NCERT Syllabus for Class 12
Updated on Dec 24, 2019 - 4:34 p.m. IST by Apoorva Singh

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 - National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) Class 12th syllabus is available to download in PDF form at the official website NCERT syllabus for class 12 is provided for Science, Arts, and Commerce stream. The syllabus gives an outline of curriculum and contents of each subject including Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics, etc. The NCERT syllabus for Class 12 contains detailed information of each subject such as unit wise topics of each chapter along with the marks distribution. Students can check all the important topics from the syllabus. The syllabus for some subjects are segregated into theory and practicals, whereas for some subjects there will be theory paper only. Check the detailed NCERT syllabus for Class 12 on this page.

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 English

The theory paper of English is of 100 marks. The question paper is divided into three sections: Reading, Writing, and Literature. The exam duration will be 3 hours. There are two books prescribed in the NCERT syllabus for class 12 Flamingo, and Vistas (Supplementary reader). Below is the list of chapters included in both books.

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 for English - (Flamingo)



The Last Lesson

My Mother at Sixty Six

Lost Spring

An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum

Deep Water

Keeping Quiet

The Rattrap

A Thing of Beauty


A Roadside Stand

Poets and Pancakes

Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers

The Interview

Going Places

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 English - Vistas

  1. The Third Level

  2. The Tiger King

  3. Journey to the End of the Earth

  4. The Enemy

  5. Should Wizard Hit Mommy

  6. On the Face of It

  7. Evans Tries an O-Level

  8. Memories of Childhood

  9. The Cutting of My Long Hair

  10. We too are Human Being

NCERT Syllabus for class 12 Physics

The syllabus of NCERT Physics for class 12 is divided into theory and practical. The theory exam is 70 marks and the practical exam is of 30 marks. Students must go through the complete NCERT Physics syllabus for 12th to have a basic idea about the curriculum. Refer to the tables below to know the NCERT syllabus for 12th Physics Theory and Practicals.

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 - Physics (Theory)

Unit No.

Unit/Chapter Name

Important Topics





Electric Charges and Fields

  • Electric Charges

  • Conservation of charge

  • Coulomb's law-force between two point charges

  • Electric field

  • electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines

  • electric field due to a dipole,etc.

Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

  • Electric potential

  • Potential difference

  • Electric potential due to a point charge

  • Free charges and bound charges inside a conductor

  • Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field, etc.


Current Electricity

Current Electricity

  • Ohm's law

  • Electrical resistance

  • Electric current

  • Flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor

  • Drift velocity

  • Electrical resistivity and conductivity, colour code for carbon resistors

  • Series and parallel combinations of resistors

  • Temperature dependence of resistance,etc


Magnetic Effect of Current & Magnetism


Moving Charges and Magnetism

  • Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment

  • Biot - Savart law and its application Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields

  • Cyclotron, etc.

Magnetism and Matter

  • Current loop as a magnetic dipole Magnetic field lines

  • Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements

  • Magnetic field intensity

  • Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field

  • Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, etc


Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Current

Electromagnetic Induction

  • Electromagnetic induction

  • Lenz's Law

  • Eddy currents

  • Self and mutual induction

  • Faraday's laws

  • Induced EMF and current, etc.

Alternating Current

  • Alternating currents

  • Peak and RMS value

  • Power factor

  • Wattless current

  • LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only)

  • LCR series circuit, etc


Electromagnetic Waves


Electromagnetic Waves

  • Basic idea of displacement current

  • Electromagnetic waves, etc



Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

  • Power of a lens

  • Refraction of light through a prism

  • Reflection of light

  • Spherical mirrors

  • Mirror formula

  • Refraction of light

  • Total internal reflection and its applications, etc

Wave Optics

  • Young's double slit experiment

  • Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle

  • Coherent sources and sustained interference of light

  • Interference, etc.


Dual Nature of Matter


Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

  • Dual nature of radiation,

  • Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations

  • Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light, etc.


Atoms & Nuclei

Chapter-12: Atoms

  • Alpha-particles scattering experiment

  • Bohr model

  • Energy levels

  • Hydrogen spectrum

  • Rutherford's model of atom.

Chapter-13: Nuclei

  • Composition and size of nucleus

  • Radioactivity

  • Alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties

  • Radioactive decay law, etc.


Electronic Devices


Semiconductor Electronics

  • Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias

  • diode as a rectifier

  • Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only), etc.


Communication Systems

Communication Systems



NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 - Physics (Practicals)



Two experiments one from each section


Practical record (experiments and activities)


Investigatory Project


Viva on experiments, activities and project




NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 Maths

Mathematics syllabus of 12th NCERT is segregated into theory and internal assessment. The question paper of NCERT is 80 marks, wherein the internal assessment will be of 20 marks. The questions asked in the examination will be very short, short, and long answer type. Check the NCERT syllabus for class 12 for mathematics from the table below.

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 - Mathematics


Important Topics


Relations and Functions

  • Relations and Functions

  • Inverse Trigonometric Functions



  • Matrices

  • Determinants



  • Continuity and Differentiability

  • Applications of Derivatives

  • Integrals

  • Applications of the Integrals

  • Differential Equations


Vectors and three dimensional Geometry

  • Vectors

  • Three-dimensional Geometry


Linear Programming

  • Optimization

  • Different types of linear programming

  • Mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, etc.



  • Multiplications theorem on probability

  • Conditional probability

  • Independent events

  • Total probability

  • Baye’s theorem




Internal Assessment




NCERT syllabus for class 12 Chemistry

The details for Theory and practical syllabus of NCERT 12th chemistry is given in the table below. Students can check the unit wise important topics and marks allotted for each unit here. The evaluation scheme for the chemistry practical examination is given in the second table.

