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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds

Edited By Irshad Anwar | Updated on Oct 08, 2023 10:38 AM IST | #CBSE Class 10th

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 "Carbon and Its Compounds"

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds, is curated by the senior and experienced faculty and subject experts at Careers360. Solving the NCERT textbook while making the solutions easy to grasp and understand is one of the challenging tasks that we have perfectly done! NCERT Solutions for Carbon and Its Compounds covers all the questions given in Chapter 4 of NCERT Textbook Science. NCERT Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 4 will help you to clarify your concepts related to this chapter. Carbon and Its Compounds, Class 10 Science, Chapter 4 NCERT Solutions will be beneficial for board exams as well as competitive exams. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds are provided in simple language and are easily understandable.

Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Question Answer: NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science provides a solid foundation for each idea. It will be easy and clear to understand all the advanced concepts by working on NCERT Solutions PDF. Carbon and Its Compounds Class 10 Solutions will be heavily weighted in competitive exams like JEE and NEET, per the CBSE marking scheme. Class 10 Science Chapter 4 question answer are provided further in the article. Refer to NCERT Solutions for Class 10 for other subjects here.

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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds:

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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 - Carbon and Its Compounds (Intext Questions and Exercise)

NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 4 Carbon and its compounds

Topic:4.1 Bonding in carbon - The covalent bond

Q.1. What would be the electron dot structure of carbon dioxide which has the formula CO_{2} ?

Answer:

The electron dot structure of carbon dioxide which has the formula CO_{2} is:

1644211481948

NCERT Textbook Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds

Topic 4.2: Versatile nature of carbon

Q.1. How many structural isomers can you draw for pentane?

Answer:

There are three structural isomers of pentane:

n-pentane

1644211526849

iso-pentane

1644211527204

neo-pentane

1644211527418

Q. 2. What are the two properties of carbon which lead to the huge number of carbon compounds we see around us?

Answer:

The two properties of carbon which lead to the formation of a large number of carbon compounds are:

( 1) Catenation: Carbon has the unique ability to form bonds with other atoms of carbon which gives rise to large molecules. The carbon-carbon bond is very strong and hence stable.

(2) Tetravalency: Since carbon has a valency of four, it is capable of bonding with four other atoms. These bonds that carbon forms with other elements are very strong making these compounds exceptionally stable.

Q.3. What will be the formula and electron dot structure of cyclopentane?

Answer:

The formula of cyclopentane is C_5H_{10}.

And, the electron dot structure of cyclopentane is :

1644211564354

Q. 4. Draw the structures for the following compounds.

(i) Ethanoic acid

Answer:

The structure of ethanoic acid is:

1644211590030

Q. 4. Draw the structures for the following compounds.

(ii) Bromopentane

Are structural isomers possible for bromopentane?

Answer:

The structure of bromopentane( C_5H_{11}Br ) is:

1644211621219

Yes, structural isomers for bromopentane is possible.

For n-pentane: Br at 2^{nd}\ and\ 3^{rd} carbon

Also, Br at different carbons for iso-pentane and neo-pentane.

Q. 4. Draw the structures for the following compounds.

(iii) Butanone

Answer:

The structure of Butanone ( C_2H_5COCH_3 ) is:

1644211643456

Q. 4. Draw the structures for the following compounds.

(iv) Hexanal

Answer :

The structure of hexanal ( C_5H_{11}CHO ) is:

1644211668979

Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Question Answer

Q. 5. (i) How would you name the following compound?

CH_{3}-CH_{2}-Br

Answer :

The compound ( CH_{3}-CH_{2}-Br ) has 2 carbon atoms. Hence the parent hydrocarbon is ethane.

A bromo group is attached to one of the carbon atoms. Thus, the nomenclature of the compound is Bromoethane.

Q. 5. (ii) How would you name the following compounds?

15950943955821595094393254

Answer:

The compound ( H_2 C = 0 ) contains 1 carbon atom. Hence the parent hydrocarbon is methane. It contains the functional group aldehyde.

