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    NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 9 Coordination Compounds

    Edited By Apoorva Singh | Updated on Aug 16, 2022 12:54 PM IST | #CBSE Class 12th

    NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 9 Coordination Compounds - Coordination compounds is a conceptual chapter related to chemical reactions and atoms so you must pay special attention to the NCERT solutions for Class 12 Chemistry chapter 9 Coordination Compounds which are provided here for free. Coordination compounds are an important part of inorganic chemistry and coordination compounds. As per the NCERT, coordination compounds are the foundation of modern Inorganic Chemistry. In this NCERT solution, there are 11 in-text questions and 32 questions in the exercise and you will find all the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 9 when you scroll down.

    Also Read,

    Find NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 9 Coordination Compounds Below:

    Solutions to In-Text Questions Ex 9.1 to 9.10

    Question 9.1(i) Write the formulas for the following coordination compounds:

    (i) Tetraamminediaquacobalt(III) chloride

    Answer :

    The chemical formula for the coordination compound Tetraamminediaquacobalt(III) chloride is

    [CO(H_2O)_2(NH_3)_4]Cl_3

    Question 9.1(ii) Write the formulas for the following coordination compounds:

    (ii) Potassium tetracyanidonickelate(II)

    Answer :

    The formula for the coordination compound Potassium tetracyanidonickelate II is :

    K_2[Ni(CN)_4]

    Question 9.1(iii) Write the formulas for the following coordination compounds:

    (iii) Tris(ethane–1,2–diamine) chromium(III) chloride

    Answer :

    The formula for the coordination compound Tris(ethane–1,2–diamine) chromium(III) chloride is :

    [Cr(en)_3]Cl_3

    Question 9.1(iv) Write the formulas for the following coordination compounds:

    (iv) Amminebromidochloridonitrito-N-platinate(II)

    Answer :

    The formula for the coordination compound Amminebromidochloridonitrito-N-platinate(II) :

    [Pt(NH_3)BrCl(NO_2)]^{-}

    Question 9.1(v) Write the formulas for the following coordination compounds:

    (v) Dichloridobis(ethane–1,2–diamine)platinum(IV) nitrate

    Answer :

    The chemical formula for the coordination compounds: Dichloridobis(ethane–1,2–diamine)platinum(IV) nitrate

    [PtCl_2(en)_2](NO_3)_2

    Question 9.1(vi) Write the formulas for the following coordination compounds:

    (vi) Iron(III) hexacyanidoferrate(II)

    Answer :

    The formula for the coordination compound Iron(III) hexacyanidoferrate(II):

    Fe_4[Fe(CN)_6]_3

    Question 9.2(i) Write the IUPAC names of the following coordination compounds:

    (i)\left [ Co\left ( NH_{3} \right )_{6} \right ]Cl_{3}

    Answer :

    The IUPAC name of the coordination compound \left [ Co\left ( NH_{3} \right )_{6} \right ]Cl_{3} is :

    Hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride

    Question 9.2(ii) Write the IUPAC names of the following coordination compounds:

    (ii) [Co(NH_{3})_{5}Cl]Cl_{2}

    Answer :

    The IUPAC name of the coordination compound [Co(NH_{3})_{5}Cl]Cl_{2} is

    Pentaamminechloridocobalt(III) chloride

    Question 9.2(iii) Write the IUPAC names of the following coordination compounds:

    (iii) K_{3}[Fe(CN)_{6}]

    Answer :

    The IUPAC name of the coordination compound K_{3}[Fe(CN)_{6}] is

    Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III).

    Question 9.2(iv) Write the IUPAC names of the following coordination compounds:

    (iv)K_{3}[Fe(C_{2}O_{4})_{3}]

    Answer :

    The IUPAC name of the following coordination compound K_{3}[Fe(C_{2}O_{4})_{3}] is

    Potassium trioxalatoferrate(III)

    Question 9.2(v) Write the IUPAC names of the following coordination compounds:

    (v)K_{2}[PdCl_{4}]

    Answer :

    The IUPAC names of the coordination compound K_{2}[PdCl_{4}] is

    Potassium tetrachloridopalladate(II).

    Question 9.2(vi) Write the IUPAC names of the following coordination compounds:

    (vi)[Pt(NH_{3})_{2}Cl(NH_{2}CH_{3})]Cl

    Answer :

    The IUPAC name of the following coordination compound [Pt(NH_{3})_{2}Cl(NH_{2}CH_{3})]Cl is :

    Diamminechlorido(methylamine)platinum(II) chloride.

