ‘test-tube baby, synthesizing a gene and using it, developing a DNA vaccine, or correcting a defective gene are all part of biotechnology. Solutions of biotechnology NCERT will make learning easier for you. In Biotechnology Principles and Processes NCERT PDF, you will also study the different processes in Biotechnology NCERT Solutions. If you are looking for the answers to any other class from 6 to 12 then NCERT solutions are there for you. In case you have any doubts or queries about solving these questions, the Biotechnology Class 12 NCERT PDF will help you do so.

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According to the CBSE Syllabus 2023-24, this chapter has been renumbered as Chapter 9.

NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Biology Biotechnology: Principles And Processes

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NCERT Exemplar for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 Biotechnology Principles and Processes

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 Biotechnology: Principles and Processes - Solved Exercise Questions

Biotechnology Principles and Processes Class 12 Questions and Answers

Q1. Can you list 10 recombinant proteins which are used in medical practice? Find out where they are used as therapeutics (use the internet).

Answer:

Recombinant proteins are proteins produced as a result of recombinant DNA technology. In this technology, there is the transfer of some specific gene from one organism to another by using molecular tools such as biological vectors, restriction enzymes etc. Some of the proteins produced through RDT and are being used for therapeutic uses are as follows:

S.No
Name of the recombinant protein
Therapeutic use of the recombinant protein
1.
DNAase I
To treat cystic fibrosis
2.
Antithrombin III
To prevent the formation of the blood clot
3.
Insulin
To treat type I diabetes mellitus
4.
Interferon \alpha
Used for chronic hepatitis C
5.
Interferon AZA
Used for herpes and virus enteritis
6.
Coagulation factor VIII
To treat haemophilia A
7.
Coagulation factor IX
To treat haemophilia B
8.
Interferon B
To treat multiple sclerosis
9.
Human growth hormone recombinant
To promote growth in humans
10.
Tissue plasminogen activator
To treat the myocardial infection

Biotechnology Principles and Processes Class 12 Questions and Answers:

Q2. Make a chart (with diagrammatic representation) showing a restriction enzyme, the substrate DNA on which it acts, the site at which it cuts DNA and the product it produce

Answer:

The following chart shows the action of the restriction enzyme EcoRI, the substrate DNA on which it acts and the site where it cuts

1650541140311

Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 Question Answer

Q4. What would be the molar concentration of human DNA in a human cell? Consult your teacher.

Answer:

The molar concentration of DNA in a human cell will be total no. of chromosomes multiplied by 6.023\times 10^{23}

Hence, the molar concentration DNA in each diploid cell in humans is 46\times 6.023\times 10^{23} = 2.77\times 10^{23} moles

Q5. Do eukaryotic cells have restriction endonucleases? Justify your answer.

Answer:

No, eukaryotic cells do not possess restriction enzymes. All the restriction endonucleases have been developed and isolated from different strains of bacteria. The bacteria possess these restriction endonucleases as a defence mechanism to restrict the growth of viruses. Their own DNA remain safe from these enzymes because it is methylated. The eukaryotic cell has RNA interference as a defence mechanism against foreign DNA. Thus, eukaryotic cells do not have restriction endonucleases.

Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 Question Answer:

Q6. Besides better aeration and mixing properties, what other advantages do stirred tank bioreactors have over shake flasks?

Answer:

The advantages of stirred tank bioreactors over shake flasks are as follows:

1. Stirred tank bioreactors are utilised for large-scale production of biotechnological products, unlike the shake flask method which is used for small-scale production of products.

2. In stirred tank bioreactors, a small sample can be taken out for testing.

3. Stirred tank bioreactors have foam breakers to control the foam.

4. Stirred tank bioreactors have temperature and pH control systems.

Q7. Collect 5 examples of palindromic DNA sequences by consulting your teacher. Better try to create a palindromic sequence by following base-pair rule

Answer:

Palindromic sequences in the DNA molecule refer to groups of bases forming the same sequence when read either backwardly or forwardly. The recognition sites of restriction endonucleases are palindromic sequences. Five examples of palindromic DN sequences are given below

1. ACTAGT/TGATCA

2. AAGCTT/TTCGAA

3. GGATCC/CCTAGG

4. AGGCCT/TCCGGA

5. ACGCGT/TGCGCA

Biotechnology Principles and Processes Class 12 Solutions

Q8. Can you recall meiosis and indicate at what stage a recombinant DNA is made?

Answer:

In meiosis, during the pachytene stage of Prophase I, crossing-over takes place and recombinant DNA is formed by combining portions of male and female DNA.

Q9. Can you think and answer how a reporter enzyme can be used to monitor transformation of host cells by foreign DNA in addition to a selectable marker?