Thus, the nomenclature of the compound is: Methanal.

Q.5. (III) How would you name the following compound?

15950944087751595094407418

Answer:

The compound has 6 carbons in the chain. Hence the parent hydrocarbon is hexane. It contains a triple bond and hence the suffix -yne- is used. Thus, the nomenclature of the compound is: Hexyne


Topic 4.3 Chemical Properties of carbon compounds

Q. 1. Why is the conversion of ethanol to ethanoic acid an oxidation reaction?

Answer:

The conversion of ethanol to ethanoic acid is :

1644211690130

Since there is an addition of oxygen in the reaction, this is an oxidation reaction.

Q. 2. A mixture of oxygen and ethyne is burnt for welding. Can you tell why a mixture of ethyne and air is not used?

Answer:

A mixture of oxygen and ethyne is burnt for welding. But a mixture of ethyne and air is not used. This is because ethyne undergoes incomplete combustion in air giving a sooty flame.

In oxygen, ethyne gives a clean flame with temperature as high as 3300 K due to complete combustion.


Topic 4.4: Some Important Carbon Compounds - Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid

Q. 1. How would you distinguish experimentally between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid?

Answer:

We can distinguish between alcohol and carboxylic acid by reacting them with carbonates/hydrogen carbonates. The acid reacts with hydrogen carbonate to liberate carbon dioxide which turns lime water milky.

CH_3COOH + NaHCO_3 \rightarrow CH_3COONa + CO_2 + H_2O

Whereas alcohol shows no evolution of gas when reacted with carbonates.

C_2H_5OH + NaHCO_3 \rightarrow no\ reaction

Q.2. What are oxidizing agents?

Answer:

The oxidation reaction is the reaction in which oxygen is added or hydrogen is removed.

The substance which adds oxygen to others is known as oxidizing agents.

Example : AlkalinepPotassium permanganate


Topic 4.5: Soaps and Detergents

Q.1. Would you be able to check if the water is hard by using a detergent?

Answer:

No, we will not be able to check if the water is hard sing detergents. This is because detergents give rich lather with both hard and soft water without forming any scum.

Q. 2. People use a variety of methods to wash clothes. Usually after adding the soap, they ‘beat’ the clothes on a stone, or beat it with a paddle, scrub with a brush or the mixture is agitated in a washing machine. Why is agitation necessary to get clean clothes?

Answer:

Soap molecules form spherical structures known as micelles. The oily dirt is trapped inside these micelles which remain suspended as colloid. Hence, to remove these micelles containing the dirt, the clothes are agitated.

NCERT solutions for class 10 science chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds - Exercise solutions

Q. 1. Ethane, with the molecular formula C_{2}H_{6} has

(a) 6 covalent bonds.
(b) 7 covalent bonds.
(c) 8 covalent bonds.
(d) 9 covalent bonds.

Answer:

1644211711369

Ethane, with the molecular formula C_{2}H_{6} has 7 covalent bonds.

(b) It has 1 ( C-C ) and 6( C-H ) bonds.

Q. 2. Butanone is a four-carbon compound with the functional group

(a) carboxylic acid.
(b) aldehyde.
(c) ketone.
(d) alcohol.

Answer:

Butanone is a four-carbon compound with the functional group ketone. (c)

Butan- one : one is the suffix used for the functional group ketone.

Q. 3. While cooking, if the bottom of the vessel is getting blackened on the outside, it means that

(a) the food is not cooked completely.

(b) the fuel is not burning completely.

(c) the fuel is wet.

(d) the fuel is burning completely.

Answer:

While cooking, if the bottom of the vessel is getting blackened on the outside, it means that the fuel is not burning completely.

(b) is the answer

Q. 4. Explain the nature of the covalent bond using the bond formation in.

Answer:

Carbon has four electrons in its outermost shell and needs to gain or lose four electrons to attain noble gas configuration. Carbon overcomes this problem by sharing its valence electrons with other atoms of carbon or with atoms of other elements.