    Question 9.3(i) Indicate the types of isomerism exhibited by the following complexes and draw the structures for these isomers:

    (i) K[Cr (H_{2}O)_{2}(C_{2}O_{4})_{2}

    Answer :

    Both geometrical (cis-, trans-) and optical isomers exists for the given compound.

    1649396267533

    Question 9.3(iii) Indicate the types of isomerism exhibited by the following complexes and draw the structures for these isomers:

    (iii) [Co(NH_{3})_{5}(NO_{2})](NO_{3})_{2}

    Answer :

    [Co(NH_{3})_{5}(NO_{2})](NO_{3})_{2}

    There are 10 possible isomers.There are geometrical, ionisation and linkage isomers possible.

    A pair of optical isomer

    1649396358804

    it also shows ionization isomerism

    [Co(NH_{3})_{5}(NO_{2})](NO_{3})_{2} AND [Co(NH_{3})_{5}(NO_{3})](NO_{3})(NO_2)

    It can also show linkage isomerism

    [Co(NH_{3})_{5}(NO_{2})](NO_{3})_2 AND [Co(NH_{3})_{5}(ONO)](NO_{3})_2

    Question 9.3(iv) Indicate the types of isomerism exhibited by the following complexes and draw the structures for these isomers:

    (iv)\; [Pt(NH_{3})(H_{2}O)Cl_{2}]

    Answer :

    Geometrical (cis-, trans-) isomers can exists for \; [Pt(NH_{3})(H_{2}O)Cl_{2}]

    1649396402281

    Question 9.4(i) Give evidence that following is ionisation isomer.

    (i) [Co(NH_{3})_{5}Cl]SO_{4}

    Answer :

    The ionisation isomers dissolve in water to yield different ions and thus react differently to various reagents:

    [Co(NH3)5Br]SO4 + Ba2+ → BaSO4 (s)

    [Co(NH3)5SO4]Br + Ba2+ → No reaction

    [Co(NH3)5Br]SO4 + Ag+ → No reaction

    [Co(NH3)5SO4]Br + Ag+ → AgBr (s)

    Question 9.4(ii) Give evidence that following is ionisation isomer.

    (ii) [Co(NH_{3})_{5}(SO_{4})]Cl

    Answer :

    The ionisation isomers dissolve in water to yield different ions and thus react differently to various reagents:

    [Co(NH3)5Br]SO4 + Ba2+ → BaSO4 (s)

    [Co(NH3)5SO4]Br + Ba2+ → No reaction

    [Co(NH3)5Br]SO4 + Ag+ → No reaction

    [Co(NH3)5SO4]Br + Ag+ → AgBr (s)

    Question 9.5 Explain on the basis of valence bond theory that [Ni(CN)_{4}]^{2-} ion with square planar structure is diamagnetic and the [NiCl_{4}]^{2-} ion with tetrahedral geometry is paramagnetic.

    Answer :

    In both the compounds, the oxidation state of Nickel is +2. So it has d 8 configuration.

    Now, on the basis of ligand pairing of electrons will occur. Since CN - is a strong ligand so pairing will occur but in case of Cl - pairing will not be there as it is a weak ligand. So, the configuration of both the compounds looks like :-

    1649396442693

    1649396465299

    1649396484196

    Thus [Ni(CN)_{4}]^{2-} is a square planer and diamagnetic and [NiCl_{4}]^{2-} has tetrahedral geometry and is paramagnetic.

    Question 9.6 [NiCl_{4}]^{2-} is paramagnetic while [Ni(CO)_{4}] is diamagnetic though both are tetrahedral. Why?

    Answer :

    The difference in the magnetic behaviour is due to the nature of ligands present. In case of [NiCl_{4}]^{2-} the oxidation state of nickel is +2 and also Cl - is a weak ligand. Thus its configuration becomes:-

    1649396517195

    So it is paramagnetic and tetrahedral in nature.

    In the case of [Ni(CO)_{4}] , the oxidation state of nickel is 0. So its configuration is 3d 8 4s 2 . We also know that CO is a strong ligand, thus the configuration of nickel becomes:-

    1649396537524

    Hence the given compound is diamagnetic but tetrahedral in nature.

    Question 9.7 [Fe(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{3+} is strongly paramagnetic whereas [Fe(CN)_{6}]^{3-} is weakly paramagnetic. Explain.

    Answer :

    In both the compounds Fe has +3 oxidation state i.e., d 5 configuration.

    1649396605801

    In the case of strong ligand (CN - ), the pairing of electron will occur. So number of electrons left unpaired will be 1.

    In case of weak ligand (H 2 O), pairing of electron will not there. Thus number of electrons unpaired will be 5.

    We know that paramagnetic strength is directly proportional to the number of unpaired electrons.