Answer:

In recombinant DNA technology selection of transformed and non transformed cells can be done using reporter genes that encode for reporter enzymes. During the RDT experiment, the foreign gene is joined with a reporter gene. The reporter gene should be such that it produces a visible expression. For example, Lac Z gene which codes for enzyme beta-galactosidase is used as a reporter gene. The activity of this gene is not found in transformed cells as the product formed by its catalysation is not formed in transformed cells and bacterial colonies appear white. In non-transformed cells, this gene shows its activity and the catalysed product is formed, as a result of this, bacterial colonies appear blue. Thus, reporter enzyme can be used to monitor the transformation of host cells by foreign DNA in addition to a selectable marker.

Biotechnology Principles and Processes Class 12 Solutions:

Q10. Describe briefly the following: (a) Origin of replication

Answer:

Origin of replication- This refers to the DNA sequence, from where replication of DNA starts. By linking a DNA sequence with the origin of replication, it can be allowed to replicate in the host cells. Origin of replication also controls the copy number of linked DNA sequence.

(b) Bioreactor

Answer:

Bioreactors - These are large vessels (100-1000 litres) that are used for large-scale production of biotechnological products such as proteins, enzymes etc. from raw materials. In a bioreactor, optimum conditions such as temperature, pH, vitamins, oxygen, salts etc. are maintained. Stirred bioreactors are the most commonly used bioreactors. Stirred bioreactors can be simple stirred tank bioreactors or sparged tank bioreactors.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 Biotechnology Principles and Processes:

(c) Downstream processing

Answer:

Downstream processing- The process of separation and purification of biotechnological products is called downstream processing. The processes in downstream processing vary depending on the quality of the product. Before the release of the product, it undergoes clinical trials and quality control testings.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Biotechnology Principles and Processes:

Q11. Explain briefly : (a) PCR

Answer:

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)- The molecular technique to amplify a gene and obtain its several copies is referred to as PCR. The process of PCR has certain requirements i.e. a thermostable enzyme called Taq polymerase ( obtained from Thermus aquaticus ), primers ( short stretches of DNA ), dNTPs, a template strand etc. The process of PCR takes place in three steps.

1. Denaturation- The double-stranded DNA helix is opened up by breaking their H-bonds at high temperature.

2. Annealing- The primers are allowed to hybridise to complementary regions of DNA. This step takes place at 45-55 C temperature.

3. Extension- The primers are extended with the help of Taq polymerase enzyme and the cycle is repeated several times to obtain the desired number of copies.

(b) Restriction enzymes and DNA

Answer:

Restriction enzymes and DNA- Restriction enzymes are those enzymes which cut DNA at particular places. Restriction enzyme first scans the DNA template and look for its recognition site. Once it finds the recognition site, it binds at that region of DNA and cut each of the two strands in their sugar-phosphate backbone. The sites at which restriction enzymes cut DNA are called as recognition sites of DNA. These are palindromic sequences i.e. they read similar from the backward and forward direction.

(c) Chitinase

Answer:

Chitinase - The enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of chitin polysaccharide which is usually found in the cell wall of fungi. Chitinase is mainly used during DNA isolation from fungi.

Biotechnology Principles and Processes Class 12 NCERT Solutions

Q12. Discuss with your teacher and find out how to distinguish between

(a) Plasmid DNA and Chromosomal DNA

Answer:

The differences between plasmid DNA and chromosomal DNA are as follows:

Plasmid DNA
Chromosomal DNA
Circular, extra-chromosomal DNA which is capable of self-replication and is found in bacteria is called plasmid DNA.
The entire DNA (excluding extrachromosomal DNA) present in the cell constitutes chromosomal DNA
It is found only in bacteria
IT is found in both bacteria and other eukaryotic cells.

(b) RNA and DNA

Answer:

The differences between RNA and DNA are as follows:

RNA
DNA
RNA contains ribose sugar
DNA contains deoxyribose sugar
In RNA, adenine and uracil are found as pyrimidines
In DNA, adenine and uracil are found as pyrimidines
It has catalytic properties and is less stable than DNA
DNA is non-catalytic and is stable than RNA

Biotechnology Principles and Processes Class 12 NCERT Solutions:

(c) Exonuclease and Endonuclease

Answer:

The differences between exonuclease and endonuclease are as follows:

Exonuclease
Endonuclease
These are nuclease (enzymes) that cut DNA from its ends.
These are nucleases that cut DNA from internal sites on DNA

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 – Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 – Biotechnology: Principles and Processes is covered under Unit – Biotechnology and is included in the CBSE Syllabus for the session 2022-23. Biotechnology Principles and Processes NCERT solutions helps students understand concepts clearly and easily. The Biotechnology Unit has two chapters, and they are

  • Biotechnology: Principles and Processes (Biology Chapter 11 Class 12)
  • Biotechnology and its applications
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Approximately 10 marks are distributed evenly between the two chapters in this unit as a whole. On this page, we have covered Biotechnology Class 12 NCERT Solutions for the Chapter 11. The important topics and subtopics are also mentioned for better preparation in Class 12 Biotechnology Principles and Processes NCERT Solutions.

