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    Sound Class 9th Notes - Free NCERT Class 9 Science Chapter 12 Notes - Download PDF

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    Sound Class 9th Notes - Free NCERT Class 9 Science Chapter 12 Notes - Download PDF

    Edited By Safeer PP | Updated on May 12, 2022 02:43 PM IST

    The NCERT chapter 12 Sound discusses the reason how organisms are able to hear in detail. The NCERT Class 9 Science Chapter 12 Notes covers a brief details of the chapter Sound-The main topics covered in Sound- class 9 notes are — production and propagation of sound, medium of sound, description of sound waves, determination of sound in different media, a reflection of sound, echo, reverberation, uses of multiple reflection of sound, hearing range and applications of ultrasound, sonar and structure of human ear.

    Also, students can refer,

    NCERT Class 9 Science Chapter 12

    In our daily life , humans, birds, bells, machines etc produce sounds.

    Sound can be defined as a kind of energy that generates a sensation of hearing in our ears. The production of sound is aided by plucking, scratching, rubbing, blowing or shaking any object. Sound is produced by a vibrating body. Human beings produce sound by vibrations in the vocal cords.


    Propagation of Sound

    Medium is anything which is capable of transmitting a sound. A medium can be any solid, liquid or gas. Sound travels from it's point of generation to the listener via a medium. When an object vibrates it enables the medium particles to vibrate. They do not move from the vibrating object to the ear, instead, one particle comes in contact with the object and gets displaced from its equilibrium position. A force is exerted on the adjacent particle which results in the displacement of this particle which enables the first particle to come back to its initial position. This process is repeated until the sound reaches our ears.

    A disturbance that moves through any medium when its particles cause the neighboring particles into motion is called a wave. In turn, they develop similar motions in other particles. The medium particles do not travel forward themselves, instead, the disturbance makes them move forward. This is the mechanism of propagation of sound in a medium, thus the sound can be visualized as a wave. Sound waves are mechanical waves that enable the motion of particles in the medium. The most common medium by which sound travels is the air.

    When a vibrating body moves forward, it creates a region of high pressure called compression (C). The air begins to move away from the vibrating object. When this vibrating object moves back, it creates a region of low pressure called rarefaction(R). Thus, air comprises a series of compressions and rarefactions due to the movement of objects backwards and forward rapidly. Thus, sound waves are propagated through the medium.

    Pressure = number of particles in the medium / volume.

    More density produces more pressure and vice versa.

    So, sound propagation can be seen as the propagation of variations in density or variations in pressure in the medium.


    Medium of Sound waves

    Air, water, Steel are the material medium needed by sound to travel and propagate. Sound is unable to travel through a vacuum. Let us understand this through this experiment.

    An electric bell and a glass ( airtight ) were taken. The electric bell was hung inside this airtight bell jar which was further connected to a vacuum pump. When the switch was pressed on the sound of the bell was heard. When the air in the jar started pumping out, the sound became lower even though the same current was passing through the bell. Gradually when little air was left inside the bell jar a very weak sound was heard.


    Sound waves are longitudinal:

    Compressions (C) are the regions where the coins become closer while rarefactions(R) are the regions where the coils become further apart.

    Sound travels in a series of compressions and rarefactions in a medium. Sound waves are longitudinal waves where the individual particles of the medium travel in a direction parallel to the direction of propagation of the disturbance. These particles are immovable and cannot travel from one place to another. They oscillate backward and forward about their rest position. This is the property of longitudinal waves and hence sound waves are regarded as longitudinal waves.


    Characteristics of a sound wave:

    A sound wave is demonstrated by its frequency, amplitude and speed.


    The graphical representation of a sound wave shows how density and pressure change whenever the sound wave travels through a medium. The density and pressure at a given time changes with distance above and below the average value of density and pressure. These figures show the variations in density and pressure when a sound wave travels in the medium.


    Region of compressions contains the particles present together which is represented by the upper portion of the curve. Peak is known as the region of maximum compression. The density and the pressure is always high in the regions of compressions. The areas of lower pressure where the particles are seen spreading and they are shown by a valley known as rarefactions which is situated in the lower portion of the curve. Crest is the peak of the graph while the valley of the graph is called the trough of a wave.

    Wavelength: It means the distance between two consecutive compressions (C) or two consecutive rarefactions (R). is the symbol for wavelength. The SI unit of wavelength is meter(m).

    Frequency: is the number of times a body vibrates.