    Hence paramagnetism will be more in case of [Fe(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{3+}

    Question 9.8 Explain [Co(NH_{3})_{6}]^{3+} is an inner orbital complex whereas [Ni(NH_{3})_{6}]^{2+} is an outer orbital complex.

    Answer :

    Firstly consider [Co(NH_{3})_{6}]^{3+} :-

    The oxidation state of cobalt is +3. So the electronic configuration of it will be d 6 .

    Since (NH 3 ) is a strong ligand so the pairing of electron will be there.

    1649396659090

    So, it has d 2 sp 3 hybridisation and an inner orbital complex.


    Now consider, [Ni(NH_{3})_{6}]^{2+}

    The oxidation state of nickel is +3. So its electronic configuration will be d 8 .

    Also (NH 3 ) is a strong ligand so pairing of electrons will be seen.

    1649396695953

    Thus [Ni(NH_{3})_{6}]^{2+} is an outer orbital complex.

    Question 9.9 Predict the number of unpaired electrons in the square planar [Pt(CN)_{4}]^{2-} ion.

    Answer :

    The oxidation state of Pt in the given compound is +2. Also, it is given that the compound has square planar geometry i.e., it has dsp 2 hybridisation (d 8 ).

    CN - is a strong ligand so the pairing of electron will occur.

    So there are be no unpaired electrons in the given compound.

    Question 9.10 The hexaqua manganese(II) ion contains five unpaired electrons, while the hexacyanoion contains only one unpaired electron. Explain using Crystal Field Theory.

    Answer :

    Consider Hexaqua manganese (II) :- In this compound, the oxidation state of Mn is +2 and its electronic configuration is d 5 .

    H 2 O is a weak ligand and crystal field is octahedral so the arrangement of electrons will be t 2 3 g eg 2 .

    So the total number of unpaired electrons is 5.

    Now consider hexacyanoion:- In this compound, the oxidation state of Mn is +2. It is surrounded by the strong ligands CN - , so pairing will be there.

    Its arrangement will be t 2g 5 eg 0 .

    Thus the number of unpaired electrons will be 1.

    NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 9 Coordination Compounds- Exercise Questions

    Question 9.1 Explain the bonding in coordination compounds in terms of Werner’s postulates.

    Answer :

    Werner his theory of coordination compounds and gave some postulates. The main postulates are:

    1. In coordination compounds metals show two types of linkages or valences namely primary valency and secondary valency.

    2. The primary valences are generally ionisable and are satisfied or balanced by negative ions.

    3. The secondary valences are non-ionisable. These are satisfied by either neutral molecules or by negative ions. The secondary valence is equal to the coordination number (No. of atoms surrounding the metal) and is constant for a metal.

    4. According to different coordination numbers, the ions/groups bound by the secondary linkages to the metal have characteristic spatial arrangements.

    Question 9.2 FeSO_{4} solution mixed with (NH_{4})_{2}SO_{4} solution in 1:1 molar ratio gives the test of Fe^{2+} ion but CuSO_{4} solution mixed with aqueous ammonia in 1:4 molar ratio does not give the test of Cu^{2+} ion. Explain why?

    Answer :

    15949066434331594906639690

    The major difference between both the compounds is that the first compound is a salt and the other one is a coordination compound. In case of double salt compounds (Mohr's salt), the compound breaks into its constituent ions when dissolved in water, therefore it gives a positive test for the presence of Fe +2 . But in case of coordination compounds, they maintain their identity in both solid and dissolved state. Thus the individual property of each constituent is lost. And therefore it doesn't give a positive test for Cu +2 .

    Question 9.3 Explain with two examples each of the following: coordination entity, ligand, coordination number, coordination polyhedron, homoleptic and heteroleptic.

    Answer :

    (i) Coordination entity:- It is an electrically charged species carrying either a positive charge or a negative charge. In a coordination entity, the central atom or ion is surrounded by some number of neutral molecules or negative ions ( called ligands) accordingly.

    E.g\ \left [ PtCl_4 \right ]^{2-}\ and\ \left [ Ag(CN)_2 \right ]^{-}

    (ii) Ligand:- Ligands are the neutral molecules or negatively charged ions that surround the metal atom in a coordination entity according to the holding capacity of central metal ion are known as ligands. NH 3 and H 2 O are two neutral ligands.

    (iii) Coordination number:- The total number of metals that surrounds the central metal ion is known as coordination number.

    For e.g,(a) In case of \left [ PtCl_6 \right ]^{2-} six chlorine atoms are attached to Pt, thus the coordination number of the given compound is 6.

    (b) In case of \left [ Ni(NH_3)_4 \right ]^{2-} the central metal ion Ni is surrounded by 4 atoms of ligand so its coordination number is 4.