In solutions for the chapter Biotechnology NCERT Principles and Processes and marketing of products and processes using live organisms, cells or enzymes. Modern biotechnology using genetically modified organisms was made possible only when man learned to alter the chemistry of DNA and construct recombinant DNA. As per Chapter 11 Biology Class 12 NCERT Solutions, this process of combination is called recombinant DNA technology or genetic engineering. This process includes the use of these things: restriction endonucleases, DNA ligase, appropriate plasmid or viral vectors to isolate the foreign DNA into the host organisms as given in Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 NCERT Solutions. And for large scale production bioreactors are being used. The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 can be used by students as a quick reference to understand difficult concepts.

Important Topics of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 Biotechnology Principles and Processes:

Section
Topic Name
11
Biotechnology:Principles And Processes
11.1Principles of Biotechnology
11.2Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology
11.3Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology
11.4Summary
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Important Subtopics of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Biotechnology Principles and Processes:

  • 11.1 - Principles of Biotechnology
  • 11.2 - Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology
  • 11.2.1 - Restriction Enzymes
  • 11.2.2 - Cloning Vectors
  • 11.2.3 - Competent Host (For Transformation with Recombinant DNA)
  • 11.3 - Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology
  • 11.3.1 - Isolation of the Genetic Material (DNA)
  • 11.3.2 - Cutting of DNA at Specific Locations
  • 11.3.3 - Amplification of Gene of Interest using PCR
  • 11.3.4 - Insertion of Recombinant DNA into the Host Cell/Organism
  • 11.3.5 - Obtaining the Foreign Gene Product
  • 11.3.6 - Downstream Processing
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After going through Biotechnology NCERT you should be able to write better now in your board exams. If you have any doubt, then, Biotechnology Principles and Processes NCERT PDF will help you.

Highlights of NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 – Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

Class 12 biology Chapter 11 NCERT Solutions highlights are given below:

  • Biotechnology Principles and Processes Class 12 PDF are written in the best possible way using simple language that makes solutions easier to read and understand
  • In the Biotechnology principles and processes class 12 NCERT PDF, points are used to frame answers to help understand quickly.
  • Biotechnology NCERT Solutions content is derived from the textbook by the subject expert.
  • Solutions for Biotechnology Chapter Class 12 are as per the latest CBSE Syllabus and guidelines.
  • Biotechnology Class 12 PDF Links are readily available and easily accessible for free.
  • Important topics are listed in the Biotechnology NCERT solutions.
  • Biotechnology Chapter Class 12 is a great resource for information.
  • Solutions for Biotechnology NCERT: Principles and Processes will help you to clear your base as NCERT is the base of your learning.
  • You will get all questions and answers to this chapter and the Biotechnology Class 12 NCERT PDF will help you to score good marks in the exam.
  • Biotechnology principles and processes NCERT PDF will also help you with competitive exams like NEET.
  • Biotechnology Principles and Processes NCERT solutions will also boost your knowledge.

NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Solutions

Also Check NCERT Books and NCERT Syllabus here:

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology- Chapter wise

NCERT Solutions for Class 12- Subject wise

WE hope that you will ace your examination with the help of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 - Biotechnology Principles and Processes.

Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

1. Why you should use NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 11 biotechnology principles and processes?

Class 12 Biology Chapter 11: 

  • Solutions for biotechnology ncert: principles and processes will help you to clear your base as NCERT is the base of your learning.   
  • You will get all the answers to this chapter and the biotechnology class 12 ncert pdf will help you to score good marks in the exam.   
  • Biotechnology principles and processes ncert pdf will also help you with competitive exams like NEET.   
  • NCERT solutions for class 12 biology chapter 11 biotechnology principles and processes will also help you in your 12th board exam.   
  • Biotechnology NCERT will also boost your knowledge.  
2. How to download solutions of biotechnology ncert for class 12 Biology chapter 11 pdf?

To download biotechnology principles and processes ncert pdf, students can use the online webpage to pdf converter tools. To Score Well in the examination, follow the NCERT syllabus and exercise given in the NCERT Book. To practice more problems, students can refer to the NCERT exemplar.

3. What are the important topics covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11?

The important topics of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 are

  • Biotechnology: Principles and Processes
  • Biotechnology and its applications
  • Principles of Biotechnology
  • Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology.
4. Are NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 enough for board exam preparation?

