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P-block Elements - Notes, Topics, Formula, Books, FAQs

P-block Elements - Notes, Topics, Formula, Books, FAQs

Edited By Team Careers360 | Updated on Mar 01, 2022 05:47 PM IST

p-block elements are the elements that are from group 13 to group 18 elements in the periodic table. The general valence electronic configuration of these elements is ns2np1-6. The properties of these elements are greatly influenced by several factors like atomic size, electronegativity, ionization enthalpy, etc. In oxidation states as well, most of these elements show multiple oxidation states. The maximum oxidation state shown by any of these elements is the number of valence electrons. Thus in this article, we will study the chemistry of elements from group 13 to group 18.

These elements have various real-life applications that we observe around us on a daily basis. Some of them are mentioned below.

  • Aluminum is a very important member of p-block elements. It is in the manufacturing of aeroplanes.
  • Chlorine belongs to group 17 in the periodic table. It is used in the swimming pools to sanitize the water and protect the swimmers from waterborne diseases.

Notes for the p-block elements

In this section, you will study about the important topics of the chapter, overview, various properties and some important tips and guidelines for the preparation of the chapter at the best.

Important Topics

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Overview of the chapter

p-block elements consist of the elements that are from group 13 to group 18. These elements have various properties and characteristics that are important to learn. These p-block elements are completely different from each other. Some members of this group are metals like aluminum, some are metalloids like silicon and germanium, and rest are non-metals like oxygen, chlorine, etc.

Electronic Configuration
The general electronic configuration of p-block elements are given as follows:
Group 13 elements: ns2 np1
Group 14 elements: ns2 np2
Group 15 elements: ns2 np3
Group 16 elements: ns2 np4
Group 17 elements: ns2 np5
Group 18 elements: ns2 np6

Metallic Character
In p-block series, the elements are classified into various categories based on their metallic character. The metallic character of the elements increases as we move down the group. There are some elements which are in between the metallic and non-metallic character known as metalloids. Group 17 elements are purely non-metals known as halogens. Group 18 elements are known as noble gases.


Atomic Radii
As we move down the group, there is always the addition of one more shell due to this the radius of the elements always increase in moving down the group. But as we move from left to right, then the atomic size decreases. This is because, from left to right in the same period, no extra shell is added but the nuclear charge is increased and thus the size is decreased


Ionization Enthalpy
The ionization energy of p-block elements increases from left to right because of the effective nuclear charge on the outer electrons increases. But from top to bottom, this ionization energy decreases as the size of the atom increases due to which the influence of nucleus on the electrons decreases and thus it is easy to remove the electron from the outermost shell.

The electronegativity of p-block elements increases from left to right as the effective nuclear charge increases. From to bottom, the electronegativity decreases because of increased atomic size and lesser influence of the nucleus.

Melting and Boiling Points
The melting and boiling points of all the p-block elements increase as we move down the groups. This is because of the fact that as we move down the group, the atomic size of elements increase due to which the melting and boiling points increase.

Oxidation States
The p-block elements show variable oxidation states. Generally, the value of their oxidation states is negative but when bonded with more electronegative atoms then they also exhibit positive oxidation states. The maximum oxidation state shown by the atom is equal to the number of the valence electrons. The oxidation states of different elements are shown below:

  • Boron family: +3
  • Carbon family: -4 and +2
  • Nitrogen family: -3, +3 and +5
  • Oxygen family: -2, +2, +4 and +6
  • Halogen family: -1, +1, +3, +5 and +7
  • Noble gases: +2, +4, +6 and +8

Magnetic properties

Almost all the elements of the periodic table are diamagnetic in nature. There are some elements like Iodine, Astatine, Radon, and Polonium are non-magnetic in nature. Only Tin is the element which is paramagnetic in nature.

Colour of p-block elements

  • Colour of group 13 elements:
    All the elements are silvery colour but boron is of brown colour.
  • Colour of group 14 elements:
    The colour of carbon is black and silicon and germanium are grey coloured.
  • Colour of group 15 elements:
    In this group, all the elements have different colours. Nitrogen is colourless, phosphorus is red and white, arsenic is yellow, antimony is grey and bismuth is silvery white.
  • Colour of group 16 elements:
    In this group, oxygen is colourless, sulphur is pale yellow, selenium is red, tellurium is silvery-white and polonium is silvery.
  • Colour of group 17 elements:
    All the halogens have different colours. Fluorine is pale yellow, Chlorine is greenish-yellow, bromine is reddish-brown, iodine is violet-black.
  • Colour of group 18 elements:
    All the noble gases have different colours. Helium is red, Neon is orange, krypton is purple, Xenon is white, Radon is colourless.

How to prepare for p-Block elements?

  • This chapter is a part of inorganic chemistry. It is completely theory-based and very easy to learn, no need to memorize any formula.

  • Before reading this chapter, first, you must have the basic knowledge of chapter - periodic classification of elements.

  • You must also learn why there are some elements like Boron and Carbon show anomalous behaviour with respect to other elements in their group.

  • Rest this complete chapter is very simple, just be regular and be consistent in your practice.

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Prescribed Books

First, you must finish the class XI and XII NCERT textbook and solve each and every example and unsolved question given in it. Then for advanced level preparation like JEE and NEET, you must follow O.P. Tandon. You must definitely solve the previous year papers. Meanwhile, in the preparation, you must continuously give the mock tests for the depth of knowledge. Our platform will help you to provide with the variety of questions for deeper knowledge with the help of videos, articles and mock tests.

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