    The maximum value of density to its minimum value and then again to its maximum value form one oscillation. The number of oscillations per unit time is the frequency of the sound wave. It is also the number of compressions or rarefactions that cross per unit time. The symbol for frequency is while the SI unit of frequency is hertz(Hz).

    Time period: It is the time occupied by two compressions or rarefactions one after the other, to cross a specific point.

    t is the time taken for one complete oscillation in the density of the medium. T is the symbol of the time period and its SI unit is second (s).

    Relation between frequency and time period:

    T= 1/f

    Terms related to sound waves:

    Pitch: It is the interpretation of the frequency of an emitted sound.

    When the vibration of the source is faster , the frequency and therefore the pitch becomes higher. High pitch represents more compressions and rarefactions passing a fixed point per unit time.


    Amplitude( A) : The magnitude of the maximum displacement is called amplitude. The unit of amplitude is the same as the unit of density or pressure. The amplitude determines the loudness or softness of a sound, and depends upon the force with which an object is vibrated. When a sound wave moves away from its source, its amplitude and loudness decreases.


    Quality or Timber: It helps us to differentiate one sound from another sound of the same pitch and loudness. Pleasing sound is said to be of rich quality while an unpleasant sound is regarded as noise. Music is soothing to our ears and is of rich quality. A sound of a single frequency is known as a tone while a sound that is developed because of a mixture of many frequencies is called a note.

    Speed (S)= Distance/Time = d/T

    SI Unit: meter/second (m/s)

    Wavelength (λ ) of the sound wave is the distance moved by the sound wave in one time period (T) of the wave.

    S= λν

    speed = wavelength × frequency

    Intensity of sound: It is the amount of sound energy travelling each second through the unit area.

    Loudness: It is defined as a measure of the response of the ear to the sound.

    Speed of sound in different media:

    The speed of the sound is dependent on the characteristics of the medium through which it propagates/travels.

    Speed of sound is dependent on the temperature of the medium. For example the speed of sound reduces when an object is changed from solid to gaseous state.

    A table is given which represents the speed of sound in various media.


    Reflection of Sound

    The reflection of sound occurs at the surface of a solid or liquid. Sound also follows the laws of reflection.

    Laws of reflection:

    1. The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal lies in the same plane, that is, the reflecting surface

    2. The angle of incidence is always equal to the angle of reflection.



    When our sound reaches a suitable reflecting object such as a mountain, an echo is heard. It remains for only 0.1 seconds.

    Conditions for hearing echo:

    1. The time difference(interval) between the original sound and the reflected sound must be at least 0.1 seconds.

    2. The minimum distance of the reflecting surface from the source of sound must be 17.2 m.

    Due to successive or multiple reflections, echoes are heard again and again. Example- rolling of thunder.


    The sound caused by repeated reflections from a reflecting object is called reverberation.

    The roof and walls of a big hall are generally covered by sound-absorbent materials like compressed fiberboard.

    Uses of multiple reflection of Sound:

    1. Musical instruments like megaphone and a horn are made up of a tube whichis followed by a conical opening.


    1. It is used in a stethoscope which is used for hearing sounds developed within the body. The sound of the patient’s heartbeat is heard by the doctor’s ears by multiple reflections of sound.

    2. Ceilings of auditoriums are made curved aiming that sound after reflection reaches all corners of the hall.

    Range of Hearing:

    Audible range of hearing of sound for humans varies from about 20 Hz to 20000 Hz.

    That sounds whose frequencies are below 20 Hz are known as infrasonic sounds.

    The communication of rhinoceros is done at 5 Hz. Whales and elephants also communicate through infrasonic sounds.

    The frequencies which are higher than 20 khz are known as ultrasonic sounds or ultrasounds.

    Dolphins and bags produce ultrasounds.

    1 Hz equal to one cycle per second

    Children who are under the age of 5 and some animals like dogs have the capacity to hear up to 25 kHz


    Ultrasounds have frequencies which are capable of travelling every part even in the presence of obstacles. They are mainly used in industries and in the medical sector.

    1. These high frequencies clean spiral tubes, electronic components and several other places which are hard to reach. The objects which are needed to be cleaned are put in a cleaning solution and the ultrasonic waves are passed in the solution. Because of the high frequency of these particles, the dust particles and the dirt get removed and the object becomes clean

    2. Ultrasonic vibrations are used to find cracks and flaws in metal blocks. These metal blocks are used for construction of buildings and scientific equipment. The floors or the cracks inside these are invisible from outside. It reduces the strength of the buildings and machines. Ultraviolet waves are passed through these metal blocks to cure this and the detectors function to detect the propagated waves. When any small defect is encountered these ultrasound reflects back which indicates the presence of any crack.


