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Specific Heat of Water - Explanation, Formula, Unit, FAQs

Specific Heat of Water - Explanation, Formula, Unit, FAQs

Edited By Team Careers360 | Updated on Jul 11, 2022 10:48 AM IST

What is Heat Capacity?

Heat capacity, Cp, is the amount of warmth required to vary the warmth content of 1 mole of fabric by exactly 1°C.Heat may be a sort of energy, often called thermal energy. Energy is often transformed from one form to a different (a blender transforms electricity into mechanical energy), but it can't be created nor destroyed; rather, energy is conserved. In basic thermodynamics, the lower the temperature of a cloth , the more thermal energy it possesses. Additionally, at a given temperature, the more of a given substance, the more total thermal energy the fabric will possess.

On an atomic level, absorbed heat causes the atoms of a solid to vibrate, very much like if they were bonded to at least one another through springs. because the temperature is raised, the energy of the vibrations increases. during a metal, this is often the sole motion possible. During a liquid or gas, absorbed heat causes the atoms within the molecule to vibrate, and therefore the molecule to both rotate and move from place to place .The reason is there are more “storage” possibilities for energy in liquids and gases and their heat capacities are also larger than in metals.

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specific heat capacity and specific heat specific heat capacity definition

A specific heat capacity of water is defined as the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of 1 kg of material by 1 kelvin (SI unit of specific heat capacity of water J kg - 1 K-1).

Units of special heat

The amount of heat required usually to increase the temperature of given one gram of material by one degree Celsius. Heat units are usually taken as specific heat of water in calories or joules per gram per Celsius degree.

For example, the actual heat capacity of water temperature is 1 calorie (or 4,186 joules) per gram per Celsius degree.

cp = cv + R

Certain temperature conditions of constant pressure and continuous volume processes are related to the gas concentration of a given gas. This most remarkable effect is based on thermodynamic relationships, which are based on the observation of body systems and processes.

Heat capacity of water - 4.186 J/g°C

Cp value of water- 4185.5 J.K

What is specific heat of water?

The amount of warmth required to change the warmth content of exactly 1 gram of a cloth by exactly 1°C is known as specific heat of water. Specific heat of water values are often determined within the following way: When two materials, each initially at a special temperature, are placed in touch with each other , heat always flows from the hotter material into the colder material until both the materials attain an equivalent temperature. From the law of conservation of energy, the warmth gained by the initially colder material must equal the warmth lost by the initially warmer material. We know that when heat is absorbed by a substance, its temperature increases.

If an equivalent quantity of warmth is given to equal masses of various substances, it's observed that the increase in temperature for every substance is different. This is often thanks to the very fact that different substances have different heat capacities. So the heat capacity of a substance is the quantity of the warmth required to boost the temperature of the entire substance by one degree. If the mass of the substance is unity then the warmth capacity is named heat capacity or the precise heat.

What is Specific heat capacity?

Specific heat capacity Formula

Q = C m ∆t


Q = quantity of warmth absorbed by a body

m = mass of the body

∆t = Rise in temperature

C = heat capacity of a substance depends on the character of the fabric of the substance.

S.I unit of heat is J kg-1 K-1.

Specific heat of water volume unit

Heat capacity = heat x mass

Its S.I unit is J K-1.

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Specific heat of water of water

For liquid at pressure and Temperature, the worth of heat capacity (Cp) is approximately 4.2 J/g°C.

This suggests that it takes 4.2 joules of energy to boost 1 gram of water by 1 degree Centigrade . This value for Cp is really quite large. This (1 cal/g.deg) is the heat of the water as a liquid or heat capacity of liquid water.

One calorie= 4.184 joules; 1 joule= 1 kg(m)2(s)-2 = 0.239005736 calorie

The specific heat capacity of water vapor at temperature is additionally above most other materials. For water vapor at temperature and pressure, the worth of heat capacity (Cp) is approximately 1.9 J/g°C.

As with most liquids, the temperature of water increases because it absorbs heat and reduces because it releases heat. However, the temperature of liquid waterfalls & rises more slowly than most other liquids. We will say that water absorbs heat without an instantaneous rise in temperature. It also retains its temperature for much longer than other substances.