Of the four electrons, three are shared with hydrogen atoms and one with a chlorine atom. Thus it has three (C-H) and one (C-Cl) covalent bonds.

These bonds formed by the sharing of electrons are known as covalent bonds. Carbon, hydrogen, and chlorine attains the nearest noble gas configuration of Ne, He and Ar respectively.

Class 10 Carbon and Its Compounds Solutions:

Q.5. (a) Draw the electron dot structures for

  • ethanoic acid .

Answer:

The electron dot structure of ethanoic acid ( CH_3COOH ) is:

1644211745945

Q.5. (b) Draw the electron dot structures for

  • H_{2}S .

Answer:

The electron dot structure of hydrogen sulphide ( H_{2}S ) is:

1644211765858

Q.5.(c) Draw the electron dot structures for

  • propanone .

Answer:

The electron dot structure of propanone ( CH_3COCH_3 ) is:

1644211803041

Q.5.(d) Draw the electron dot structures for

  • F_{2}

Answer:

The electron dot structure of F_{2} is:

1644211828483

Q. 6. What is a homologous series? Explain with an example.

Answer:

A series of carbon compounds having different numbers of carbon atoms but have the same functional group substituting the hydrogen atom is known as a homologous series.

For example, methane, ethane, propane, butane, etc. constitute the alkane homologous series. The general formula for alkanes is C_nH_{2n+2} . Methane CH_4 ; Ethane C_2H_6 ; Propane C_3H_8 and so on.

Q. 7. How can ethanol and ethanoic acid be differentiated on the basis of their physical and chemical properties?

Answer:

Physical Properties

Ethanol Ethanoic acid
It has a pleasant smell. It has a pungent smell of vinegar.
It has a low boiling point : 351 K. It has a comparatively high boiling point: 391 K.

Chemical Properties:

Ethanol Ethanoic acid
It has no action on litmus paper. It turns blue litmus to red.
no reaction with NaHCO_3 Liberates CO_2 when reacted with NaHCO_3


Q. 8. Why does micelle formation take place when soap is added to water? Will a micelle be formed in other solvents such as ethanol also?

Answer:

A soap is a sodium or potassium salt of long-chain fatty acids. It has one polar hydrophilic end and one non-polar hydrophobic end. These molecules have a unique orientation inside water in form of clusters of molecule in which hydrophobic ends are in the interior of the cluster and ionic ends on the surface of cluster thus keeping the hydrocarbon portion out of water. This formation is known as Micelle. Soap in the form of a micelle is able to clean, as the oily dirt is collected in the centre of the micelle.

No, micelle formation does not take place in ethanol because the alkyl chain of soap becomes soluble in alcohol.

Q. 9. Why are carbon and its compounds used as fuels for most applications?

Answer:

Carbon compounds have high calorific values. Therefore, carbon and its compounds are used as fuels for most applications. They give a lot of heat and light when burnt in air. Saturated hydrocarbons like methane burn with a clean flame without any smoke and are thus environmentally friendly.

Class 10 Science Ch 4 NCERT Solutions

Q. 10. Explain the formation of scum when hard water is treated with soap.

Answer:

Hard water contains calcium and magnesium salts. When soap is added with hard water, it reacts with the calcium and magnesium ions of hard water to form an insoluble substance called scum. To overcome this problem, detergents are used.

Q. 11. What change will you observe if you test soap with litmus paper (red and blue)?

Answer:

Soap is basic in nature and hence will turn red litmus blue. However it will have no effect on blue litmus paper.

Q. 12. What is hydrogenation? What is its industrial application?

Answer:

The conversion of unsaturated hydrocarbon to saturated hydrocarbon by the addition of hydrogen in the presence of nickel catalyst is called hydrogenation. This reaction is commonly used in hydrogenation of vegetable oil into vegetable ghee.