    (iv) Coordination polyhedron:- It is defined as the spatial arrangement of the ligands which are directly attached to the central metal ion/atom.

    E.g. square planar, tetrahedral.

    (v) Homoleptic:- Homoleptic compounds are defined as the compounds in which the donor/ligand attached to central metal atom/ion is of one kind.

    E.g. \left [ PtCl_6 \right ]^{2-} and \left [ Ni(NH_3)_4 \right ]^{2-}

    (vi) Heteroleptic:- These are the coordination compounds in which central atoms are attached with more than one type of ligand.

    E.g. \left [ Co(NH_3)_5Cl \right ]^{2+} and \left [ Co(NH_3)_4 Cl_2\right ]^{+1}

    Question 9.4 What is meant by unidentate, didentate and ambidentate ligands? Give two examples for each.

    Answer :

    Unidentate ligands:- The ligand which has only one donor site are known as unidentate ligands. E.g. Cl - , NH 3

    Bidentate(or didentate):- The ligands which have two donor sites are known as bidentate ligands. E.g. Ethane - 1,2 diamine, Oxalate ion

    Ambidentate ligands:- The ligands which can attach themselves to the central metal through two different atoms. E.g NO 2 , SCN

    Question 9.5 (i) Specify the oxidation numbers of the metals in the following coordination entities:

    (i)[Co(H_{2}O)(CN)(en)_{2}]^{2+}

    Answer :

    Let us assume that coordination number of cobalt is x.

    x\ +\ 0\ +\(-1)\ + 2(0)\ =\ +2

    Thus x = 3

    Hence coordination number of cobalt is +3.

    Question 9.5(ii) Specify the oxidation numbers of the metals in the following coordination entities:

    (ii) [CoBr_{2}(en)_{2}]^{+}

    Answer :

    Let us assume that the coordination number of cobalt is x.

    Then according to the question :

    x\ + 2(-1)\ +\ 2(0)\ =\ 1

    Hence the coordination number of cobalt is 3.

    Question 9.5(iii) Specify the oxidation numbers of the metals in the following coordination entities:

    (iii)[PtCl_{4}]^{2-}

    Answer :

    Let us assume the oxidation state of Pt to be x.

    Then the equation becomes :-

    \\x\ +\ 4(-1)\ =\ -2\\x=+2

    Hence the oxidation state of Pt metal is 2.

    Question 9.5(iv) Specify the oxidation numbers of the metals in the following coordination entities:

    (iv)K_{3}[Fe(CN)_{6}]

    Answer :

    Let the oxidation state of Fe be x.

    Then the equation will be :-

    \\x\ +\ 6(-1)\ =\ -3\\x=+3

    Thus oxidation state of Fe in this coordination compound is 3.

    Question 9.5(v) Specify the oxidation numbers of the metals in the following coordination entities:

    (v) [Cr(NH_{3})_{3}Cl_{3}]

    Answer :

    Let us assume the oxidation state of Cr to be x.

    Then according to the question we get,

    x\ +\ 3(0)\ +\ 3(-1)\ =\ 0

    x=+3

    So the oxidation state of Cr will be 3.

    Question 9.6(i) Using IUPAC norms write the formulas for the following:

    (i) Tetrahydroxidozincate(II)

    Answer :

    Using the IUPAC rules :-

    \left [ Zn(OH)_4 \right ]^{2-}

    Question 9.6(ii) Using IUPAC norms write the formulas for the following:

    (ii) Potassium tetrachloridopalladate(II)

    Answer :

    The required compound is :-

    K_2\left [ PdCl_4 \right ]

    Question 9.6(iii) Using IUPAC norms write the formulas for the following:

    (iii) Diamminedichloridoplatinum(II)

    Answer :

    The required chemical formula of compound is :-

    \left [ Pt(NH_3)_2Cl_2 \right ]

    Question 9.6(iv) Using IUPAC norms write the formulas for the following:

    (iv) Potassium tetracyanidonickelate(II)

    Answer :

    The required compound is :-

    K_2\left [ Ni(CN)_4 \right ]

    Question 9.6(v) Using IUPAC norms write the formulas for the following:

    (v) Pentaamminenitrito-O-cobalt(III)

    Answer :

    The compound is :-

    \left [ Co(ONO)(NH_3)_5 \right ]^{2+}

    Question 9.6(vi) Using IUPAC norms write the formulas for the following:

    (vi) Hexaamminecobalt(III) sulphate

    Answer :

    The required compound is :-

    \left [ Co(NH_3)_6 \right ](SO_4)_3

    Question 9.6(vii) Using IUPAC norms write the formulas for the following:

    (vii) Potassium tri(oxalato)chromate(III)

