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NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 13 Notes Hydrocarbons - Download PDF

NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 13 Notes Hydrocarbons - Download PDF

Edited By Sumit Saini | Updated on Apr 09, 2024 03:00 PM IST

NCERT Class 11 Chemistry chapter 13 notes based on recognising the structure and IUPAC names of hydrocarbons also how they are prepared. The chapter Hydrocarbons Class 11 notes also differentiate the conformations of ethane and also the application of hydrocarbons. The provided Ch 13 chemistry class 11 notes makes prediction easier to find the additional products of alkenes and alkynes which are unsymmetrical.

Introductory Part may include: The NCERT Class 11 chapter 13 notes structure of benzene, electrophilic substitution and carcinogenicity are the highlighting key feature of Hydrocarbons 11th Notes. Ch 13 chemistry class 11 notes also covers the basic equations as well as the substitution reactions which includes some name reactions, and points to be ponder such as aromaticity, Huckle’s rule, Preparation of benzene which is required for the deep knowledge to score good in the examination purposes. All these topics are available easily and can be downloaded from Class 11 Chemistry chapter 13 notes pdf download.

Also, students can refer,

NCERT Class 11 Chapter 13 Notes

Discussing the Main Terms Related to Hydrocarbon:

  • Hydrocarbon:

Compounds formed with the help of carbon and hydrogen are known as Hydrocarbons.

  • Saturated hydrocarbon:

Saturated hydrocarbons are those which contains single bond in between two carbon atoms. Example: methane

  • Unsaturated hydrocarbon:

The hydrocarbon with double or triple bonds other than single bond is so called unsaturated hydrocarbons. Example: ethyne, ethene.

  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon:

The aromatic hydrocarbon is defined as compounds of benzene and their derivatives.

Example: Benzene and Aniline.

  • Alicyclic compounds:

The cyclic ring only consisting of carbon atoms are called alicyclic compounds.


  • Heterocyclic compounds:

The cyclic ring of such compound is composed of carbon as well as other than carbon atom.


  • Alkanes:

Simplest form of organic compound that are made up of carbon and hydrogen. Carbon atoms are made up of single bond; covalent. As the chain of carbon is composed of single bonds only so they are fully saturated hydrocarbons. This class of alkanes are chemically inert in nature, so they are called paraffins.


Guidelines for Writing Names (Nomenclature):

We proceed further with steps to understand the IUPAC nomenclature or how to write structural formula of different hydrocarbons.

Step1. First to identify the longest chain among all the carbon.

Step2. In the second step give number to the selected chain. Try to give the number from left to right. As this should also be in mind that lowest numbers attached to alkyl group comes first.

Step3. Identifying the alkyl group attached to main chain.

Step4. Finally writing the IUPAC names.

Newman Projections:


Relative stability of conformations:

The two forms, which decides the stability and energy of the molecule. When the alkane(ethane) is present in staggered form than, maximum repulsion occur, which creates minimum energy and maximum in stability. Whereas in eclipsed form of ethane the stability reduces as the electrons of carbon cloud and hydrogen clouds come closer and it posses more energy than staggered form, thus the stability in this form reduces.

  • Alkenes:

The carbon that contains double bond in it are alkene with general formula CnH2n.

Points to remember while writing the formula for alkenes:

  1. Two bonds are present here in alkenes in which one is sigma and other is pi bond.

  2. The availability of number of electrons in alkenes are higher so they are more reactive than alkanes.

Nomenclature for alkenes:

For writing the names of alkenes the same steps should be followed up which we studied in the earlier sections of nomenclature, where the parent or main chain is the longest one and indication of number started from one end.

If in case in one chain two or more double bonds are present than diene suffix should be used for it.


Basically, we go through with different types of isomerism, some of them are listed below.


  1. Structural Isomerism:


  1. Geometrical Isomerism:


  • Alkynes:

Alkynes are the chain of carbon having triple bonds with general formulaCnH2n-2.

Important member of alkyne group of hydrocarbon is acetylene.

Points to remember while writing the formula for alkenes:

  1. In this triple bond two of them are pi bonds and one is sigma bond.

  2. Similar to alkenes, the pi electrons are found more, so they will go in addition reaction.

Nomenclature for Alkynes:

For writing the names of alkenes the same steps should be followed up which we studied in the earlier sections of nomenclature, where the parent or main chain is the longest one and indication of number started from one end.