We use this property of water in our body to take care of constant blood heat . If water had a lower Csp value, then there would be tons of cases of overheating and underheating.

Specific heat of water Explanation

We can explain the rationale for the high heat of water thanks to the hydrogen bonds. so as to extend the temperature of the water with the multitude of joined hydrogen bonds, the molecules need to vibrate. Thanks to the presence of numerous hydrogen bonds, a bigger amount of energy is required to form the water molecules by vibrating them. Similarly, for decent water to chill down, it takes a touch of your time . As heat is dissipated, temperature decreases and therefore the vibrational movement of water molecules hamper . The warmth that's given off counteracts the cooling effect of the loss of warmth from the liquid water.

Specific heat of water Ratio

In thermal physics and thermodynamics, the thermal energy, also known as the adiabatic index, the ratio of certain heats, or the coefficient of Laplace, the thermal energy in chronic pressure (CP) to heat the volume at a constant volume (CV).It is also known as isentropic expansion factor. It is defined by 'γ'(gamma) for positive gas and/or 'κ'(kappa), an isentropic exponent of real gas.

The given 'γ' symbol is used by aerospace and chemical engineers. The molar heat capacity (heat capacity per mole), and c and heat energy per unit mass electricity. Annexes P and V refer to constant pressure conditions and constant volume conditions respectively. The measurement of thermal energy is important in its application to dynamic thermodynamic processes, especially those involving appropriate gases; audio speed depends on this feature.

To understand this relationship, consider the following thought test. A closed air cylinder contains air. The gun is locked. Internal pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. This cylinder is heated to a specific temperature. Since the piston cannot move, the volume does not change. Temperature and pressure will rise. When it reaches the target temperature, the heating is stopped automatically.

The amount of additional energy is equal to CV ΔT, and ΔT represents a change in temperature. The piston is now released and goes out, stopping as the pressure inside the chamber reaches the atmospheric pressure. We assume that expansion occurs without heat exchange (adiabatic expansion). To perform this function, the air inside the cylinder will cool to below the target temperature.

To get back to the specified temperature (there is still a free piston), the air should get heated, but no longer under constant volume here ,because the piston is free to move as the gas is renewed. This additional heat is up to 40% higher than the previous value added. In this example, the amount of heat added by a locked piston is equal to CV, and the value of additional heat is equal to CP.

Therefore, the average heat capacity in this example is 1.4.Another different way to understand the difference between CP and CV is that CP works only when the work is done in the given system, which also causes a change in volume (like moving the gun to compress the contents of the cylinder), or when the work is done in the system, which changes its temperature (like gas cylinder cylinder gone).

In the second case, the gas will heat up and expand, causing the piston to perform mechanical functions in space. The addition of heat to the gas is limited to the heating of the gas, and some of it is converted into a function by the piston. In the first case with a constant volume (locked piston), there is no external movement, so no work is done in space; A CV is used. In the second case, more work is done as the volume changes, so the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of the gas (certain heat energy) is higher in this case of constant pressure.

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NCERT Chemistry Notes:

Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

1. 1.How do I measure heat capacity?

Specific heat of water efficiency is measured by the number of heat energy required to spice up one gram of 1 degree Centigrade of a product. Water’s heat power is 4.2 joules per gram per Celsius degree or 1 calorie per gram per Celsius degree.

2. 2.Which are the advantages of water’s heat capacity?

Because water features a high heat capacity, increasing the temperature by one degree requires more energy.

Our sun sends out a less or even more constant energy level which heats up the sand and water faster.

3. 3.What is the difference between heat capacity and warmth capacity?

Specific heat capacity is that the warmth needed to spice up a substance’s temperature by 1 degree Centigrade . Similarly, heat capacity is the ratio between the energy provided to a substance and thus the corresponding increase in its temperature.

4. 4.Why is the warmth or heat capacity of water above metal?

This is because the metal spoon’s heat efficiency is way smaller than the soup liquid. Water has every liquid’s highest heat capacity.

5. 5.What is the SI unit of heat capacity?

The SI unit of heat capacity is expressed in units of joules per kelvin (J/K).


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