    Answer :

    The required compound is :-

    K_3\left [ Cr(C_2O_4)_3 \right ]

    Question 9.6(viii) Using IUPAC norms write the formulas for the following:

    (viii) Hexaammineplatinum(IV)

    Answer :

    The required compound is :- \left [ Pt(NH_3)_6 \right ]^{4+}

    Question 9.6(ix) Using IUPAC norms write the formulas for the following:

    (ix) Tetrabromidocuprate(II)

    Answer :

    The required compound is \left [ Cu(Br)_4 \right ]^{2-}

    Question 9.6(x) Using IUPAC norms write the formulas for the following:

    (x) Pentaamminenitrito-N-cobalt(III)

    Answer :

    The required compound is :-

    \left [ Co(NO_2)(NH_3)_5 \right ]^{2+}

    Question 9.7(i) Using IUPAC norms write the systematic names of the following:

    (i)[Co(NH_{3})_{6}]Cl_{3}

    Answer :

    Using IUPAC norms the name of the given compound is :-

    Hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride

    Question 9.7(ii) Using IUPAC norms write the systematic names of the following:

    (ii) \; [Pt(NH_{3})_{2}Cl(NH_{2}CH_{3})]Cl

    Answer :

    According to the IUPAC norms :-

    Diamminechlorido(methylamine) platinum(II) chloride

    Question 9.7(iii) Using IUPAC norms write the systematic names of the following:

    (iii)\; [Ti(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{3+}

    Answer :

    Using the nomenclature rules, the required name of the compound is:- Hexaquatitanium(III) ion

    Question 9.7(iv) Using IUPAC norms write the systematic names of the following:

    (iv)\; [Co(NH_{3})_{4}Cl(NO_{2})]Cl

    Answer :

    Using IUPAC norms, the name of the given compound is :-

    Tetraamminichloridonitrito-N-Cobalt(III) chloride

    Question 9.7(v) Using IUPAC norms write the systematic names of the following:

    (v)\; [Mn(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{2+}

    Answer :

    The IUPAC name of the givne compound is :-

    Hexaquamanganese(II) ion

    Question : 9.7(vi) Using IUPAC norms write the systematic names of the following:

    (vi)\; [NiCl_{4}]^{2-}

    Answer :

    According to the IUPAC norms, the systematic name of the given compound is:- Tetrachloridonickelate(II) ion

    Question 9.7(vii) Using IUPAC norms write the systematic names of the following:

    (vii)[Ni(NH_{3})_{6}]Cl_{2}

    Answer :

    The IUPAC name of the given compound is :- Hexaamminenickel(II) chloride

    Question 9.7(viii) Using IUPAC norms write the systematic names of the following:

    (viii)[Co(en)_{3}]^{3+}

    Answer :

    The name of the given compound is :- Tris(ethane-1, 2-diammine) cobalt(III) ion

    Question 9.7(ix) Using IUPAC norms write the systematic names of the following:

    (ix)[Ni(CO)_{4}]

    Answer :

    The IUPAC name of the given compound is :- Tetracarbonylnickel(0)

    Question 9.8 List various types of isomerism possible for coordination compounds, giving an example of each.

    Answer :

    Two main types of isomerism are known in case of coordination compounds which can be further divided into subgroups:-

    (a) Stereoisomerism :-

    (i) Geometrical isomerism E.g

    . 15949066731861594906671140

    (ii) Optical isomerism

    15949066855031594906683732

    (b) Structural isomerism :-

    (i) Linkage isomerism E.g \left [ Co(NH_3)_5(NO_2) \right ]Cl_2 and \left [ Co(NH_3)_5(ONO) \right ]Cl_2

    (ii) Ionisation isomerism E.g \left [ Co(NH_3)_5SO_4 \right ]Br and \left [ Co(NH_3)_5Br\right ]SO_4

    (iii) Coordination isomerism E.g \left [ Co(NH_3)_6 \right ]\left [ Cr(CN)_6 \right ] and \left [ Cr(NH_3)_6 \right ]\left [ Co(CN)_6 \right ]

    (iv) Solvate isomerism E.g \left [ Cr(H_2O)_6 \right ]Cl_3 and \left [ Cr(H_2O)_5Cl \right ]Cl_2.H_2O


    Question : 9.9(i) How many geometrical isomers are possible in the following coordination entities?

    (i)\; [Cr(C_{2}O_{4})_{3}]^{3-}
    Answer:

    No geometrical isomers are possible since the given compound is a bidentate compound.

    Question 9.9(ii) How many geometrical isomers are possible in the following coordination entities?

