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CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2024 - Download Syllabus PDF

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2024 - Download Syllabus PDF

Edited By Dinesh Goyal | Updated on May 23, 2024 06:50 PM IST

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2025 - The Central Board Of Secondary Education has released the latest Class 12 physics syllabus for CBSE board exams 2024-25. The revised syllabus of physics class 12 CBSE can be downloaded for theory and practical sections. Students should refer to the most recent CBSE 12th physics syllabus 2025 for upcoming CBSE board exams or competitive exams preparation.

Subject matter specialists have created this CBSE Class 12 Physics syllabus taking into account the comprehensive ability and aptitude of the students of the 12th class. The CBSE syllabus for class 12 Physics 2025 lists topics, marks distribution, and practical exam lists. Through the same, students can identify the topics and sub-topics they need to prepare for CBSE Class 12th exam. Discover a thorough syllabus for theory and practicals for CBSE Class 12 Physics 2024-25 in the sections below.

How to download CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2025?

Download the CBSE 12th Class Physics Syllabus 2025 by following the steps provided below:

  • Visit the download web page for the CBSE 12th Physics syllabus by clicking the aforementioned link.

  • Click the "Free Download" option and log in or register as required.

  • It will open a pdf file.

  • Download and save it for later use.

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Unit-wise CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2025

The CBSE syllabus for Class 12 Physics consists of 9 units. The Physics paper has a duration of 3 hours and carries 70 marks. Students should practise previous question papers based on the syllabus to score well in the exam. The NCERT Class 12 physics solution will help in understanding the real problems. To learn about the unit-by-unit CBSE 12th Physics syllabus and the marks awarded for the exam, see the table provided.

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2025 (Theory)

Unit No. and Name

Chapter/s Name

Marks

1. Electrostatics

Electric Charges and Fields

Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

16

2. Current Electricity

Current Electricity

3. Magnetic Effect of Current & Magnetism

Moving Charges and Magnetism

Magnetism and Matter

17

4. Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Currents

Electromagnetic Induction

Alternating Currents

5. Electromagnetic Waves

Electromagnetic Waves

18

6. Optics

Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Wave Optics

7. Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

12

8. Atoms and Nuclei

Atoms

Nuclei

9. Electronic Devices

Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

7

Total


70

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Students can also use this syllabus to prepare for competitive exams since it is a significant component of the NEET 2024-25 syllabus and JEE Main 2024-25 syllabus

CBSE Class 12 Physics Practical Exam Pattern 2025

Particular

Marks in 2025

Two experiments, one from each section

7+7

Practical record [experiments and activities]

5

One activity from any section

3

Investigatory Project

3

Viva on experiments, activities and project

5

Total

30

Related Subjects:

Chapters Included in CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2025

The table incorporates the names of all the chapters that are included in the CBSE 12th Physics syllabus 2024-25. Refer to the table and start with a strategic exam preparation allocating time effectively for each topic.

CBSE 12th Physics Chapters Included in Syllabus 2025

S. No.

Chapters

1.

Electric Charges and Fields

2.

Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

3.

Current Electricity

4.

Moving Charges and Magnetism

5.

Magnetism and Matter

6.

Electromagnetic Induction

7.

Alternating Current

8.

Electromagnetic Waves

9.

Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

10.

Wave Optics

11.

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

12.

Atoms

13.

Nuclei

14.

Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

Detailed CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2025

To help students prepare, we have included essential topics chapter-wise. The table below provides the entire CBSE syllabus for Class 12 Physics 2024-25.

Detailed CBSE Class 12 Syllabus for Physics 2025

Chapters

Important Topics

Electric Charges and Fields

Electric charges, Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two-point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor (no derivation, formulae only).

Current Electricity

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm's law, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity, temperature dependence of resistance, Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff's rules, Wheatstone bridge.

Moving Charges and Magnetism

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment. Biot-Savart law and its application to the current carrying circular loop. Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight solenoid (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Magnetism and Matter

Bar magnet, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid (qualitative treatment only), magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis (qualitative treatment only), torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field (qualitative treatment only), magnetic field lines. Magnetic properties of materials- Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances with examples, Magnetization of materials, effect of temperature on magnetic properties.

Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's laws, induced EMF and current; Lenz's Law, Self and mutual induction.

Alternating Current

Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit (phasors only), resonance, power in AC circuits, power factor, wattless current. AC generator, Transformer

Electromagnetic Waves

Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their transverse nature (qualitative idea only). Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light, total internal reflection and optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens maker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism. Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Wave Optics

Wave front and Huygen’s principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width (No derivation final expression only), coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maxima (qualitative treatment only).

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. Experimental study of photoelectric effect Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation.

Atoms

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model of hydrogen atom, Expression for radius of nth possible orbit, velocity and energy of electron in his orbit, of hydrogen line spectra (qualitative treatment only).

Nuclei

Composition and size of nucleus, nuclear force Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

Semiconductor Electronics

Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors- p and n type, p-n junction Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, application of junction diode -diode as a rectifier.