Q. 13. Which of the following hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions:

  • C_{2}H_{6}, C_{3}H_{8}, C_{3}H_{6}, C_{2}H_{2}\; and\: CH_{4}.

Answer:

Unsaturated hydrocarbons like alkenes and alkynes will undergo addition reactions. Therefore, C_3H_6 (alkene having -C=C- ) and C_2H_2 (alkyne having -C\equiv C- ) will give addition reactions.

Q. 14. Give a test that can be used to differentiate between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Answer:

Butter is a saturated compound and oil is an unsaturated compound.

Test: When oil is added to a test tube containing alkaline potassium permanganate solution KMnO_4 , the pink colour of the solution disappear. Therefore, cooking oil causes decolourisation of the solution. This does not happen in case of butter.

Q. 15. Explain the mechanism of the cleaning action of soaps.

Answer:

A soap is a sodium or potassium salt of long-chain fatty acids. It has one polar hydrophilic end and one non-polar hydrophobic end. When soap is at the surface of the water, the hydrophobic tail of soap being nonsoluble in water protrudes out of the water with the ionic end in water.

When there is no more space for soap molecules on the surface, these molecules create a unique orientation inside water in form of clusters in which hydrophobic ends are in the interior of the cluster and ionic ends on the surface of cluster thus keeping the hydrocarbon portion out of water. This formation is known as Micelle.

Soap in the form of a micelle is able to clean, as the oily dirt is collected in the centre of the micelle.The ionic ends in the micelles remain attached to water. When the dirty clothes are agitated in a soap solution, the oily dirt particles entrapped by soap micelles get dispersed in water and the clothes get cleaned.

Ch 4 Science Class 10: Important Formulas and Diagrams + eBook link

This article also covers the Most important formulas from Chapter 4 of the Class 10 Science NCERT Textbook, apart from the Class 10th Science Chapter 4 question answer.

Chapter 4 Science Class 10 : Carbon and Its Compounds

Allotropes of Carbon

Diamond: In diamond every carbon atom is bonded to another four carbon atoms giving rise to a rigid three-dimensional structure.

Graphite: In graphite every carbon atom is bonded to three other carbon atoms in the same plane giving rise to a hexagonal array.

C-60 Buckminsterfullerene: In C-60 Buckminsterfullerene, carbon atoms are arranged in the shape of a football.

Saturated Carbon Compounds

Carbon compounds which involves single bonds are called saturated carbon compounds.

Unsaturated Carbon Compounds

Carbon compounds which involves double or triple bonds are called unsaturated carbon compounds

Functional group in Carbon Compounds

Hetero Atom

Class of Compounds

Formula

Cl/Br

Halo-(chloro, bromo)alkane

-Cl, -Br

Oxygen

Alcohol

-OH

Aldehyde

-CHO

Ketone

-CO

Carboxylic acid

-COOH

Nomenclature of organic compounds

1690005684754

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON COMPOUNDS

Combustion

Carbon reacts with oxygen giving out carbon dioxide, heat and light.

1649411421728

Oxidation

When oxygen is added to the compound, the reaction is called oxidation reaction. It is done in the presence of an oxidizing agent.

1649411422267

Addition Reaction

When hydrogen is added to an unsaturated compound, in presence of a catalyst such as palladium or nickel giving rise to saturated hydrocarbons, the reaction is called addition reaction.

Substitution Reaction

When an atom or group of atoms are replaced by another atom, the reaction is called substitution reaction.