    (ii) [Co(NH_{3})_{3}Cl_{3}]

    Answer :

    The facial (fac) and meridional (mer) isomers are possible for the given compound.

    1649396758911

    Question 9.10(i) Draw the structures of optical isomers of:

    (i); [Cr(C_{2}O_{4})_{3}]^{3-}

    Answer :

    The optical isomers of the given compound are:-

    1649396803910

    Question 9.10(ii) Draw the structures of optical isomers of:

    (ii)[PtCl_{2}(en)_{2}]^{2+}

    Answer :

    The optical isomers of the given compound are given below :-

    15949067263121594906724455

    Question 9.10(iii) Draw the structures of optical isomers of:

    (iii)\; [Cr(NH_{3})_{2}Cl_{2}(en)]^{+}

    Answer :

    The optical isomers of the given compound are:-

    15949067500681594906748041

    Question 9.11(i) Draw all the isomers (geometrical and optical) of:

    (i) [CoCl_{2}(en)_{2}]^{+}

    Answer :

    The configurational isomers are:-

    15949067645651594906762540

    15949067754571594906773659

    Question 9.11(ii) Draw all the isomers (geometrical and optical) of:

    (ii) [Co(NH_{3})Cl(en)_{2}]^{2+}

    Answer :

    The isomers of the given compound are :-

    15949067882151594906786312

    15949067977291594906796301

    Question 9.11(iii) Draw all the isomers (geometrical and optical) of:

    (iii) [Co(NH_{3})_{2}Cl_{2}(en)]^{+}

    Answer :

    The possible isomers of the given compound are as follows :-

    1649396850191

    1649396870776

    Question 9.12 Write all the geometrical isomers of [Pt(NH_{3})(Br)(Cl)(py)] and how many of these will exhibit optical isomers?

    Answer :

    The geometrical isomers of the compound are given below:-

    1649396910677

    We know that the given compound has tetrahedral geometry, so it can be optically active only when it has unsymmetric chelating agents. Hence the given compound doesn't have any optically active isomer.

    Question 9.13 Aqueous copper sulphate solution (blue in colour) gives:

    (i) a green precipitate with aqueous potassium fluoride and
    (ii) a bright green solution with aqueous potassium chloride. Explain these experimental results.

    Answer :

    We know that strong ligands can replace weak ligands from its solution.

    (i) In this case F - ions can replace H 2 O from aqueous copper sulphate solution.

    1649396955245

    (ii) In this compound, Cl - being stronger ligand will replace H 2 O and give a bright green solution 1649396973455

    Question 9.14 What is the coordination entity formed when excess of aqueous KCN is added to an aqueous solution of copper sulphate? Why is it that no precipitate of copper sulphide is obtained when H_{2}S(g) is passed through this solution?

    Answer :

    When KCN is passed through an aqueous solution of copper sulphate, CN - being a strong ligand, will replace water and form K_2\left [ Cu(CN)_4 \right ] .

    It is known that in stable coordination compounds, the individual identity of each constituent is lost i.e., Cu +2 is not available freely.

    Thus no precipitate of copper sulphide is obtained in the given conditions.

    Question 9.15 Discuss the nature of bonding in the following coordination entities on the basis of valence bond theory:

    (i)[Fe(CN)_{6}]^{4-}

    Answer :

    In the given compound oxidation state of Fe is +2. The electronic configuration of this compound is 3d 6 .

    Also CN - is a strong field ligand so it will cause the pairing of electrons.

    1649397060679

    Therefore the complex is diamagnetic and its geometry is octahedral.

    Question 9.15 Discuss the nature of bonding in the following coordination entities on the basis of valence bond theory:

    (ii) [FeF_{6}]^{3-}

    Answer :

    (ii) In the given complex the oxidation state of Fe is +3. Its electronic configuration is d 5 .

    Also, the F - ions are weak field ligands, therefore, the pairing of electrons will not occur.

    1649397108858

    Thus its geometry is octahedral and it is paramagnetic in nature.

    Question 9.15 Discuss the nature of bonding in the following coordination entities on the basis of valence bond theory:

    (iii)[Co(C_{2}O_{4})_{3}]^{3-}

    Answer:

    (iii) In the given compound, the oxidation state of Co is +3. Its electronic configuration thus becomes d 6 .

    Also, oxalate is a weak field ligand therefore pairing of electrons will not occur.

    1649397143755

    Hence the complex is octahedral and paramgnetic in nature.

    Question 9.15 Discuss the nature of bonding in the following coordination entities on the basis of valence bond theory:

    (iv)[CoF_{6}]^{3-}

    Answer :

    (iv) The oxidation state of Co in the given comound is +3. The electronic configuration of the compound is d 6 .