    3. Ultrasonic waves are used in the technique of echocardiography. This technique makes the ultrasonic waves reflect from various parts of the heart and develop its image.

    4. Ultrasonic waves are also used in ultrasound scanners to produce images of internal organs of the human body. It is used to detect any fault in the liver, gallbladder, uterus, etc. The technique by which the images are displayed on a monitor is called ultrasonography.

    5. The ultrasonic waves are also used to break small stones formed in the kidneys or liver which get removed with the urine of the individual.


    The expanded form of Sonar is Sound navigation and ranging.

    It is an instrument which uses the ultrasonic waves to measure the distance, direction and speed of objects inside water.


    Sonar constitutes a transmitter and a detector which are installed in a boat or a ship. Ultrasonic waves are produced and transmitted by the transmitter which travel through water and strike the object on the seabed. The waves are reflected back and are sensed by the detector. The detector converts the waves into electrical signals for interpretation. The object's distance which reflects the sound wave can be measured by determining the speed of sound in water and the time period between transmission and reception of the ultrasound.

    If the time interval is t, and the speed of sound is S, the total distance, 2d, travelled by the ultrasound becomes,

    2d= S×t

    This technique is known as echo ranging.

    The Sonar technique is also used in various other determinations to calculate the depths of the sea and to detect the location of underwater hills, submarines, sunken ships, etc.


    Structure of a Human Ear

    Ear is an extremely sensitive instrument which aids in hearing. It enables us in conversion of variations in pressure of the air with audible frequencies into the electric signals which transmit to the brain via auditory nerve.

    The outer ear is known as pinna which functions to collect the sound from surroundings.

    This sound goes through the auditory canal. Eardrum or the tympanic membrane is a thin membrane present at one end of the auditory canal. When the eardrum receives a compression of the medium, an increased pressure is observed on the outside of the membrane which forces the eardrum inward.

    In a similar way, during rarefactions, the eardrum moves outward.

    The middle ear contains three bones namely, hammer, anvil, and stirrup. These bones amplify the vibrations many times in the middle ear and the middle ear propagates the amplified variations in the pressure received from the sound wave to the inner ear.

    The inner ear converts the pressure variations into electrical signals with the help of cochlea. The brain receives the electrical signals via the auditory nerve, and the brain interprets them as sound.


    Significance of NCERT notes for class 9 Science chapter 12

    The NCERT Notes for Class 9 Science Chapter 12 is very significant for a student. By reading these notes, students will be able to better grasp the knowledge of the contents of this chapter. By revising the notes, students can score more marks in their examinations. They can download these notes for free and can use them for future purposes too.

    NCERT solutions of class 9 subject wise

    NCERT Class 9 Exemplar Solutions for Other Subjects:

    Class 10 Chapter Wise Notes

    Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

    1. Sound is a _______ wave.


    2. A sound wave has a frequency of 5 kHz and wavelength of 70 cm. How much time will it take to travel 5 km?


                Frequency, ν = 5 kHz = 5000 Hz

                Wavelength, λ = 70 cm = 0.70 m

                We know that speed, S of the wave = wavelength × frequency

                S = λ ν 

                   = 0.70 m × 5000 Hz = 3500 m/s

               Time, T= Distance/Speed

                            = 5 * 1000/3500 

                            = 1.42 seconds

    3. Find the wavelength of a sound wave when the frequency is given as 220 Hz and speed is 440 m/s for a given medium.

    We know, speed = wavelength × frequency

               S= λ ν

               λ = S

                  = 440220

                  = 2 meters

    4. Give the full form of SONAR

    SONAR stands for Sound Navigation And Ranging. 