CH4 + Cl2 → CH3Cl + HCl (in the presence of sunlight)

Reactions of Ethanol

(i) Reaction with sodium –

2Na + 2CH3CH2OH → 2CH3CH2O–Na+ (Sodium ethoxide) + H2

(ii) Reaction to give unsaturated hydrocarbon:

CH3 - CH2OH —-- HOT CONC H2SO4—------> CH2 = CH2 +H20

Esterification reaction:

1690005683800

Reaction of ethanoic acid with a base:

NaOH + CH3COOH → CH3COONa + H2O

Reaction of ethanoic acid with carbonates and hydrogencarbonates:

2CH3COOH + Na2CO3 → 2CH3COONa + H2O + CO2

CH3COOH + NaHCO3 → CH3COONa + H2O + CO2

For more, Download Ebook - NCERT Class 10 Science: Chapterwise Important Formulas, Diagrams, And Points

Carbon and its Compounds Class 10 Solutions - Important Topics

Let us take a quick look at the list of units and subunits taken from NCERT Textbook Class 10 And included in NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4, Carbon and Its Compounds before diving into the specifics.

Carbon And Its Compounds

Bonding In Carbon – The Covalent Bond

Versatile Nature Of Carbon

  • Saturated and Unsaturated Carbon Compounds
  • Chains, Branches and Rings
  • Carbon - Will you be my Friend?
  • Homologous Series
  • Nomenclature of Carbon Compounds
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Chemical Properties Of Carbon Compounds

  • Combustion
  • Oxidation
  • Addition Reaction
  • Substitution Reaction

Some Important Carbon Compounds – Ethanol And Ethanoic Acid

  • Properties of Ethanol
  • Properties of Ethanoic Acid
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Soaps And Detergents

Free download NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon And Its Compounds PDF for CBSE Exam.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10th for Other Subjects

Benefits of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds

  • NCERT Class 10 Science solutions chapter 4 will be of great help if you have an understanding of the chapter contents. Hence, read the entire chapter carefully before checking the solutions.

  • NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 will be useful for answer writing, as it will help you frame the answers correctly.

  • These Class 10 Science Chapter 4 NCERT solutions are prepared by subject matter experts, hence you can rely on it completely.

Chapter-wise NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science

How to Use NCERT solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds

  • The NCERT Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 4 are easy to understand. It will help you clarify your concepts.

  • You can access the NCERT Solutions Class 10 Science Chapter 4 PDF download soon to practice offline.

  • The NCERT solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds are provided by the experts, so in case you have any doubt, you can ask the questions.

Highlights of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 – Carbon And Its Compounds PDF

The highlights for the Class 10 Science Chapter 4 solution PDF are given below:

  • The NCERT (CBSE) Syllabus and Books are strictly followed in the Carbon and its Compounds Class 10 Solutions.
  • The NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 are easy-to-understand and comprehensive
  • On this page, you will find clear and concise concepts from Ch 4 Science Class 10.
  • The class 10 science chapter 4 question answer help clear doubt and give in-depth knowledge of concepts.
  • The NCERT Solutions Class 10 Chapter 4 Science are prepared by subject matter experts in the easiest possible way.
  • All the exercise questions and in-text solved questions are available for Science Chapter 4 Class 10.
  • Stepwise solutions are provided here for Carbon and its Compounds Class 10 questions with answers.
  • Diagrams for Class 10 Science Ch 4 are provided wherever required for a better understanding.

Also Check NCERT Books and NCERT Syllabus here:

Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

1. What is the weightage of chapter Carbon and Its Compounds in CBSE class 10 board final exam ?

Weightage of chapter Carbon and Its Compounds in CBSE class 10 board final exam is 5 marks. More questions on Carbon and its Compounds chapter can be practised using NCERT exemplar and CBSE previous year papers.

2. CBSE provides the solutions of NCERT class 10?

No, CBSE doesn’t provide NCERT solutions for any class or subject.

3. What are the important topics of Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds?

Covalent Bonding in Carbon Compounds, Homologous series, Saturated & Unsaturated hydrocarbons, Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds, Nomenclature of Carbon Compounds Containing Functional Groups.

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Thanking you

Hello aspirant,

The dates of the CBSE Class 10th and Class 12 exams are February 15–March 13, 2024 and February 15–April 2, 2024, respectively. You may obtain the CBSE exam date sheet 2024 PDF from the official CBSE website, cbse.gov.in.

