Amines - Notes, Topics, Formula, Books, FAQs
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Organic compounds containing nitrogen or amines are an important class of organic compounds formed by replacing one or more hydrogen atom of ammonia by alkyl or aryl group. They exist in nature in various forms like proteins, vitamins, hormones, etc. In the form of amino acids, these amines are very important for our body. According to the IUPAC system, the naming of the amines is done by first naming the alkyl group and then add amine in the end, for example, methylamine. Aromatic amines are named as the derivative of the simplest aromatic amine i.e, aniline, for example, 2-Bromoaniline.
In this chapter, you will study the structures of different types of amines, their preparation, physical properties, chemical reactions, etc. In real life, we see compounds of amines in bulk form but we hardly become inquisitive in their formation and chemical properties. This chapter explains all those questions. Thus in the real world, amines are largely used for many applications as follows:
- Methylamines are used for making various agricultural products such as herbicides, insecticides, miticides, etc.
- There are various kinds of amines such as MEA, DEA, DGA, and others are used in industries for removing carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide.
- Aromatic amines are used for the production of dyes.
- Amines are used in various kinds of drugs such as chlorpheniramine, ephedrine, amitriptyline, etc.
There are various other applications as well for amines which you must read carefully. This article will give you all the information regarding the amines chapter. This will help you to make your strategies in your preparation and it will also guide you in how to prepare for this chapter and the best-prescribed books.
Notes for Organic compounds Containing Nitrogen
In this section, you will study about the important topics of the chapter, overview, physical properties, chemical reactions and some important tips and guidelines for the preparation of the chapter at the best.
Important Topics - Organic compounds Containing Nitrogen
- Classification of Amines
- Preparation of Amines
- Physical Properties
- Chemical Reactions
- Diazonium Salts
Overview of the Chapter
In this chapter, there are various important topics that you must understand completely:
Structure of Amines:
In amines, the nitrogen is in sp3 hybridization with 3 sigma bonds and 1 lone pair of electrons. Amines possess the tetrahedral geometry but the bond angle in its structure is always less than 109.50 because nitrogen atom has a lone pair of electrons which reduces its bond angle.
Classification of Amines
Amines can be classified into three categories as follows, depending on the number of alkyl or aryl groups attached to the nitrogen atom:
Preparation of Amines:
Amines can be prepared from the following methods:
- Reduction of Nitro Compounds: In this reaction, the nitro compounds are reduced by the (H2 / Pd) reagent to amines.
- Reduction of Nitriles: In this reaction, nitriles are reduced to amines by another equally strong reducing agent i.e (H2 / Ni).
- Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction: In this reaction, the amide is treated with bromine in the presence of an aqueous solution of NaOH. This reaction converts amide to a primary amine with 1 carbon less than the amide.
- Lower aliphatic amines are gases with a fishy smell and higher aliphatic amines are liquid.
- Lower aliphatic amines are soluble in water because of the capability of hydrogen bonding with the water molecules.
- Amines are soluble in organic solvents as well such as alcohol, ether, and benzene, etc.
- The boiling point of amines follows this order below:
Primary > Secondary> Tertiary
- Intermolecular interaction of amines is prevalent in primary amines than in secondary amines and this interaction is absent in tertiary amines.
- Alkylation of amines: In this reaction, amines are reacted with alkyl halides as shown below in fig(). The product formed in this reaction is 10 higher amine.
- Acylation of amines: In this reaction, anhydrides are reacted with amines and the product formed in this reaction is amide.
- Carbylamine reaction: In this reaction, primary amines are reacted with chloroform in the presence of potassium hydroxide and the product formed is isocyanides as shown in the figure given below.
- Reaction with Nitrous Acid: In this reaction, amines are reacted with nitrous acid and form diazonium salt or alcohol, depending on which type of amine is reacting with nitrous acid.
How to prepare for Amines?
This chapter is part of organic chemistry. It is completely theory-based. You are not supposed to memorize any formula and numerical practice for getting the good hold on this chapter. All you just need to remember is reaction mechanisms and important reactions.
For this chapter, first, you must have your basic concepts completely clear that you can learn from the chapter- "Some basic principles of Organic Chemistry". For this, you must go through Unit 12 of the NCERT book 11th class part II thoroughly.
- In the nutshell, it can be said that although this chapter is lengthier than other chapters, it is a very simple and straightforward one. So always say a "Big YES" to this chapter.
NCERT Notes Subject wise link:
- NCERT Notes for class 12 Physics.
- NCERT Notes for class 12 Chemistry.
- NCERT Notes for class 12 Mathematics.
- NCERT Notes for class 12 Biology.
For this chapter, first, the NCERT book is best for initial level preparation as well as for board exams. Now, after this, if you want to prepare for competitive exams like JEE and NEET, then these are the best books for you - Morrison and Boyd and R.K Gupta by Arihant publication. Meanwhile, in the preparation, you must continuously give the mock tests for the depth of knowledge. Our platform will help you to provide with the variety of questions for deeper knowledge with the help of videos, articles and mock tests.
NCERT Solutions Subject wise link:
- NCERT solutions for class 12 Physics.
- NCERT solutions for class 12 Chemistry.
- NCERT solutions for class 12 Mathematics.
- NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology.
NCERT Exemplar Solutions Subject wise link:
- NCERT exemplar solutions for class 12 Physics.
- NCERT exemplar solutions for class 12 Chemistry.
- NCERT exemplar solutions for class 12 Mathematics.
- NCERT exemplar solutions for class 12 Biology.
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