Bernoulli's Principle - Definition, Principle, Application, Limitations, FAQs

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# Bernoulli's Principle - Definition, Principle, Application, Limitations, FAQs

Edited By Team Careers360 | Updated on May 23, 2022 04:45 PM IST

## What is Bernoulli’s Theorem and State Bernoulli’s theorem or State and prove Bernoulli’s theorem:

According to Bernoulli's principle, an increase in a fluid's speed is characterized by a reduction in static pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy.
The principle was first stated in 1738 by Daniel Bernoulli in his book Hydrodynamic. Although Bernoulli deduced that pressure decreases as flow speed increases, it was Leonhard Euler who first put Bernoulli equation in its current form in 1752. The theory only applies to isentropic flows, in which the impacts of irreversible processes such as turbulence and non-adiabatic processes such as heat radiation are minor and may be ignored.

The assumption of conservation of energy can be used to derive Bernoulli's principle formula. In a continuous influx, the aggregate of all sources of energy in a fluid anywhere along the flow path is the same across all points along that flow path. For this to happen, the sum of kinetic energy, potential energy, and internal energy must remain constant.

Bernoulli's principle can be applied to a variety of fluid flows, yielding a number of different Bernoulli's equations. For incompressible flows, Bernoulli's equation in its simplest version is valid. Most liquids and gases, for example, move with a low Mach number. At increasing Mach numbers, more complex forms can be applied to compressible flows.

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## Principle of conservation of energy:

Since energy cannot be generated or destroyed, it can be converted into another form. The principle of energy conservation is what this is characterized as. This principle is the basis for Bernoulli’s theorem. According to the principle of conservation of energy, the total energy at any point remains constant. There are three different forms of energy.

• Potential energy
• Pressure energy
• Kinetic energy

Potential energy:

The energy possessed by a fluid by virtue of its position above or below the datum line is called the potential energy.

Potential energy=Wh=mgh=mgZ

Where,

h,Z-Height of fluid particle above datum line in m

m-Mass of fluid in kg

W-Weight of fluid in N

g-Acceleration due to gravity

Epotential in J/kg

Pressure energy:

The energy due to fluid’s pressure is called the pressure energy.

Pressure energy=PUs

P-Pressure in N/m2

Us-Specific volume of fluid in m3/kg

Epressure in J/kg

Us=1 ,

So, pressure energy=p in J/kg

Kinetic energy:

The energy of the fluid by virtue of its velocity is called kinetic energy.

Kinetic energy=12mV2

m-Mass of the fluid in kg

V-Velocity of the fluid in m/s

Ekinematics in J/kg

According to the principle of conservation of energy, total energy of the fluid remains constant.

Total energy=Potential energy+Kinetic energy+Pressure energy

=gZ+V22+P

Dividing the above equation by g on both sides,

=Z+V22g+Pw

Since, total energy or total head of the fluid remains constant,

Z1+V122g+P1w=Z2+V222g+P2w

This is the Bernoulli’s equation

Application of Bernoulli’s theorem:

• If the characteristics of the fluid flow in the region of the foil is known, Bernoulli's principle can be used to determine the lift force on an airfoil.
• Bernoulli's principle states that if air flowing past the top surface of an aircraft wing moves faster than air flowing past the bottom surface, the pressure on the wing's surfaces will be lower above than below. As a result of the pressure differential, a lifting force is generated upwards.
• Bernoulli's equations can be used to compute the lift forces (to a decent approximation) if the speed distribution past a wing's top and bottom surfaces is known.
• A device such as a Venturimeter or an orifice plate, which may be put into a pipeline to reduce the diameter of the flow, can be used to measure the flow speed of a fluid. The continuity equation for a horizontal device illustrates that for an incompressible fluid, a reduction in diameter causes an increase in fluid flow speed.
• Bernoulli's principle therefore demonstrates that in the lower diameter region, there must be a decrease in pressure. The Venturi effect is the term for this phenomenon.
• The nozzle of a Bunsen burner generates gas at a high velocity. As a result, the force within the burner's stem will decrease. As a result, air from the environment enters the burner.
• Bernoulli's theorem governs the operation of aeroplanes. The plane's wings have a certain form. When the plane is flying, the air flows across it at a high rate, although the plane's low surface wig. There is a differential in the flow of air above and below the wings due to Bernoulli's principle. As a result of the flow of air on the wings up surface, this phenomenon produces a decrease in pressure. If the force is greater than the plane's mass, the plane will ascend.