    Also, F - is a weak field ligand so no pairing of electrons will occur.

    nbsp;

    1649397191892

    Hence the geometry of compound is octahedral and it is paramagnetic in nature.

    Question 9.16 Draw figure to show the splitting of d orbitals in an octahedral crystal field.

    Answer :

    The splitting of d orbital is shown below:-

    1649397251154

    In this splitting d x 2 y 2 and d z 2 experience a rise in energy and make the eg level, while d xy , d yz and d zx experience a fall in energy and generate the t 2g level.

    Question 9.17 What is spectrochemical series? Explain the difference between a weak field ligand and a strong field ligand.

    Answer :

    The arrangement of ligands in the increasing order of their crystal-field splitting energy (CFSE) values is known as spectrochemical series .

    1649397299196

    The ligands on the right side of the series strong field ligands are present whereas on the left-hand side weak field ligands are present.

    The strong field ligands are capable of splitting d orbitals to a higher extent as compared to weak field ligands.

    Question 9.18 What is crystal field splitting energy? How does the magnitude of \Delta _{o} decide the actual configuration of d orbitals in a coordination entity?

    Answer :

    It is known that the degenerated d-orbitals split into two levels - e g and t 2g . The splitting of the degenerate levels due to the presence of ligands is called the crystal-field splitting and the energy difference between the two levels (e g and t 2g ) is called the crystal-field splitting energy (CFSE).

    The CFSE is denoted by Δ o .

    After splitting of orbitals, the filling of the electrons starts. After 1 electron has been filled in each of the three t 2g orbitals, the fourth electron can enter the eg orbital ( t 2g 3 e g 1 like electronic configuration) or the pairing of the electrons can take place in the t 2g orbitals ( t 2g 4 e g 0 like electronic configuration).

    If the CFSE value or Δ o value of a ligand is less than the pairing energy (P), then the electrons enter into the e g orbital. And, if the Δ o value of a ligand is more than the pairing energy (P), then the electrons will enter the t 2g orbital.

    Question 9.19 [Cr(NH_{3})_{6}]^{3+} is paramagnetic while [Ni(CN)_{4}]^{2-} is diamagnetic. Explain why?

    Answer :

    In [Cr(NH_{3})_{6}]^{3+} the oxidation state of the compound is +3. Its electronic configuration is d 3 . Also, NH 3 is a weak field ligand so the pairing of electrons will not occur.

    1649397339473

    So this compound is paramagnetic in nature.

    In [Ni(CN)_{4}]^{2-} the oxidation state of the Ni is +2. Its electronic configuration is d 8 . Also, CN - is a strong field ligand so the pairing of electrons will occur.

    1649397357300

    Hence the above compound is diamagnetic in nature.

    Question 9.20 A solution of [Ni(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{2+} is green but a solution of [Ni(CN)_{4}]^{2-} is colourless. Explain .

    Answer :

    In the case of [Ni(CN)_{4}]^{2-} , we have CN - as a strong field ligand. So, the pairing of electrons will occur. The electronic configuration of Ni +2 is d 6 . Since all the electrons will be paired thus d-d electronic transition is not possible on this case. Whereas in case of [Ni(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{2+} we have a weak field ligand (H 2 O). The pairing of electrons will not occur. Thus electrons from a lower state of energy can transit to a higher state of energy and thus will give some colour.

    Question 9.21 [Fe(CN)_{6}]^{4-} and [Fe(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{2+} are of different colours in dilute solutions. Why?

    Answer :

    In both compounds, the oxidation state of Fe is +2. Also, in [Fe(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{2+} we have weak field ligand whereas in [Fe(CN)_{6}]^{4-} we have strong field ligand. So there is a difference in CFSE value in both the compounds. As a result, the colour shown by both compounds is different.

    Question 9.22 Discuss the nature of bonding in metal carbonyls.

    Answer :

    The metal-carbon bond in metal carbonyls has both σ and π character. Basically the M–C σ bond is generated due to the donation of lone pair of electrons on the carbonyl carbon into a vacant orbital of the metal. Whereas the M–C π bond is formed due to the donation of a pair of electrons from a filled d orbital of metal into the vacant/empty antibonding π* orbital of carbon monoxide. As a result, this metal to ligand bonding leads to a synergic effect which strengthens the bond between CO and the metal.


    1649397395194

    Question 9.23 Give the oxidation state, d orbital occupation and coordination number of the central metal ion in the following complexes:

    (i) K_{3}[Co(C_{2}O_{4})_{3}]

    Answer :

    The oxidation state of Co is +3 and its oxidation number is 6. The d orbital occupation of the given central metal ion is t 2g 6 e g 0 .