    5. Name the three bones present in the middle ear of a human ear

    Hammer, anvil and stirrup


    Get answers from students and experts

    A block of mass 0.50 kg is moving with a speed of 2.00 ms-1 on a smooth surface. It strikes another mass of 1.00 kg and then they move together as a single body. The energy loss during the collision is

    Option 1)

    0.34\; J

    Option 2)

    0.16\; J

    Option 3)

    1.00\; J

    Option 4)

    0.67\; J

    A person trying to lose weight by burning fat lifts a mass of 10 kg upto a height of 1 m 1000 times.  Assume that the potential energy lost each time he lowers the mass is dissipated.  How much fat will he use up considering the work done only when the weight is lifted up ?  Fat supplies 3.8×107 J of energy per kg which is converted to mechanical energy with a 20% efficiency rate.  Take g = 9.8 ms−2 :

    Option 1)

    2.45×10−3 kg

    Option 2)

     6.45×10−3 kg

    Option 3)

     9.89×10−3 kg

    Option 4)

    12.89×10−3 kg


    An athlete in the olympic games covers a distance of 100 m in 10 s. His kinetic energy can be estimated to be in the range

    Option 1)

    2,000 \; J - 5,000\; J

    Option 2)

    200 \, \, J - 500 \, \, J

    Option 3)

    2\times 10^{5}J-3\times 10^{5}J

    Option 4)

    20,000 \, \, J - 50,000 \, \, J

    A particle is projected at 600   to the horizontal with a kinetic energy K. The kinetic energy at the highest point

    Option 1)


    Option 2)

    \; K\;

    Option 3)


    Option 4)


    In the reaction,

    2Al_{(s)}+6HCL_{(aq)}\rightarrow 2Al^{3+}\, _{(aq)}+6Cl^{-}\, _{(aq)}+3H_{2(g)}

    Option 1)

    11.2\, L\, H_{2(g)}  at STP  is produced for every mole HCL_{(aq)}  consumed

    Option 2)

    6L\, HCl_{(aq)}  is consumed for ever 3L\, H_{2(g)}      produced

    Option 3)

    33.6 L\, H_{2(g)} is produced regardless of temperature and pressure for every mole Al that reacts

    Option 4)

    67.2\, L\, H_{2(g)} at STP is produced for every mole Al that reacts .

    How many moles of magnesium phosphate, Mg_{3}(PO_{4})_{2} will contain 0.25 mole of oxygen atoms?

    Option 1)


    Option 2)

    3.125 × 10-2

    Option 3)

    1.25 × 10-2

    Option 4)

    2.5 × 10-2

    If we consider that 1/6, in place of 1/12, mass of carbon atom is taken to be the relative atomic mass unit, the mass of one mole of a substance will

    Option 1)

    decrease twice

    Option 2)

    increase two fold

    Option 3)

    remain unchanged

    Option 4)

    be a function of the molecular mass of the substance.

    With increase of temperature, which of these changes?

    Option 1)


    Option 2)

    Weight fraction of solute

    Option 3)

    Fraction of solute present in water

    Option 4)

    Mole fraction.

    Number of atoms in 558.5 gram Fe (at. wt.of Fe = 55.85 g mol-1) is

    Option 1)

    twice that in 60 g carbon

    Option 2)

    6.023 × 1022

    Option 3)

    half that in 8 g He

    Option 4)

    558.5 × 6.023 × 1023

    A pulley of radius 2 m is rotated about its axis by a force F = (20t - 5t2) newton (where t is measured in seconds) applied tangentially. If the moment of inertia of the pulley about its axis of rotation is 10 kg m2 , the number of rotations made by the pulley before its direction of motion if reversed, is

    Option 1)

    less than 3

    Option 2)

    more than 3 but less than 6

    Option 3)

    more than 6 but less than 9

    Option 4)

    more than 9

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    An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.

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    For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

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    Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

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    Video Game Designer

    Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages. Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

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    Talent Agent

    The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

    If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

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    Radio Jockey

    Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

    A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.

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    Talent Director

    Individuals who opt for a career as a talent director are professionals who work in the entertainment industry. He or she is responsible for finding out the right talent through auditions for films, theatre productions, or shows. A talented director possesses strong knowledge of computer software used in filmmaking, CGI and animation. A talent acquisition director keeps himself or herself updated on various technical aspects such as lighting, camera angles and shots. 

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    Careers in videography are art that can be defined as a creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than a simple recording of a simple event. It would be wrong to portrait it as a subcategory of photography, rather photography is one of the crafts used in videographer jobs in addition to technical skills like organization, management, interpretation, and image-manipulation techniques. Students pursue Visual Media, Film, Television, Digital Video Production to opt for a videographer career path. The visual impacts of a film are driven by the creative decisions taken in videography jobs. Individuals who opt for a career as a videographer are involved in the entire lifecycle of a film and production. 

