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Acetone Formula - Structure, Properties, Uses, FAQs

Acetone Formula - Structure, Properties, Uses, FAQs

Edited By Team Careers360 | Updated on Nov 28, 2022 06:45 PM IST

Acetone is an explosive, transparent, and volatile liquid that is the smallest and most basic member of the ketone family. Propanone is another name for this chemical molecule. The common name of propanone is acetone.

Acetone Formula And Acetone Structure:

A chemical comprises two types of formula: chemical formula and structural formula. Chemical formulae show how the atoms inside a molecule are bound to one another, while structural formulas indicate how the atoms inside a molecule are bonded to one another.

Acetone:

Acetone is the common name of propanone. The acetone IUPAC name of acetone is Propan-2-one

What is the formula of acetone and Other Names Of Acetone?: Other names of acetone include dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, and beta-ketopropane. Three carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom make up acetone. Because it contains a carbonyl group, it is classified as a ketone. As a result, the acetone or propanone formula or molecular formula of propanone is- C3H6O and acetone structural formula or acetone molecular formula is given as CH3-CO-CH3.

Acetone/Propanone Structure:

The acetone structural formula is shown as:

(Source: Self-made using Chemdraw software)

The above diagram shows propanone structural formula

The 2D chemical structure depiction of acetone is shown as:

(Source: Self-made using Chemdraw software)

Individual bonds in the compound is represented as:

(Source: Self-made using Chemdraw Software)

The 3-dimensional structure of acetone is shown as:

(Source: Self-made using Chem3D software)

Also read :

Here the green colour represents the C atoms whereas yellow represents the hydrogen atoms and red represents Oxygen atom. In the space filling structure acetone appears to be :

(Source: Self made using Chem3D software)

(Source: Self made using Chem3D software)

Here the green colour represents the C atoms whereas yellow represents the hydrogen atoms and red represents Oxygen atom.

Propanal:

When an aldehydic group replaces the ketonic group –CO of propanone –CHO the resulting compound is called Propanal. The chemical formula of Propanal is CH₃CH₂CHO. Propanal is also called propionaldehydes and is a three-carbon aldehyde compound.

Propanal Structure:

The Propanal structure is found to be:

(Source: Self-made using Chemdraw software)

Formation And Existence Of Acetone:

Acetone is a byproduct of metabolism that occurs naturally in the body. Acetone is a breakdown product of saturated fat metabolism that can be found in plants, trees, wildfires, and automobile exhaust. This substance is generally present in extremely minute concentrations in urine and blood; however, diabetics' urine and blood may include greater amounts. In high doses, acetone is poisonous. Acetone must be kept in a jar with a tight lid because it is a highly flammable liquid which must be kept away from any stoves or fire sources. If you need to keep a significant amount of acetone, store it in a fireproof container.

Preparation of acetone:

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Preparation of acetone:

Propylene is currently used to make acetone, either directly or indirectly. During the cumene process, over 83 percent of acetone is created. There are also other earlier methods for producing acetone. The laboratory preparation of acetone is as follows:

CH3COO2Ca→CH3COCH3+CaCO3

Heat anhydrous calcium acetate with acetone to make acetone in the lab. In a retort with a water condenser and a receiver, combine the fused calcium acetate and small iron filings. When acetone embodies over and settles in the receiver, the reaction is gradually heated. When you get colored crystals, you shake the distillation with a saturated sodium thiosulfate solution to refine the acetone you get.

These crystals provide acetone an aqueous solution after distillation with a saturated sodium carbonate solution, which would be dried over anhydrous calcium chloride and redistilled to just get pure acetone.

Also read -

Cumene process of acetone preparation:

Because of its cheaper costs, the cumene route, in which acetone is coproduced with phenol, is the preferred technology; about 90% of acetone is made this way. The reaction of propylene with benzene in the presence of phosphoric acid-based catalysts or, more recently, zeolite catalysts is the major technique for production. Cumene is oxidized to cumene hydroperoxide in the liquid phase, which is then split into phenol and acetone in the presence of sulphuric acid. For every ton of phenol, 0.62 tons of acetone is generated.

Properties of acetone:

  1. Acetone is a colorless, transparent liquid with a sweet taste odour.

  2. The molecular weight or the molecular mass of acetone is found to be 58.08g/mol.

  3. The boiling point of acetone is estimated to be 56 °C.

  4. The melting point of acetone is -94.7°C.

  5. Acetone has a density of 784 g/cm3.

  6. 0°F is the flash point of acetone.

  7. It has a lower density than water.

  8. Vapors have a higher density than air.

Precautions that should be taken for working with acetone: If not handled properly, acetone can be life-threatening. You can create a safe atmosphere for yourself and others by taking a few easy actions. When working with acetone, you must follow these steps:

  1. Make sure you're shielded and wearing chemical safety eyewear.

  2. Avoid extended exposure by using chemical-resistant clothing such as gloves, boots, and aprons.

  3. Make that the area is safe.

  4. Ascertain that the area is well ventilated.

  5. Ensure the area is dried enough to prevent the liquid from soaking into the surface.

Use of acetone:

  1. It is a colorless liquid used during the production of plastics and other industrial products
  2. Acetone can also be used in a limited number of domestic products, such as cosmetics and personal care items
  3. It is being in the formulation of nail polishes.
  4. To produce a variety of substances, including chloroform, sulphonal (a hypnotic), an artificial smell, cordite (a smokeless powder), and so on.

  5. Essential oils are extracted using this.

  6. To clean the glass apparatus, use as a solvent.

  7. As a cleaning agent for removing tough greases from fabrics to automotive engines and other motor vehicles.

Acetone's Industrial Applications:

  • Acetone is used to make acetylene, cellulose acetate, cellulose nitrate, celluloid, varnishes, and lacquers, among other things.

  • It is used in the petroleum industry to improve the efficiency of natural gas fuel.

  • To remove oil from the water's surface in the event of an accident spill, protecting marine life that would otherwise perish due to oxygen loss.

Also check-

Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

1. What is the molecular formula of propan-2-one?

The molecular formula of propan-2-one is CH3COCH3

2. What is the formula of acetone?

Propanone is commonly known as Acetone. It is also known as dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, and beta-ketopropane

3. What is the chemical name for acetone?

Acetone (CH3COCH3), also referred to as propanone or dimethyl ketone, is one of the most basic and significant industrial, chemically significant organic solvents and aliphatic (fat-derived) ketones.

4. Which is the functional group present in acetone?

Acetone is the lowest member of the ketone family with the functional group C=O.

5. Is acetone heavier than water?

Even though acetone is a liquid at room temperature, it has a lower density than 1 g/mL of water. Acetone has a density of 0.788g/mL at room temperature. This indicates that each millilitre of the liquid contains 0.788 grams of mass.

6. Why is acetone soluble in water?

Polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents, and nonpolar solutes dissolve in nonpolar solvents, according to the "like dissolves like" principle. Acetone is soluble in water because both acetone and water are polar. Because of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding that occurs between the polar carbonyl group and the water molecules, acetone is also soluble in water.

7. What intermolecular attractions exist between acetone molecules?

Polar molecules include acetone. A dipole moment will exist. Acetone molecules will consequently show interactions between dipoles.

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