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 - Chemistry


Important Topics


Solid State

  • General characteristics of solid states

  • Amorphous and crystalline solids

  • Classification of crystalline solids

  • Molecular solids, etc.



  • Types of solutions

  • Expressing concentration of solutions

  • Solubility, solubility of a gas in liquid, etc.


  • Electrochemical cells

  • Galvanic cells

  • Measurement of electrode potential

  • Nernst equation, etc.

Chemical Kinetics

  • Rate of a chemical reaction

  • Dependence of rate on concentration

  • Rate expression and rate constant, etc.

Surface Chemistry

  • Adsorption

  • Distinction between adsorption and absorption

  • Types of adsorption etc

General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

  • Occurence of metals

  • Extraction of crude metal from concentrated ore,

  • Thermodynamic principles of metallurgy, etc.


The p-Block elements

  • Occurrence

  • Electronic configuration

  • Atomic and ionic radii

  • IIonisation Enthalpy

  • Electronegativity, etc.

The d- and f - Block Elements

  • Electronic Configurations of the d-Block Elements

  • Variation in Atomic and Ionic Sizes of Transition Metals, etc.

Coordination Compounds

  • Werner’s theory of coordination compounds

  • Definitions of Some Important Terms Pertaining to Coordination Compounds, etc.

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

  • Nature of C-X Bond

  • Methods of preparation of haloalkanes, hydrocarbons, halogen exchange, etc.


Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

  • Alcohols— Mono, Di, Tri or Polyhydric alcohols,

  • Phenols— Mono, Di and trihydric phenols etc

Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

  • Nomenclature, structure of the carbonyl group

  • Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones etc.


  • Structure of amines

  • Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction

  • Gabriel phthalimide synthesis, etc


  • Carbohydrates, Monosaccharides,

  • Preparation of Glucose, structure of glucose

  • Cyclic Structure of Glucose, etc.


  • Classification of Polymers

  • Types of polymerization reactions

  • Mechanism of polymerisation reaction, etc.

Chemistry in Everyday Life

  • Drugs and their classification

  • Drug-target interaction

  • Receptors as drug targets



NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 - Chemistry Practical



Volumetric Analysis


Salt Analysis


Content Based Experiment


Project Work


Class record and viva




NCERT syllabus for class 12 Biology

The NCERT Syllabus of Biology class 12 comprises of theory and practical exam. The total marks for Biology subject is 100, where the theory exam is 70 marks and practicals are of 30 marks. Check the important topics and marking scheme below.

NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 - Biology (Theory)


Important Topics


Reproduction in organisms

  • Modes of reproduction

  • Reproduction; asexual reproduction - binary fission, etc.


Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

  • Flower structure

  • Pollination - types

  • Gencies and examples

  • Embryo, pollen-pistil interaction

  • Double fertilization, etc

Human Reproduction

  • Embryo development up to blastocyst formation

  • Menstrual cycle

  • Fertilisation, Male and Female reproductive systems

  • Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary

  • Gametogenesis - spermatogenesis and oogenesis, etc.

Reproductive Health

  • Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

  • Birth control - contraception and medical termination of pregnancy

  • Need and methods, etc.

Principles of Inheritance And Variation

  • Chromosome theory of inheritance

  • Linkage and crossing over

  • Sex-linked inheritance

  • Mendelian disorders in humans

  • Multiple alleles and inheritance, pleiotropy, etc.


Molecular Basis of Inheritance

  • Central dogma

  • Transcription

  • Structure of DNA and RNA

  • DNA packaging; DNA replication, etc.


  • Darwin's contribution

  • Origin of life

  • Biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution, etc.

Human Health and Disease

  • Pathogens

  • Parasites causing human diseases and their control

  • Chickengunia, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, etc.


Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

  • Improvement in food production: Plant breeding

  • Biofortification

  • Apiculture

  • Tissue culture

  • Single cell protein, etc.

Microbes in Human Welfare

  • Energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers,

  • In household food processing,

  • Industrial production

  • Sewage treatment, etc.

Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

  • Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).


Biotechnology and its Applications

  • Stem cell technology

  • Gene therapy

  • genetically modified organisms

  • Application of biotechnology,etc.

Organisms And Population

  • Population and ecological adaptations

  • Population interactions

  • Habitat and niche, competition, predation, parasitism, etc.



  • Ecosystems

  • Energy flow

  • Nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession, etc.

Biodiversity and Conservation

  • Biodiversity conservation

  • Extinction

  • Biodiversity-Concept

  • Patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity, etc.

Environmental Issues

  • Agrochemicals and their effectS

  • Solid waste management

  • Greenhouse effect and climate change impact and mitigation

  • Ozone layer depletion, etc.



NCERT Syllabus for Class 12 - Biology (Practicals)



One Major Experiment


One Minor Experiment


Slide Preparation




Practical Record/Project record + Viva Voce



Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) - NCERT Syllabus for Class 12

Question: Is CBSE and NCERT different?


CBSE is a board whereas NCERT is a counsel. CBSE prescribes the books published by NCERT.

Question: What are the passing marks in CBSE class 12?


Passing marks in CBSE class 12 are 33%.

Question: What is the ideal time to revise for CBSE class 12?


Ideally you have to start your revision at least two months before the  examination.

Question: Is NCERT enough for the preparation of competitive examinations?


NCERT is enough for understanding the concepts. For practice purpose you need to refer to other books as well.

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