NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 13 Magnetic Effects of Electric Current: If you are in class 10, you should know that this chapter holds good weightage in your board exams. Therefore, it will be better to study CBSE NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 13 magnetic effects of electric current as the concepts studied here are going to be used in class 11 and 12. Some of the topics discussed in this chapter are magnetic field and field lines, magnetic field due to a current-carrying conductor, the force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field, electric motor, electromagnetic induction, electric generator, and domestic electric circuits. NCERT solutions for classes 6 to 12 is basically a good tool to aid students in these classes to understand how to solve the questions and problems asked in their respective exams.
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The solutions of NCERT class 10 science chapter 13 magnetic effects of electric current provide detailed explanations to each topic wise question and exercise questions as well. Students are advised to go through NCERT solutions for class 10 to score good marks in Board examination.
Topics to study in class 10 science chapter 13 magnetic effects of electric current
Magnetic Field and Field Lines
Magnetic Field Due to a Current-Carrying Conductor
Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field
Domestic Electric Circuits
Some devices that will be introduced in chapter 13 magnetic effects of electric current of class 10 are
Well, what these devices are, how they will work and what are their uses are some of the important things that studied and understood with the help of NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 13 Magnetic Effects of Electric Current.
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 13 Magnetic Effects of Electric Current Topic 13.1
Q.1 Why does a compass needle get deflected when brought near a bar magnet?
The compass needle has a magnet inside it, and when it is brought near the magnet, it gets deflected due to the magnetic force between the two magnets. The South of the needle points towards the magnetic North of the bar magnet and the North of needlepoint away from the North of the bar magnet. (Like pole attracts and unlike pole repels)
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 13 Magnetic Effects of Electric Current Topic 13.2
Q.1 Draw magnetic field lines around a bar magnet.
The magnetic field lines emerge out from the North pole of the bar magnet and merge into the South pole, that is inside the bar magnet the field lines are from South to North and outside it is from North to South.
Q.2 List the properties of magnetic field lines
Some properties of magnetic field lines are
1) They never intersect with each other. If they intersect there must be two directions of the magnetic field which is not possible
2) The direction of magnetic field lines is from North pole to South pole outside the magnet and from South pole to North pole inside the magnet.
3) The field lines emerge from the north pole and merge at the south pole.
Q.3 Why don’t two magnetic field lines intersect each other?
Two magnetic field lines do not intersect each other because the resultant magnetic field due to both poles can be in only one direction and if they intersect there will be two directions of the magnetic field which is impossible.
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science- Chapter 13 Magnetic Effects of Electric Current Topic 13.4
Q.1 State Fleming’s left-hand rule
Fleming's Left-Hand Rule:
Whenever a current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, the conductor experiences a force which is perpendicular to both the magnetic field and the direction of the current.
in other words,
if the first three fingers(Thumb, forefinger and middle finger) of the left hand are held mutually at right angles to each other and if the forefinger indicates the direction of the original field, and if the middle finger indicates the direction of current flowing through the conductor, then the thumb indicates the direction of the force exerted on the conductor.
Q.2 What is the principle of an electric motor?
Answer: When a current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a force that is perpendicular to both the magnetic field and direction of current through the conductor. So, the force helps the conductor in performing the rotation. The electric motor uses this principle to rotate.
Q.3 What is the role of the split ring in an electric motor?
Answer: The split ring is also called commutator because it commutes (transfer) the current from outside of the motor to inside of the motor. It changes the direction of current after every half rotation so that the motor will continue to rotate in the same direction.
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 13 Magnetic Effects of Electric Current Topic 13.5
Q.1 Explain different ways to induce a current in a coil.
Answer: Whenever we move a magnet towards the coil, a current will be induced. Also when we move loop towards the magnet, a current will be induced.
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 13 Magnetic Effects of Electric Current Topic 13.6
Q.1 State the principle of an electric generator.
An electric generator works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. When the magnetic field around a conductor is changed, the generation of electric current happens in a circuit, this phenomenon is called electromagnetic induction. When we rotate a coil in a magnetic field a current is induced in the coil (the circuit of the coil must be closed to utilize the current). The direction of the induced current is given by Fleming's right-hand rule.