Yes, NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 provide solutions for all questions given in NCERT Textbook Biology for Class 12. The majority of the board exam questions are taken from these exercises. Students who master these ideas will perform well in their final exams.

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Questions related to CBSE Class 12th

Have a question related to CBSE Class 12th ?

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Engineering Subjects (for a Degree):

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  • Human-Computer Interaction (HCI): This is a specialized field that bridges the gap between design and computer science, focusing on how users interact with technology. It's a perfect choice if you're interested in both aspects.

  • Passing NIOS in October 2024 will make you eligible for NIT admissions in 2025 . NIT admissions are based on your performance in entrance exams like JEE Main, which typically happen in January and April. These exams consider the previous year's Class 12th board results (or equivalent exams like NIOS).

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Overall, with a stellar CAT score and a strong academic background, you have a very good chance of getting a call from IIM Bangalore. But remember to prepare comprehensively for the other stages of the selection process.

hello,

Yes you can appear for the compartment paper again since CBSE gives three chances to a candidate to clear his/her exams so you still have two more attempts. However, you can appear for your improvement paper for all subjects but you cannot appear for the ones in which you have failed.

I hope this was helpful!

Good Luck

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A block of mass 0.50 kg is moving with a speed of 2.00 ms-1 on a smooth surface. It strikes another mass of 1.00 kg and then they move together as a single body. The energy loss during the collision is

Option 1)

0.34\; J

Option 2)

0.16\; J

Option 3)

1.00\; J

Option 4)

0.67\; J

A person trying to lose weight by burning fat lifts a mass of 10 kg upto a height of 1 m 1000 times.  Assume that the potential energy lost each time he lowers the mass is dissipated.  How much fat will he use up considering the work done only when the weight is lifted up ?  Fat supplies 3.8×107 J of energy per kg which is converted to mechanical energy with a 20% efficiency rate.  Take g = 9.8 ms−2 :

Option 1)

2.45×10−3 kg

Option 2)

 6.45×10−3 kg

Option 3)

 9.89×10−3 kg

Option 4)

12.89×10−3 kg

 

An athlete in the olympic games covers a distance of 100 m in 10 s. His kinetic energy can be estimated to be in the range

Option 1)

2,000 \; J - 5,000\; J

Option 2)

200 \, \, J - 500 \, \, J

Option 3)

2\times 10^{5}J-3\times 10^{5}J

Option 4)

20,000 \, \, J - 50,000 \, \, J

A particle is projected at 600   to the horizontal with a kinetic energy K. The kinetic energy at the highest point

Option 1)

K/2\,

Option 2)

\; K\;

Option 3)

zero\;

Option 4)

K/4

In the reaction,

2Al_{(s)}+6HCL_{(aq)}\rightarrow 2Al^{3+}\, _{(aq)}+6Cl^{-}\, _{(aq)}+3H_{2(g)}

Option 1)

11.2\, L\, H_{2(g)}  at STP  is produced for every mole HCL_{(aq)}  consumed

Option 2)

6L\, HCl_{(aq)}  is consumed for ever 3L\, H_{2(g)}      produced

Option 3)

33.6 L\, H_{2(g)} is produced regardless of temperature and pressure for every mole Al that reacts

Option 4)

67.2\, L\, H_{2(g)} at STP is produced for every mole Al that reacts .

How many moles of magnesium phosphate, Mg_{3}(PO_{4})_{2} will contain 0.25 mole of oxygen atoms?

Option 1)

0.02

Option 2)

3.125 × 10-2

Option 3)

1.25 × 10-2

Option 4)

2.5 × 10-2

If we consider that 1/6, in place of 1/12, mass of carbon atom is taken to be the relative atomic mass unit, the mass of one mole of a substance will

Option 1)

decrease twice

Option 2)

increase two fold

Option 3)

remain unchanged

Option 4)

be a function of the molecular mass of the substance.

With increase of temperature, which of these changes?

Option 1)

Molality

Option 2)

Weight fraction of solute

Option 3)

Fraction of solute present in water

Option 4)

Mole fraction.

Number of atoms in 558.5 gram Fe (at. wt.of Fe = 55.85 g mol-1) is

Option 1)

twice that in 60 g carbon

Option 2)

6.023 × 1022

Option 3)

half that in 8 g He

Option 4)

558.5 × 6.023 × 1023

A pulley of radius 2 m is rotated about its axis by a force F = (20t - 5t2) newton (where t is measured in seconds) applied tangentially. If the moment of inertia of the pulley about its axis of rotation is 10 kg m2 , the number of rotations made by the pulley before its direction of motion if reversed, is

Option 1)

less than 3

Option 2)

more than 3 but less than 6

Option 3)

more than 6 but less than 9

Option 4)

more than 9

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