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Biotechnology : Principles and Processes

Biotechnology : Principles and Processes

Edited By Team Careers360 | Updated on May 09, 2022 05:52 PM IST

Biotechnology is defined as a comprehensive field of biological science that utilises both the technology and the use of living organisms and their components in order to develop, manufacture and produce useful human welfare products. The name ‘Biotechnology’ was coined in 1919 by agricultural engineer Karoly Ereky, hence the name Biotechnology father.

Let's analyse the principles and procedures of Biotechnology.

Principles of Biotechnology

According to modern Biotechnology, the basic principles of Biotechnology are:

Genetic engineering, used to modify the DNA of a target organism, thereby altering the phenotype of an organism.

Bioprocess engineering, which is the maintenance of sterile conditions to support the growth of a large number of desirable bacteria and other eukaryotic cells used for the production of new or modified biotechnological products such as antibiotics, enzymes, vaccines, etc.

Genetic engineering techniques mainly include:

The DNA fragment is separated from the donor organism.

It is embedded in vector DNA.

It is transferred to the appropriate host.

Compilation of living DNA recombinant containing.

The introduction of biotechnology was started with two technologies -

Chemical Engineering -

Another major difference between chemical engineering and biotechnology is performance measurement. Most products from biotechnology are low in the volume of organic chemicals and have high value.

Modern biotechnology has expanded the range of medicine to the highest level ever. This application has benefited greatly as it has produced excellent products in terms of quality and price, creating storage and storage processes. Examples - Enzymes, Vaccines, Antibiotics.

Genetic Engineering -

The basic goal of this process is to modify existing organisms by gradually changing their genetic makeup, which involves the use of synthetic DNA technology.

Recombinant DNA technology

Recombinant DNA technology is also known as Genetic Engineering. It is the process of assembling two DNA molecules from two different sources. This is known as DNA recombinant.

The steps involved in Recombinant DNA technology processes are:

1.DNA fragmentation

2. DNA sequencing using endonuclease inhibitors

3.Attachment of the desired DNA fragment to the vector

4.DNA recombinant transmission to host

5.The culture of cells is altered in a genetic environment.

6.Release the product you want.

DNA Cloning

DNA cloning is the process of making many identical copies of a piece of DNA. This process requires cloning vectors with the following structures:

It should be small in size but capable of carrying large DNA.

The cloning vector must have a duplicate root in order to be able to replicate automatically on the host object.

It should have a restricted domain.

It must contain an optional filter to filter recombinant organisms.

It should have multiple compartments.

Bioprocess Engineering

Bioprocess engineering is cell duplication in bioreactors. A large amount of culture is achieved through a process that produces a high yield of the required protein. Available products are subject to a series of procedures. The products are cleaned by river processing and are subject to quality inspection prior to further testing. This procedure is used to make antibiotics, vaccines and other treatments.

NCERT Notes Subject Wise Link:

Biotechnology Process

Biotech or biotechnology is a series of biographies relating to the application of technology to biological processes that occur in or under subsistence companies in order to transform a process into a specific application.

And it is one of the oldest industrial technologies ever recorded. For example, one of the biotechnological methods is the use of fermentation in alcohol production. In recent times it has grown and developed into genomics, using immunology, genetic engineering, medicine and more with its work extending to major fields such as - agriculture, genetic engineering, medicine etc. It is also widely used in bioinformatics to explore the field of research and development as well as to produce an extract from living organisms through biochemical engineering.

Over time, biotechnology became more complex from archaic to advanced processes such as:

  • Protein engineering
  • DNA modification
  • Enzymes do not work
  • Tissue culture
  • Cell catalysis
  • Protoplast integration

NCERT Books Link:

Biotechnology led to the integration of many services with social welfare products, such as:

  • Cell biology
  • Molecular biology
  • Immunology
  • Biochemistry
  • Chemical Engineering
  • Genetic Engineering

Some of the most important contributions that break the biotechnology path are:

  • Culture of plant tissue
  • Test-tube baby or Invitro fertilisation
  • Recombinant DNA technique
  • DNA vaccines
  • Humulin Production

NCERT Solutions Subject wise link:

NCERT Exemplar Solutions Subject wise link:

Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

1. What does it mean for the origin of replication?

In the chromosome, certain sequences are responsible for initiating replication called ‘the origin of replication. In biotechnology, in order to replicate any foreign DNA fragment that carries an interesting gene into an organism, the DNA fragment must be linked to a chromosome component that contains that specific DNA sequence, or the origin of duplication. Only then, the external DNA will be able to replicate and replicate in that host body.

2. What is recombinant DNA technology?

DNA Recombinant technology is a process that alters the phenotype of an organism by introducing and incorporating a genetically modified vector into its genome. In other words, this method introduces the outer part of the DNA that contains a gene that is interested in the genome that it wants to modify. The gene that we present is called the recombinant gene and the method is called recombinant DNA technology. This process involves a number of steps, tools and techniques.

3. What is biotechnology and its principles?

Biotechnology is defined as a comprehensive field of biological science that utilises both the technology and the use of living organisms and their components in order to develop, manufacture and produce useful human welfare products. The name ‘Biotechnology’ was coined in 1919 by agricultural engineer Karoly Ereky, hence the name Biotechnology father.


Principles of Biotechnology

According to modern Biotechnology, the basic principles of Biotechnology are:


Genetic engineering, used to modify the DNA of a target organism, thereby altering the phenotype of an organism.

Bioprocess engineering, which is the maintenance of sterile conditions to support the growth of a large number of desirable bacteria and other eukaryotic cells used for the production of new or modified biotechnological products such as antibiotics, enzymes, vaccines, etc.

4. What is biotechnology?

Biotech or biotechnology is a series of biographies relating to the application of technology to biological processes that occur in or under subsistence companies in order to transform a process into a specific application.

And it is one of the oldest industrial technologies ever recorded. For example, one of the biotechnological methods is the use of fermentation in alcohol production. In recent times it has grown and developed into genomics, using immunology, genetic engineering, medicine and more with its work extending to major fields such as - agriculture, genetic engineering, medicine etc. It is also widely used in bioinformatics to explore the field of research and development as well as to produce an extract from living organisms through biochemical engineering.

Over time, biotechnology became more complex from archaic to advanced processes such as:

  • Protein engineering
  • DNA modification
  • Enzymes do not work
  • Tissue culture
  • Cell catalysis
  • Protoplast integration
5. What does Bioprocess Engineering mean?

Bioprocess engineering is cell duplication in bioreactors. A large amount of culture is achieved through a process that produces a high yield of the required protein. Available products are subject to a series of procedures. The products are cleaned by river processing and are subject to quality inspection prior to further testing. This procedure is used to make antibiotics, vaccines and other treatments.

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