Check - CBSE Class 12 Date Sheet 2024

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2025 - Marking Scheme

The following table provides the CBSE class 12th Physics syllabus marking scheme. To determine the number of questions from a given kind that will be asked, students must go over the marking scheme from the CBSE Class 12 Physics syllabus 2025.

Marking Scheme for CBSE 12th Physics Syllabus 2025

Typology of Questions

Total marks

Approximate Percentage

Remembering and Understanding

27

38%

Applying

22

32%

Analysing, Evaluating and Creating

21

30%

Total

70

100%

Practical

30


Gross total

100


CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2025 for Practical

The list of practicals and activities that students must complete and the record is included in the practical syllabus. Each student must complete a minimum of 12 experiments—six from each section—and a minimum of six activities—three from each section.

SECTION–A

Experiments

1. To determine resistivity of two / three wires by plotting a graph for potential difference versus current.

2. To find resistance of a given wire / standard resistor using metre bridge.

3. To verify the laws of combination (series) of resistances using a metre bridge.

OR

To verify the laws of combination (parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge.

4. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.

5. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into a voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.

OR

To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into an ammeter of desired range and to verify the same.

6. To find the frequency of AC mains with a sonometer.

Activities

1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.

2. To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter.

3. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a fuse and a power source.

4. To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.

5. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current.

6. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery, resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.

SECTION-B

Experiments

1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and to find the focal length.

2. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.

3. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between 1/u and 1/v.

4. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.

5. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation.

6. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.

7. To find the refractive index of a liquid using convex lens and plane mirror.

8. To find the refractive index of a liquid using a concave mirror and a plane mirror.

9. To draw the I-V characteristic curve for a p-n junction diode in forward and reverse bias.

Activities

1. To identify a diode, an LED, a resistor and a capacitor from a mixed collection of such items.

2. Use of multimeter to see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED and check whether a given electronic component (e.g., diode) is in working order.

3. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an LDR.

4. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.

5. To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit.

6. To study the nature and size of the image formed by a (i) convex lens, or (ii) concave mirror, on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror).

7. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses.

Suggested Investigatory Projects

1. To study various factors on which the internal resistance/EMF of a cell depends.

2. To study the variations in current flowing in a circuit containing an LDR because of a variation in

(a) the power of the incandescent lamp, used to 'illuminate' the LDR (keeping all the lamps at a fixed distance).

(b) the distance of an incandescent lamp (of fixed power) used to 'illuminate' the LDR.

3. To find the refractive indices of (a) water (b) oil (transparent) using a plane mirror, an equiconvex lens (made from a glass of known refractive index) and an adjustable object needle.

4. To investigate the relation between the ratio of (i) output and input voltage and (ii) number of turns in the secondary coil and primary coil of a self-designed transformer.

5. To investigate the dependence of the angle of deviation on the angle of incidence using a hollow prism filled one by one, with different transparent fluids.

6. To estimate the charge induced on each one of the two identical Styrofoam (or pith) balls suspended in a vertical plane by making use of Coulomb's law.

7. To study the factor on which the self-inductance of a coil depends by observing the effect of this coil, when put in series with a resistor/(bulb) in a circuit fed up by an A.C. source of adjustable frequency.

8. To study the earth's magnetic field using a compass needle -bar magnet by plotting magnetic field lines and tangent galvanometer.

Best Reference Books for Class 12 CBSE Physics

The books listed below are ones that has been recommended by the CBSE board for class 12 students.

  • Physics, Class XII, Part -I and II, Published by NCERT.

  • Laboratory Manual of Physics for Class XII Published by NCERT.

  • The list of related books and manuals was brought out by NCERT (consider multimedia).

Check:

CBSE class 12 Physics Preparation Tips

Physics is a subject that many students perceive to be quite challenging, yet with consistent practice and intelligent study habits one can efficiently perform well on the Physics examination. Here are a few preparation tips for CBSE class 12th Physics:

  • Analyze the entire CBSE Class 12 Physics course syllabus for 2024-35. Identify the key sections and subjects.

  • Create a productive study schedule to finish the Class 12 Physics CBSE syllabus on time.

  • Regularly practise using all diagrams, derivations, etc.

  • Solving CBSE class 12 question papers 2025 can help you become familiar with the exam format and the kinds of questions that have been asked in the past.

  • Make it a routine to study for at least 3–4 hours each day.

  • To improve speed and accuracy, practise more with CBSE class 12 sample papers 2025

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Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

1. What is the maximum mark for the CBSE Class 12th Physics paper?

The maximum score for the paper is 100 according to the CBSE Class 12 Physics syllabus for 2025. broken down into 70 for theory and 30 for practicals.

2. Is the NCERT book sufficient to cover the CBSE Class 12 Physics syllabus 2025?

Yes, the NCERT Books for Class 12 are sufficient to cover the CBSE 12th physics curriculum. Students can also practise with other reference books to learn more.

3. Is maintaining a separate practical notebook for Physics necessary?

Yes, keeping a practical notebook is necessary. Students must submit this when they take the practical exam.

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