To get the complete datesheet, you can visit our website by clicking on the link given below.

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Thank you

Hope this information helps you.

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Thank you

Hope it helps you.

The eligibility age criteria for class 10th CBSE is 14 years of age. Since your son will be 15 years of age in 2024, he will be eligible to give the exam.

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A block of mass 0.50 kg is moving with a speed of 2.00 ms-1 on a smooth surface. It strikes another mass of 1.00 kg and then they move together as a single body. The energy loss during the collision is

Option 1)

0.34\; J

Option 2)

0.16\; J

Option 3)

1.00\; J

Option 4)

0.67\; J

A person trying to lose weight by burning fat lifts a mass of 10 kg upto a height of 1 m 1000 times.  Assume that the potential energy lost each time he lowers the mass is dissipated.  How much fat will he use up considering the work done only when the weight is lifted up ?  Fat supplies 3.8×107 J of energy per kg which is converted to mechanical energy with a 20% efficiency rate.  Take g = 9.8 ms−2 :

Option 1)

2.45×10−3 kg

Option 2)

 6.45×10−3 kg

Option 3)

 9.89×10−3 kg

Option 4)

12.89×10−3 kg

 

An athlete in the olympic games covers a distance of 100 m in 10 s. His kinetic energy can be estimated to be in the range

Option 1)

2,000 \; J - 5,000\; J

Option 2)

200 \, \, J - 500 \, \, J

Option 3)

2\times 10^{5}J-3\times 10^{5}J

Option 4)

20,000 \, \, J - 50,000 \, \, J

A particle is projected at 600   to the horizontal with a kinetic energy K. The kinetic energy at the highest point

Option 1)

K/2\,

Option 2)

\; K\;

Option 3)

zero\;

Option 4)

K/4

In the reaction,

2Al_{(s)}+6HCL_{(aq)}\rightarrow 2Al^{3+}\, _{(aq)}+6Cl^{-}\, _{(aq)}+3H_{2(g)}

Option 1)

11.2\, L\, H_{2(g)}  at STP  is produced for every mole HCL_{(aq)}  consumed

Option 2)

6L\, HCl_{(aq)}  is consumed for ever 3L\, H_{2(g)}      produced

Option 3)

33.6 L\, H_{2(g)} is produced regardless of temperature and pressure for every mole Al that reacts

Option 4)

67.2\, L\, H_{2(g)} at STP is produced for every mole Al that reacts .

How many moles of magnesium phosphate, Mg_{3}(PO_{4})_{2} will contain 0.25 mole of oxygen atoms?

Option 1)

0.02

Option 2)

3.125 × 10-2

Option 3)

1.25 × 10-2

Option 4)

2.5 × 10-2

If we consider that 1/6, in place of 1/12, mass of carbon atom is taken to be the relative atomic mass unit, the mass of one mole of a substance will

Option 1)

decrease twice

Option 2)

increase two fold

Option 3)

remain unchanged

Option 4)

be a function of the molecular mass of the substance.

With increase of temperature, which of these changes?

Option 1)

Molality

Option 2)

Weight fraction of solute

Option 3)

Fraction of solute present in water

Option 4)

Mole fraction.

Number of atoms in 558.5 gram Fe (at. wt.of Fe = 55.85 g mol-1) is

Option 1)

twice that in 60 g carbon

Option 2)

6.023 × 1022

Option 3)

half that in 8 g He

Option 4)

558.5 × 6.023 × 1023

A pulley of radius 2 m is rotated about its axis by a force F = (20t - 5t2) newton (where t is measured in seconds) applied tangentially. If the moment of inertia of the pulley about its axis of rotation is 10 kg m2 , the number of rotations made by the pulley before its direction of motion if reversed, is

Option 1)

less than 3

Option 2)

more than 3 but less than 6

Option 3)

more than 6 but less than 9

Option 4)

more than 9

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