While writing the names of alkyne hydrocarbon we use suffix as yne and first numbering the carbon which is attached to triple bond.

Preparation of alkynes:

From calcium carbide: By treating calcium carbide with water formation of ethyne can be possible.

From vicinal dihalides: Dehydrohalogenation occur alcoholic potassium


Aromatic Hydrocarbons:

The important feature of aromatic hydrocarbon is that most of the compounds containing the benzene ring and are also called arenes. The compounds having benzene rings are called benzenoids and those who have to benzene ring in their structure are termed as non-benzenoids.


Above mentioned are the examples of Hydrocarbon.

Nomenclature of aromatic compounds:

The common names as according to IUPAC is accepted for naming the benzene and its homologous.

Structure of benzene:

The molecular formula of writing benzene is C6H6, and are highly unsaturated compounds.

According to Kekule’s , he had given benzene structure in the year1865, in that he showed single and double bonds are present on alternate positions in the ring.

He also gave that benzene ring would present in two forms.

Failure’s of Kekule’s benzene ring:

He wont able to explain how the stability of benzene ring can be achieved and also why the substitution reactions are preferred than addition reactions.

Resonance structure:

Resonance is defined as the where we can make two or more structures for the same compound and the atoms in that are also identical such structure is termed as Resonance structure.

Below showing you the resonance structure of benzene.

Orbital structure:

S-orbitals of hydrogen atom in Benzene ring form sigma bonds with carbon in condition of overlapping of hybrid orbitals.

Important points to remember:

  • Benzene is found as planar in structure and this can be detected by the technique called X-ray diffractions.

  • The bond length of carbon-carbon (139) which is intermediated between C-C of bond length(133pm) and C-C of bond length (154) is of same bond order. So, under normal benzene will go for addition reactions, which is the unusual behaviour of benzene.



This is the property of sp2 hybridized planar rings, where p orbitals allow cyclic delocalization of pi electrons.

Huckle’s Rule:

When cyclic pi electron cloud overlap, with p orbitals which contains(4n+2) pi electrons, such rule is termed as Huckle rule. Here n denotes the positive integer and 0.

Preparation of Benzene using different methods and compounds:

  • It can be prepared commercially by isolating coal tar.

  • There are some of the synthetic methods through which we can prepare the benzene.

  • The synthetic methods are listed below:

Physical Properties:

  • Colourless liquid.

  • Insoluble in water.

  • Soluble in alcohol, ether, etc.

  • Good solvent for organic and inorganic substances.

  • Sooty flame with blue in colour.

Chemical Properties:

  • To show the chemical properties of benzene it must go through some reactions.

  • Addition reaction

  • Electrophilic substitution reaction

  • Synthetic Methods:


Electrophilic Substitution Reactions is as Follows:


Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Reaction:


Mechanism Related with Electrophilic Substitution Reaction:


Steps included in the mechanism of electrophilic substitution reactions:

Step1: In the first step formation of electrophile occur.

Step2: To form the carbonium ion electrophile needs to attack on aromatic ring.

Step3: Loss in number of proton gives us the substitution product.

Carcinogenicity and Toxicity:

Some of the polynuclear hydrocarbons contains benzene rings more than two in its chain, and when they fused together they produce property which creates cancer.

They are formed by the incomplete combustion of tobacco, coal, etc.

Examples are as follows:


Activating Groups and Deactivating Groups:

The activating groups are those who activate the benzene ring to attack with the help of an electrophile.

Deactivating groups are those who due to strong -I effect are formed which decreases the overall density and makes substitution difficult.


Meta-Directing Groups:

These are the groups who helps to direct the incoming group to meta position are termed as meta-directing groups.


Significance of NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 13 Notes

Hydrocarbons Class 11 notes, will be helpful in revising the chapter and to cover the main topics more precisely and conveniently. The chemistry class 11 chapter 13 notes pdf helps to understand the nomenclature and structures of different compounds. Hydrocarbons Class 11 notes guide is a perfect guide to help to get a good score in CBSE board examination and to prepare offline. chemistry class 11 chapter 13 notes pdf contain the structure of different types of aromatic compounds, their reactions (electrophilic substitution, addition) and also the properties.