NCERT Physics Notes :

## Limitations of Bernoulli’s theorem:

• Because of friction, the fluid particle velocity in the middle of a tube is the highest and gradually decreases in the tube's direction. As a result, because the particles of the liquid velocity are not consistent, the liquid's mean velocity must be used.
• This equation can be used to improve the efficiency of a liquid supply. It is ineffective in turbulent or non-steady flows.
• In an unstable flow, a tiny amount of kinetic energy can be converted to thermal energy, and in a thick flow, some energy can be lost due to shear stress. As a result, these setbacks must be ignored.
• The viscous action must be kept to a minimum level.
• The liquid flow will be controlled by the liquid's external force.
• This theorem is usually applied to fluids with low viscosity.
• Incompressible fluid is required.
• When a fluid is travelling in a curved path, the energy generated by centrifugal forces must be taken into consideration.
• The liquid flow should remain constant over time.

Bernoulli’s Theorem Proof

Bernoulli equation derivation of Bernoulli's theorem derivation from Euler’s equation:

The equation for the Euler’s equation of motion is

dP+VdV+gdZ=0

Integrating the above equation,

1dP+VdV+gdZ=constant

P+V22+gZ=constant

Dividing the equation by g,

Pg+V22g+Z=constant

Pw+V22g+Z=constant

P1w+V122g+Z1=P2w+V222g+Z2

The above equation is called the Bernoulli’s equation for a steady flow of a frictionless incompressible fluid along the stream line.

Bernoulli’s equation for ideal fluid:

It may be stated as hollow in an ideal incompressible fluid. When the flow is stable and continuous, the sum of the pressure energy, kinetic energy and potential energy is constant along a substance

Pw+V22g+Z=constant

Assumptions:

• The flow is steady and continuous
• The liquid is ideal and incompressible if the velocity is uniform
• The velocity is uniform in entire cross sectional area and is equal to mean velocity
• The pressure and gravity forces are only considered, others are neglected.
• All frictional losses are neglected
• The flow is irrational
• The ideal, incompressible liquid through a non-uniform pipe.

Limitations:

• Velocity of flow across the cross sectional area of the pipe is assumed to be constant, but it is not possible in actual practice.
• The equation has been derived under the assumptions that no external force except gravity and pressure forces are acting on the liquid. However, in reality, a force such as pipe friction acts on the liquid.
• No energy loss is assumed, but kinetic energy is transformed to thermal energy during turbulent flow.

Bernoulli’s equation for Real fluid:

Real fluid has viscosity, so there are some losses due to frictional force. These losses should be taken into consideration while writing Bernoulli's equation for real fluid.

P1w+V122g+Z1=P2w+V222g+Z2+hL

Where, hL-loss of energy due to friction at inlet and outlet or between two sections considered.

Also check-

1. State Bernoulli’s Principle and give its equation.

Bernoulli’s Theorem states that an ideal incompressible fluid. When the flow is stable and continuous, the sum of the pressure energy, kinetic energy and potential energy is constant along a substance

Bernoulli’s equation is Z1+V122g+P1w=Z2+V222g+P2w

2. What are the applications of Bernoulli’s theorem?
• Bernoulli's theorem governs the operation of aeroplanes. The plane's wings have a certain form. When the plane is flying, the air flows across it at a high rate, although the plane's low surface wing.

• There is a differential in the flow of air above and below the wings due to Bernoulli's principle. As a result of the flow of air on the wings up surface, this phenomenon produces a decrease in pressure. If the force is greater than the plane's mass, the plane will ascend.

• The nozzle of a Bunsen burner generates gas at a high velocity. As a result, the force within the burner's stem will decrease. As a result, air from the environment enters the burner.