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    Multimedia Specialist

    A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

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    Copy Writer

    In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism, Advertising, Marketing Management. Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

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    Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

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    For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

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    In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. Ever since internet cost got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, the career as vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the career as vlogger, how to become a vlogger, so on and so forth then continue reading the article. Students can visit Jamia Millia Islamia, Asian College of Journalism, Indian Institute of Mass Communication to pursue journalism degrees.

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    Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

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    Advertising Manager

    Advertising managers consult with the financial department to plan a marketing strategy schedule and cost estimates. We often see advertisements that attract us a lot, not every advertisement is just to promote a business but some of them provide a social message as well. There was an advertisement for a washing machine brand that implies a story that even a man can do household activities. And of course, how could we even forget those jingles which we often sing while working?

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    Photography is considered both a science and an art, an artistic means of expression in which the camera replaces the pen. In a career as a photographer, an individual is hired to capture the moments of public and private events, such as press conferences or weddings, or may also work inside a studio, where people go to get their picture clicked. Photography is divided into many streams each generating numerous career opportunities in photography. With the boom in advertising, media, and the fashion industry, photography has emerged as a lucrative and thrilling career option for many Indian youths.

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    Social Media Manager

    A career as social media manager involves implementing the company’s or brand’s marketing plan across all social media channels. Social media managers help in building or improving a brand’s or a company’s website traffic, build brand awareness, create and implement marketing and brand strategy. Social media managers are key to important social communication as well.

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    Product Manager

    A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

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    Quality Controller

    A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

    A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

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    Production Manager

    Production Manager Job Description: A Production Manager is responsible for ensuring smooth running of manufacturing processes in an efficient manner. He or she plans and organises production schedules. The role of Production Manager involves estimation, negotiation on budget and timescales with the clients and managers. 

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    QA Manager

    Quality Assurance Manager Job Description: A QA Manager is an administrative professional responsible for overseeing the activity of the QA department and staff. It involves developing, implementing and maintaining a system that is qualified and reliable for testing to meet specifications of products of organisations as well as development processes. 

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    QA Lead

    A QA Lead is in charge of the QA Team. The role of QA Lead comes with the responsibility of assessing services and products in order to determine that he or she meets the quality standards. He or she develops, implements and manages test plans. 

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    Reliability Engineer

    Are you searching for a Reliability Engineer job description? A Reliability Engineer is responsible for ensuring long lasting and high quality products. He or she ensures that materials, manufacturing equipment, components and processes are error free. A Reliability Engineer role comes with the responsibility of minimising risks and effectiveness of processes and equipment. 

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    Safety Manager

    A Safety Manager is a professional responsible for employee’s safety at work. He or she plans, implements and oversees the company’s employee safety. A Safety Manager ensures compliance and adherence to Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) guidelines.

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    Corporate Executive

    Are you searching for a Corporate Executive job description? A Corporate Executive role comes with administrative duties. He or she provides support to the leadership of the organisation. A Corporate Executive fulfils the business purpose and ensures its financial stability. In this article, we are going to discuss how to become corporate executive.

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    Computer Programmer

    Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

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    Product Manager

    A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

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    ITSM Manager

    ITSM Manager is a professional responsible for heading the ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) or (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) processes. He or she ensures that operation management provides appropriate resource levels for problem resolutions. The ITSM Manager oversees the level of prioritisation for the problems, critical incidents, planned as well as proactive tasks. 

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    Information Security Manager

    Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

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    Big Data Analytics Engineer

    Big Data Analytics Engineer Job Description: A Big Data Analytics Engineer is responsible for collecting data from various sources. He or she has to sort the organised and chaotic data to find out patterns. The role of Big Data Engineer involves converting messy information into useful data that is clean, accurate and actionable. 

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    Cloud Solution Developer

    A Cloud Solutions Developer is basically a Software Engineer with specialisation in cloud computing. He or she possesses a solid understanding of cloud systems including their operations, deployment with security and efficiency with no little downtime. 

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    CRM Technology Consultant

    A Customer Relationship Management Technology Consultant or CRM Technology Consultant is responsible for monitoring and providing strategy for performance improvement with logged calls, performance metrics and revenue metrics. His or her role involves accessing data for team meetings, goal setting analytics as well as reporting to executives.  

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    IT Manager

    Career as IT Manager  requires managing the various aspects of an organization's information technology systems. He or she is responsible for increasing productivity and solving problems related to software and hardware. While this role is typically one of the lower-level positions within an organisation, it comes with responsibilities related to people and ownership of systems.

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