Chemistry - Definition, Types, Facts, Chapters, FAQs
What is Chemistry?
Chemistry is a sub-discipline of science which deals with the study of the elements and properties of matter. It also deals with the architecture of these things and the response they have made to creating new things. Basic chemistry focuses on the atoms, ions, and molecules that make up matter. These types of chemistry often come together on their own through chemical bonds. It is important to note that the interaction between an object and a force is also studied in the field of chemistry.
Chemistry is a branch of science on the subject matter; checking their properties and responses, and using such feedback to construct inventions.
The five main branches of chemistry are physical chemistry, organic chemistry, unconventional chemistry, analytical chemistry, and biochemistry.
There are several specialized chemical fields dealing with disciplinary matters. Other such examples include medical chemistry, neurochemistry, building chemistry, chemical chemistry, natural chemistry, polymer chemistry, and thermochemistry.
Organic chemistry: Organic chemistry is the study of structure and structure, composition, reaction along with the preparation of carbon-containing chemicals. Most of the organic chemicals contain carbon and even hydrogen, but they may contain any amount of other substances like nitrogen, silicon, oxygen, phosphorus, halogen, and sulfur.
Inorganic Chemistry: In chemistry, an inorganic compound is usually a chemical compound with no carbon-hydrogen bonds, i.e., a non-organic compound. However, the differences are not well defined; authorities have differing views on the matter.
Physical chemistry: Physical chemistry is macroscopic research, as well as particles in chemical systems according to the principles, practices, and physics concepts such as movement, energy, energy, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, mathematical equipment, analytical power and chemical equilibrium.
Therefore, chemistry can be considered a central science with its roots derived from several other scientific disciplines.
Also read -
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Examples of Chemistry in our daily lives
Chemical reactions are common in our area. The human body supplies thousands of chemicals daily. From digestion to muscle movement - all bodily actions involve chemical reactions. A few other examples of chemicals in everyday life are listed below.
The process of photosynthesis, by which plants convert water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide into sugars and oxygen, is a chemical reaction. This process is the basis on which the entire food chemistry chain is based.
Soaps and detergents used for hygiene use a chemical process known as emulsification. They are produced using a chemical process known as saponification.
Even sunscreen used by humans for protection against harmful UV-A and UV-B rays is based on chemistry. These lotions and creams contain a combination of inorganic and biological chemicals that can filter or block incoming ultraviolet radiation.
Importance of Chemistry:
Chemistry may be a vital branch of science. Chemistry is the study of science that deals with constituents of matter like atoms, molecules, ions etc.; and its properties, structure, behavior, and interactions among them. Since everything is made from atoms and molecules, we'll see Chemistry all around us. Today, chemistry has grown into a very diverse field. there's an enormous overlap between chemistry and other branches of science, as an example, biochemistry (Chemistry and biology), chemistry (chemistry and physics), medicinal chemistry (medicine and chemistry ), chemical engineering ( chemistry and engineering) etc.
The only two existing non-silver metals are gold and copper.
Lightning strikes produce ozone.
There is no phosphorus in matches.
Carbon atoms found in graphite can absorb high amounts of kinetic energy.
Unlike all metals, water expands when it freezes.
Glass is a liquid; it just flows slowly.
Glow sticks are a basic catalyst and dye mixed when broken or cracked.
Soaps consist of fatty acid carboxylates when made.
List of Chemistry Chapters:
Some Basic Concepts in Chemistry: Chemistry is the branch of science that deals with the properties, composition, and structure of elements and compounds; how they can change, and the energy that is released or absorbed when they change. Chemistry science deals with the composition, structure and properties of matter. These aspects can be best described and understood regarding the basic constituents of matter: atoms and molecules. That is why it is called the science of atoms and molecules.
Atomic Structure: Atomic structure consists of mass and mass number. The numbers are often defined because the protons present within the nucleus, which may be denoted by the symbol Z. The mass of a component is extremely small because atoms are extremely small. Today we've sophisticated techniques, i.e., spectroscopy to determine the mass of atoms.
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure: Chemical bonding consists of the formation of ionic and electrovalent bonds. The electrovalent bond meaning is that the electrostatic force of attraction that holds two oppositely charged ions together. The entire transfer of 1 or more electrons from one atom to the opposite forms a chemical link between the two atoms, causing the atoms to accumulate their closest noble gas configuration. Electrons are transported from atoms of 1 element to atoms of another, leading to positive and negative ions. Electrovalent bonds, also called ionic bonds, are produced when electrons are transferred between atoms.
Chemical Thermodynamics: Chemical thermodynamics is the study of how heat and work relate to each other, both in changes of state and in chemical reactions. Chemical thermodynamics is additionally concerned with four particular quantities: internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy.
Solutions: The molecules of various species in a perfect solution are often distinguished; but unlike the molecules in a perfect gas, the molecules in a perfect solution exert force on each other.. Ideal solutions are essentially homogeneous solutions during which the interactions between molecules of component solvents are equivalent to those between molecules of the components themselves.
Equilibrium: Equilibrium is a state of chemical reaction where the rate of forward and backward reaction is the same. Moreover, equilibrium can be of two types: homogeneous equilibrium and heterogeneous equilibrium. The main difference between the two equilibrium constants is that they are used for different concentrations.