3. What are the limitations of Bernoulli's Theorem?
• In an unstable flow, a tiny amount of kinetic energy can be converted to thermal energy, and in a thick flow, some energy can be lost due to shear stress. As a result, these setbacks must be ignored.

• The viscous action must be kept to a minimum level.

• The liquid flow will be controlled by the liquid's external force.

• This theorem is usually applied to fluids with low viscosity.

• Incompressible fluid is required.

• When a fluid is travelling in a curved path, the energy generated by centrifugal forces must be taken into consideration.

• The liquid flow should remain constant over time.

4. Derive Bernoulli's Equation.

Principle of conservation of energy:

Since energy cannot be generated or destroyed, it can be converted into another form. The principle of energy conservation is what this is characterized as. This principle is the basis for Bernoulli’s theorem. According to the principle of conservation of energy, the total energy at any point remains constant.

Potential energy:

The energy possessed by a fluid by virtue of its position above or below the datum line is called the potential energy.

Potential energy=Wh=mgh=mgZ

Where,

h,Z-Height of fluid particle above datum line in m

m-Mass of fluid in kg

W-Weight of fluid in N

g-Acceleration due to gravity

Epotential in  J/kg

Pressure energy:

The energy due to fluid’s pressure is called the pressure energy.

Pressure energy=PUs

P-Pressure in N/m2

Us-Specific volume of fluid in m3/kg

Epressure in  J/kg

Us=1 ,

So, pressure energy=p in J/kg

Kinetic energy:

The energy of the fluid by virtue of its velocity is called kinetic energy.

Kinetic energy=12mV2

m-Mass of the fluid in kg

V-Velocity of the fluid in m/s

Ekinematics in  J/kg

According to the principle of conservation of energy, total energy of the fluid remains constant.

Total energy=Potential energy+Kinetic energy+Pressure energy

=gZ+V22+P

Dividing the above equation by g on both sides,

=Z+V22g+Pw

Since, total energy or total head of the fluid remains constant,

Z1+V122g+P1w=Z2+V222g+P2w

This is the Bernoulli’s equation

5. State the assumptions made in deriving Bernoulli’s equation.
• The flow is steady and continuous

• The liquid is ideal and incompressible if the velocity is uniform

• The velocity is uniform in entire cross sectional area and is equal to mean velocity

• The pressure and gravity forces are only considered, others are neglected.

• All frictional losses are neglected

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A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.

3 Jobs Available

A QA Lead is in charge of the QA Team. The role of QA Lead comes with the responsibility of assessing services and products in order to determine that he or she meets the quality standards. He or she develops, implements and manages test plans.

2 Jobs Available
##### Structural Engineer

A Structural Engineer designs buildings, bridges, and other related structures. He or she analyzes the structures and makes sure the structures are strong enough to be used by the people. A career as a Structural Engineer requires working in the construction process. It comes under the civil engineering discipline. A Structure Engineer creates structural models with the help of computer-aided design software.

2 Jobs Available
##### Process Development Engineer

The Process Development Engineers design, implement, manufacture, mine, and other production systems using technical knowledge and expertise in the industry. They use computer modeling software to test technologies and machinery. An individual who is opting career as Process Development Engineer is responsible for developing cost-effective and efficient processes. They also monitor the production process and ensure it functions smoothly and efficiently.

2 Jobs Available
##### AWS Solution Architect

An AWS Solution Architect is someone who specializes in developing and implementing cloud computing systems. He or she has a good understanding of the various aspects of cloud computing and can confidently deploy and manage their systems. He or she troubleshoots the issues and evaluates the risk from the third party.

4 Jobs Available

An Azure Administrator is a professional responsible for implementing, monitoring, and maintaining Azure Solutions. He or she manages cloud infrastructure service instances and various cloud servers as well as sets up public and private cloud systems.

4 Jobs Available
##### Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

3 Jobs Available
##### Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.

3 Jobs Available
##### Information Security Manager

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack

3 Jobs Available
##### Automation Test Engineer

An Automation Test Engineer job involves executing automated test scripts. He or she identifies the project’s problems and troubleshoots them. The role involves documenting the defect using management tools. He or she works with the application team in order to resolve any issues arising during the testing process.

2 Jobs Available