NCERT Class 11 Notes Chapter-Wise

Subject Wise NCERT Exemplar Solutions

Subject Wise NCERT Solutions

Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

1. In Class 11 Chemistry chapter 13, we studied about alkene so how will we separate propene from propyne?

When propyne reacts with ammoniacal mixture.

2. To distinguish between ethene and ethyne in Class 11 Chemistry chapter 13 which two reagents were used?

CuCl solution and ammoniacal 

3. In states of matter Class 11 notes, we studied the properties than how the branching of alkane effects the boiling point?

It will decreases the boiling point.

4. According to NCERT notes for Class 11 Chemistry chapter 13, what are two industrial sources where hydrocarbons are used?



These topics can also be downloaded from Hydrocarbons class 11 notes pdf download.


Get answers from students and experts

A block of mass 0.50 kg is moving with a speed of 2.00 ms-1 on a smooth surface. It strikes another mass of 1.00 kg and then they move together as a single body. The energy loss during the collision is

Option 1)

0.34\; J

Option 2)

0.16\; J

Option 3)

1.00\; J

Option 4)

0.67\; J

A person trying to lose weight by burning fat lifts a mass of 10 kg upto a height of 1 m 1000 times.  Assume that the potential energy lost each time he lowers the mass is dissipated.  How much fat will he use up considering the work done only when the weight is lifted up ?  Fat supplies 3.8×107 J of energy per kg which is converted to mechanical energy with a 20% efficiency rate.  Take g = 9.8 ms−2 :

Option 1)

2.45×10−3 kg

Option 2)

 6.45×10−3 kg

Option 3)

 9.89×10−3 kg

Option 4)

12.89×10−3 kg


An athlete in the olympic games covers a distance of 100 m in 10 s. His kinetic energy can be estimated to be in the range

Option 1)

2,000 \; J - 5,000\; J

Option 2)

200 \, \, J - 500 \, \, J

Option 3)

2\times 10^{5}J-3\times 10^{5}J

Option 4)

20,000 \, \, J - 50,000 \, \, J

A particle is projected at 600   to the horizontal with a kinetic energy K. The kinetic energy at the highest point

Option 1)


Option 2)

\; K\;

Option 3)


Option 4)


In the reaction,

2Al_{(s)}+6HCL_{(aq)}\rightarrow 2Al^{3+}\, _{(aq)}+6Cl^{-}\, _{(aq)}+3H_{2(g)}

Option 1)

11.2\, L\, H_{2(g)}  at STP  is produced for every mole HCL_{(aq)}  consumed

Option 2)

6L\, HCl_{(aq)}  is consumed for ever 3L\, H_{2(g)}      produced

Option 3)

33.6 L\, H_{2(g)} is produced regardless of temperature and pressure for every mole Al that reacts

Option 4)

67.2\, L\, H_{2(g)} at STP is produced for every mole Al that reacts .

How many moles of magnesium phosphate, Mg_{3}(PO_{4})_{2} will contain 0.25 mole of oxygen atoms?

Option 1)


Option 2)

3.125 × 10-2

Option 3)

1.25 × 10-2

Option 4)

2.5 × 10-2

If we consider that 1/6, in place of 1/12, mass of carbon atom is taken to be the relative atomic mass unit, the mass of one mole of a substance will

Option 1)

decrease twice

Option 2)

increase two fold

Option 3)

remain unchanged

Option 4)

be a function of the molecular mass of the substance.

With increase of temperature, which of these changes?

Option 1)


Option 2)

Weight fraction of solute

Option 3)

Fraction of solute present in water

Option 4)

Mole fraction.

Number of atoms in 558.5 gram Fe (at. wt.of Fe = 55.85 g mol-1) is

Option 1)

twice that in 60 g carbon

Option 2)

6.023 × 1022

Option 3)

half that in 8 g He

Option 4)

558.5 × 6.023 × 1023

A pulley of radius 2 m is rotated about its axis by a force F = (20t - 5t2) newton (where t is measured in seconds) applied tangentially. If the moment of inertia of the pulley about its axis of rotation is 10 kg m2 , the number of rotations made by the pulley before its direction of motion if reversed, is

Option 1)

less than 3

Option 2)

more than 3 but less than 6

Option 3)

more than 6 but less than 9

Option 4)

more than 9

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