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Anions and Cations Difference - Meaning, Example, Types, Uses, FAQs

Anions and Cations Difference - Meaning, Example, Types, Uses, FAQs

Edited By Team Careers360 | Updated on Nov 24, 2022 06:16 PM IST

After a suggestion by English polymath and scientist William Whewell, English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday coined the name "ion" in 1834. This phrase was coined by Michael Faraday to describe species that from one electrode to another across an aqueous medium. Faraday and Whewell also coined the names "anion" and "cation."

When solid crystalline salts are dissolved, they dissociate into paired charged particles, according to Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius. In 1903, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this work.

What Do you mean by an ION?

What is an Ion? Ions are a type of entities that is studied in science. Chemistry is made up of atoms and electrons that have gained or lost weight as a result of the removal or addition of one or more valence electrons, resulting in a positive or negative charge. Negative charge-bearing ions are known as anions, whereas positive charge-bearing ions are known as cations. Due to the fact that they both have charges of opposing characteristics, they are attracted to one another and create an ionic connection.

The word ion comes from the Greek word ἰόv,, which means "to travel." Ions are electrically charged particles. An ion is an atom or molecule with a positive electrical charge. Because the number of electrons and protons in an atom is equal, they have no charge and are neutral in nature. While the amount of protons in ions is identical, the number of electrons is unequal. As a result, they are either positive or negative ions.

Examples of ions include Na+, O-2, NH4+, OH-, and others.

Polyatomic ions are a group of elements or atoms that are covalently connected but have either a positive or negative charge. Polyatomic ions include CN-, OH-, NH4+, NO3-, CO3-2, and others. Monoatomic ions are ions that have only one element and have either a positive or negative charge. Examine Na+, O-2, Al+3, Ce+3, and so on.

What is a Cation?

Cation meaning: The ions with a positive charge are referred to as cations. Examples of Cations include Na+, Al+3, Ce+3, and so on. When an atom loses an electron, it obtains a positive charge because its nucleus has fewer electrons than protons. The positively charged species is then referred to as a cation. Faraday and Whewell coined the phrase. It is derived from the Greek words (káto) ἰόv,, (kation), both of which indicate “going down”.

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What is an Anion?

Anion meaning: The ions with a negative charge are known as anions. Examples of Anions include O-2, CN-, OH-, Cl-, and others. When an atom gains electrons to achieve stability, it acquires a negative charge because its nucleus contains more electrons than protons. This negatively charged species is therefore referred to as an anion charge. Faraday and Whewell coined the phrase. It comes from the Greek word ἄvω ἰόv (anion) meaning “going up” Positive ions are called anion.

Anion

The given figure represents the membrane potential of ions Na+ and K+ represents the positively charged cations while Cl- represents the negatively charged anion.

Cation vs Anion

Positively charged ions are known as cations. Negatively charged ions are known as anions. Ions are positively or negatively charged atoms or molecules. A balanced atom will become a positively charged cation if one or more electrons are lost.

How to use Cation vs Anion-Remember that cations are positive ions, meaning they have lost one or more electrons and hence have more protons than electrons. Anions are negatively charged ions because they have acquired one or more electrons and so have more electrons than protons(cation vs anion).

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Difference Between Cations and Anions:

The Major Difference Between an Anion and a Cation in Terms of Charge, Nature of the Element, and the Electrode are given as:

Basis

Anions

Cations

Definition

An anion as an atom or molecule that is negatively charged.

A cation may be defined as an atom or molecule that is positively charged.

Charge Type

Negative

Positive

Type of Element

Non-Metal

Metal

Type of Electrode used

Anode

Cathode

Examples

Sulfide, Oxide, Fluoride, Chloride

Iron, Lead, Sodium

The above table shows the difference between cation and anion(cation vs anion).

Anions and Cation can be Distinguished from one Another as:

S.No

CATION

ANION


A cation is an ion or a charged particle with a positive charge

An anion is an ion or a charged particle with a negative charge.


The word cation comes from the Greek word (káto) (kation), which meaning "to go down."


The word anion comes from the Greek word ἰόv (anion), which meaning "to rise."


The number of protons in cations is greater than the number of electrons

The number of electrons in anions is greater than the number of protons.




Metals, in general, create cations.


Non-metals, in general, form anions.



In electrolysis, cations are drawn to the negatively charged electrode.

In electrolysis, anions are drawn to the positively charged electrode.




Anions are larger than cations, whereas cations are smaller.


Anions are often larger than cations in size.



Cations gain electrons and become neutral atoms or molecules as a result.


Anions lose their electrons and become neutral atoms or molecules.



Ionic compounds are formed when cations and anions create electrostatic or ionic connections

Ionic compounds are formed when anions create electrostatic or ionic connections with cations


Cations include Na+, Mg+2, Ca+2, Fe+3, and so on.


Aniomers include O-2, Cl-, Br-, and others.

NCERT Chemistry Notes :

Uses of Cations and Anions:

In our daily lives, cations play a crucial function. Blood pressure regulation and muscular contraction are both dependent on sodium, potassium, and magnesium ions. The calcium ion is a crucial component of bone structure. Water softeners can use sodium ions to eliminate other hazardous elements.

Anions are negatively charged ions that are generated when electrons outnumber protons in atoms or molecules. Anions and cations frequently interact to form salts, which are essential in the human body. From hormone production to DNA construction, these particles are involved in a variety of important biological activities.

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Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

1. What are cations and cation is positive or negative?

The ions with a positive charge are referred to as cations.  Cation example include Na+, Al+3, Ce+3 and so on. When an atom loses an electron, it obtains a positive charge because its nucleus has fewer electrons than protons. The positively charged species is then referred to as a cation.

2. How are anions different from cations in terms of size?

Anions are larger than cations, whereas cations are smaller.

3. Give examples for anions and cations ?

Examples of Cations include Na+,Al+3, Ce

 Examples of Anions include O-2, CN-, OH-, Cl-

4. Where does the word anion comes from and anion is positive or negative?

The word anion comes from the Greek word ἰόv (anion), which meaning "to rise." Also anion is negative.

5. What are ions?

Ions are electrically charged particles. Negative charge bearing ions are known as anions, whereas positive charge bearing ions are known as cations.

6. Is oxygen a cation or anion?

Because it has no charge, oxygen is neither a cation nor an anion.

7. What's the difference between cations and anions?

Positively charged ions are known as cations. Negatively charged ions are known as anions. Ions are positively or negatively charged atoms or molecules. A balanced atom will become a positively charged cation if one or more electrons are lost. A balanced atom that loses one or more electrons becomes a negatively charged anion.

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