Electrochemistry (Electrochemical cell theory): An energy cell is a machine that can generate electricity from the chemical reactions that occur in it, or use the electrical energy given to it to make chemical reactions in it. Different types of cells and the reactions inside it are discussed here.
s - Block Elements: Group 1 and a couple of Elements- Configuration and general physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the primary element of every group, are discussed. Preparation and properties of some important compounds like washing soda, caustic soda and sodium hydrogen carbonate and their applications are listed in this chapter.
p- Block Elements: The element during which the last electron enters the outermost p-subshell is understood as a p-block element. These elements start with13th group and end with the 18th. p-block elements are lustrous and are usually good conductors of electricity and warmth . During a p-block element like gallium, you will find several astonishing properties of the elements. Silicon is additionally a key component of glass, making it one of the foremost important metalloids within the p-block group.
d - and f - Block Elements: The d-block of the periodic table contains the elements of the groups 3 to 12 in which the d-orbitals are progressively filled in each of the four long periods. The f-block consists of elements in which 4f along with 5f orbitals are progressively filled. They are placed in a separate panel at the bottom of the periodic table.
Coordination Compounds: Transitional elements/metals (mainly the d-block elements) in chemistry produce a huge number of complex compounds during which metal atoms are bonded to numerous anions (negatively charged ions) or neutral molecules. Coordination compounds, per today's definition, are such compounds. The coordination number is one among the foremost basic notions in complex Chemistry.
Hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbons comes under organic compounds whose only components are carbon and hydrogen. A saturated carbon compound may be a hydrocarbon during which all of its carbon atoms are bonded to a minimum of four other atoms and are 'saturated,' implying that the compound contains no carbon-carbon multiple bonds
Organic Compounds Containing Halogens: Halogen atoms contain the compound which is employed as the solvent specially for the relatively non-polar compound. These also are used as initiating materials for the synthesis of a good range of organic compounds. If the halogen atom derivative, that is, chemical haloalkanes and haloarenes also are commercially important as dry-cleaning agents, refrigerants, drugs, and therefore, the haloalkane are utilized in insecticides.
Organic Compounds Containing Haloarenes: When one or quite one atom of a hydrocarbon is substituted by the respective number of halogen atoms and therefore, the major product formed from the reaction is named haloarenes. The overall formula for haloarene's meaning is given by Ar-X, where Ar is aryl group, and X is halogen i.e., F, Br, Cl, I. Aromatic hydrocarbons are called arenes. Also, haloarenes contain halo alkane atoms attached to sp2 hybridized carbon atoms.
Polymers: General introduction to polymer also because of the classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization-addition and condensation, copolymerization. Natural and artificial rubber and vulcanization; some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses - polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.
List of Some Important Chemistry topics:
In the above mentioned chapters there are several important topics. All the topics are conceptually important to understand the subject. From an exam point of view, the topics depend on the type of exams. A few general basic topics are listed below
The above listed are a few important basic concepts of chemistry. Along with these there are a lot of topics. If you consider numerical problems then the topics from physical chemistry are important. Equally, all the three branches (inorganic, organic and physical chemistry) of chemistry are important for both board exams and competitive exams.
NCERT Notes Link:
- NCERT Exemplar Class 11th Chemistry Solutions
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Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) - Chemistry - Definition, Types, Facts, Chapters, FAQs
Question: What compound is known as "Blue Vitriol"?
Blue vitriol is also known as blue copperas. The word vitriol blue has a strong and clear meaning. Copper sulfate and chemical formula CuSO4.5H2O. The chemical name for vitriol blue is Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate. This salt occurs in the form of a deep rhomboidal prism of deep blue color, with an overly complex taste and done in style.
Similarly, "Green Vitriol" refers to Ferrous Sulphate.
Question: What is the significance of organic chemistry topics?
Organic chemistry is simply the study of carbon dioxide. Organic chemistry is important because it is the study of life and all life-related chemical reactions. Organic chemistry initially involves the study of chemicals that can be found in living things.
About 7 million organic compounds are currently known while only 1.5 million compounds are known. This large number of organic compounds emanate from the unique carbon field.
Question: What are the major branches of chemistry?
Chemistry is the science that studies the atoms and molecules and their structures. Everything is basically made up of atoms and also molecules. There are basically five major branches of chemistry, namely.
Question: What is an acid called "Kingly Water" and why?
Aqua Regia is Kings Water; this is because it has enough power to dissolve gold - the king of metals. It is prepared by mixing three parts hydrochloric acid and one part nitric acid, but in the old days it was prepared for mixing and roasting salt. For example, we can mix two parts niter and one part Sal. Ammonia and distilled at high temperatures from Aqua Regia.
"Sulfuric acid" is also called the king of acids and "Nitric acid" is known as the Queen of acids.
Question: What is chemical modification? Is egg cooking a chemical change?
There are changes around us such as sugar dissolving in water, the lake freezing in winter etc. One change is what chemistry scientists call chemical reactions, and others are not. Chemical changes occur when new products are made that are different from what we started with.
Cooking eggs, for example, are an example of a chemical change; egg white and egg yolk change from liquid to solid. Heat makes the egg protein stronger.
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