Q.2 Name some sources of direct current.
Answer- The DC current is the current which does not change the direction with time. The sources of DC current are DC battery and Dc generator.
Q.3 Which sources produce alternating current?
Answer- Alternating current is the current which alters the direction at some time interval. Some sources of this type of current are, AC generator and AC producing power plants.
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science- Chapter 13 Magnetic Effects of Electric Current Topic 13.7
Q.1 Name two safety measures commonly used in electric circuits and appliances.
Two safety measures commonly used in electric circuits and appliances are
1) Use of Electric Fuse: we add an electric fuse in series with our circuit to protect our circuit in the events when the current through the circuit becomes extremely high. When the current is high fuse breaks and the circuit gets isolated from the supply.
2) Earthing to prevent shock: we connect a proper ground connection so that whenever there is any leakage current in any appliance, it directly gets transferred to the ground without giving a shock to the person using the appliance.
Q.2 An electric oven of 2 kW power rating is operated in a domestic electric circuit (220 V) that has a current rating of 5 A. What result do you expect? Explain.
Answer: As given in the question, the maximum current which can pass through electric oven is 5 A. So let's find out how much current will pass through the device in given power ratings.
So for power, we have a relation
Power (P) = Voltage(V) X Current (I)
So putting given values, we get
2 kW = 220 v X Current (I)
As we can see the current flowing in the electric oven is 9.09 A which is greater than 5 A. this can be a dangerous situation. the insulation on the wire may melt and cause a short circuit problem. we use a fuse to protect us from this situation. a fuse is just a wire which melts and breaks the circuit in the case of overcurrent situation like above.
Q. 3. What precaution should be taken to avoid the overloading of domestic electric circuits?
Answer: Some precaution that should be taken to avoid the overloading of domestic electric circuits are:
1) we should not use too many appliances at the same time.
2) we should not connect too many appliances from a single socket.
3) we should use the fuse for protection when there is overload.
4) we should not connect the faulty appliances in the circuit.
5) Proper earthing should be there
Q. 8. How does a solenoid behave like a magnet? Can you determine the north and south poles of a current-carrying solenoid with the help of a bar magnet? Explain.
A solenoid is the long coil of a circular loop of any conductor. the magnetic field lines inside the solenoid are parallel to each other just like in permanent magnet.
The magnetic field lines outside the solenoid are also similar to that of the permanent magnet. and hence we can assume the end from where the field lines are emerging as North pole and the en where field lines are merging as South pole.
When we bring a North pole of a bar magnet towards one side of the solenoid and if it repels the side of solenoid is North and if it attracts then the side of solenoid is South. The polarity of another side will be opposite.
Q. 11. Draw a labeled diagram of an electric motor. Explain its principle and working. What is the function of a split ring in an electric motor?
A simple Electric Motor :
An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Principle : It works on the principle of the magnetic effect of the current. when a current-carrying conductor is placed in the magnetic field, it experiences a force and starts moving.
An electric motor, as shown is, consists of a rectangular coil ABCD of insulated copper wire. The coil is placed between the two poles of a magnetic field such that the arm AB and CD are perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. The ends of the coil are connected to the two halves P and Q of a split ring. The inner sides of these halves are insulated and attached to an axle. The external conducting edges of P and Q touch two conducting stationary brushes X and Y, respectively.
Current in the coil ABCD enters from the source battery through conducting brush X and flows back to the battery through brush Y. Notice that the current in arm AB of the coil flows from A to B. In arm CD it flows from C to D, that is, opposite to the direction of current through arm AB. On applying Fleming’s left-hand rule for the direction of the force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field (see Fig. 13.13). We find that the force acting on arm AB pushes it downwards while the force acting on arm CD pushes it upwards. Thus the coil and the axle O mounted free to turn about an axis, rotate anti-clockwise. At half rotation, Q makes contact with the brush X and P with brush Y. Therefore the current in the coil gets reversed and flows along the path DCBA. A device that reverses the direction of flow of current through a circuit is called a commutator. In electric motors, the split ring acts as a commutator. The reversal of current also reverses the direction of force acting on the two arms AB and CD. Thus the arm AB of the coil that was earlier pushed down is now pushed up and the arm CD previously pushed up is now pushed down. Therefore the coil and the axle rotate half a turn more in the same direction. The reversing of the current is repeated at each half rotation, giving rise to a continuous rotation of the coil and to the axle.
The split ring helps in reversing the direction of current in the armature so that it rotates continuously in one direction.
Q. 13. A coil of insulated copper wire is connected to a galvanometer. What will happen if a bar magnet is
(i) pushed into the coil
(ii) withdrawn from inside the coil
(iii) held stationary inside the coil?
(i) When a bar magnet is pushed into the coil, there is a relative motion between the magnetic field and the coil hence a current will get induced which will deflect the galvanometer. when the bar magnet is inside the coil and not moving, the flux won't change so the galvanometer won't show deflection. And hence Overall galvanometer will deflect momentarily.
(ii) When the bar magnet is being removed, the flux through the coil will change which results in inducing the current and deflecting the galvanometer. after bar magnet is completely removed and is at a sufficiently large distance for its magnetic field to affect the coil, there won't be any flux change in the coil and hence no current will be induced. and hence overall the galvanometer will deflect momentarily.
(iii) If a bar magnet is held stationary inside the coil, the flux through the coil is not changing with time and hence there won't be any induced current. therefore the galvanometer won't show any deflection.
Q. 16. Explain the underlying principle and working of an electric generator by drawing a labelled diagram. What is the function of brushes?
Answer: The Electric Generator:
An electric generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Principle: It works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. whenever there is a change in the flux through any coil, there would be the induction of current.
An electric generator, as shown is consists of a rotating rectangular coil ABCD placed between the poles of a permanent magnet. The two ends of this coil are connected to the two rings R1 and R2. The inner side of the ring is made insulated. The two conducting stationary brushes B1 and B2 are kept pressed separately on the rings R1 and R2, respectively. The two rings R1 and R2 are internally attached to an axle. The axle may be mechanically rotated from outside to rotate the coil inside the magnetic field. Outer ends of the two brushes are connected to the galvanometer to show the direction of flow of current in the external circuit. When the axle attached to the two rings is rotated such that the arm AB moves up (and the arm CD moves down) in the magnetic field produced by the permanent magnet. Let us say the coil ABCD is rotated clockwise in the arrangement shown. By applying Fleming’s right-hand rule, the induced currents are set up in these arms along the directions AB and CD. Thus an induced current flows in the direction ABCD. This means that the current in the external circuit flows from B2 to B1. After half a rotation, arm CD starts moving up and AB moving down. As a result, the directions of the induced currents in both the arms change, giving rise to the net induced current in the direction DCBA. The current in the external circuit now flows from B1 to B2. Thus after every half rotation the polarity of the current in the respective arms changes. Such a current, which changes direction periodically, is called alternating current (AC). This device is called an AC generator.
To get a direct current (DC, which does not change its direction with time), a split-ring type commutator must be used. With this arrangement, one brush is at all times in contact with the arm moving up in the field, while the other is in contact with the arm moving down
The function of Brushes: Brushes helps in transferring the current from inside the generator to the external circuit.
Q. 17. When does an electric short circuit occur?
Answer: The short circuit happens when the positive voltage point of the wire comes in contact with the negative voltage point in the wire. As the resistance of wires is very small a very high current flows through the circuit which can potentially damage the circuit. this phenomenon is called a short circuit.
When neutral wire and live wire comes in contact, short circuit happens.
Also, when we connect too many appliances in a single circuit, the resistance of the circuit can get very small up to the point of the possibility of having a short circuit.
Q. 18. What is the function of an earth wire? Why is it necessary to earth metallic appliances?
Answer: The main function of the earth wire is to prevent the live wire from overloading and absorbs the excess electrons & flows to beneath the ground. It is necessary because it prevents electrical appliances from getting damaged and absorbs the excess electricity from appliances.
in other words, whenever we have a connection to the ground the leakage current or the overload current can be transferred to the ground directly and the events of shock can be prevented in which the current passes through the body of the person touching the metallic appliances.
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