    Question 9.23 Give the oxidation state, d orbital occupation and coordination number of the central metal ion in the following complexes:

    (ii)cis-[CrCl _{2}(en)_{2}]Cl

    Answer :

    (ii) The oxidation state of Cr in the given complex is +3. The coordination number of Cr is 6. The d orbital occupation for central metal ion Cr 3+ is t 2g 3 .

    Question 9.23 Give the oxidation state, d orbital occupation and coordination number of the central metal ion in the following complexes:

    (iii)(NH_{4})_{2}[CoF_{4}]

    Answer :

    (iii) The oxidation state of Co in the given coordination compound is +2. Also, the coordination number of Co is 4. The d orbital occupation for the central metal ion Co 2+ is e g 4 t 2g 3 .

    Question 9.23 Give the oxidation state, d orbital occupation and coordination number of the central metal ion in the following complexes:

    (iv) [Mn(H_{2}O)_{6}]SO_{4}

    Answer :

    (iv) In the given complex compound the oxidation state of Mn is +2. Also, the coordination number of Mn is 6. The d orbital occupation for the central metal ion Mn +2 is t 2g 3 e g 2 .

    Question 9.24 Write down the IUPAC name for the following complex and indicate the oxidation state, electronic configuration and coordination number. Also give stereochemistry and magnetic moment of the complex:

    (i) K[Cr(H_{2}O)_{2}(C_{2}O_{4})_{2}].3H_{2}O

    Answer :

    The IUPAC name of the given compound is Potassium diaquadioxalatochromate (III) trihydrate.

    The oxidation state of Cr in this compound is +3.

    The electronic configuration is 3d 3 .

    The coordination number of this compound is 6.

    The magnetic moment of a compound is given by :

    =\ \sqrt{n(n+2)} Here n is the number of the unpaired electrons.

    or =\ \sqrt{3(3+2)}\ =\ \sqrt{15}BM

    Stereochemistry:-

    1649397447790


    Question 9.24 Write down the IUPAC name for the following complex and indicate the oxidation state, electronic configuration and coordination number. Also give stereochemistry and magnetic moment of the complex:

    (ii) [Co(NH_{3})_{5}Cl_{-}]Cl_{2}

    Answer :

    The IUPAC name of the given compound is Pentaamminechloridocobalt(III) chloride.

    The oxidation state of Co in this compound is +3.

    The electronic configuration is d 6 .

    The coordination number of this compound is 6.

    The magnetic moment of a compound is given by :

    =\ \sqrt{n(n+2)} Here n is the number of the unpaired electrons.

    or =\ \sqrt{0(0+2)}\ =\ 0BM

    Stereochemistry:-

    1649397486620

    Question 9.24 Write down the IUPAC name for the following complex and indicate the oxidation state, electronic configuration and coordination number. Also give stereochemistry and magnetic moment of the complex:

    (iii) [CrCl_{3}(py)_{3}]

    Answer :

    The IUPAC name of the given compound is Trichloridotripyridinechromium (III).

    The oxidation state of Cr in this compound is +3.

    The electronic configuration is d 3 .

    The coordination number of this compound is 6.

    The magnetic moment of a compound is given by :

    =\ \sqrt{n(n+2)} Here n is the number of the unpaired electrons.

    or =\ \sqrt{3(3+2)}\ =\ \sqrt{15}BM

    Stereochemistry:-

    1649397530911


    Question 9.24 Write down the IUPAC name for the following complex and indicate the oxidation state, electronic configuration and coordination number. Also give stereochemistry and magnetic moment of the complex:

    (iv) Cs[FeCl_{4}]

    Answer :

    The IUPAC name of the given compound is Caesium tetrachloroferrate (III).

    The oxidation state of Cs in this compound is +3.

    The electronic configuration is d 5 .

    The coordination number of this compound is 4.

    The magnetic moment of a compound is given by :

    =\ \sqrt{n(n+2)} Here n is the number of the unpaired electrons.

    or =\ \sqrt{5(5+2)}\ =\ \sqrt{35}BM=5.92

    Stereochemistry:- Optically inactive.

    Question 9.24 Write down the IUPAC name for the following complex and indicate the oxidation state, electronic configuration and coordination number. Also give stereochemistry and magnetic moment of the complex:

    (v) K_{4}[Mn(CN)_{6}]

    Answer :

    The IUPAC name of the given compound is Potassium hexacyanomanganate(II).

    The oxidation state of Mn in this compound is +2.

    The electronic configuration is d 5 .

    The coordination number of this compound is 6.

    The magnetic moment of a compound is given by :

    =\ \sqrt{n(n+2)} Here n is the number of the unpaired electrons.

    or \\=\ \sqrt{1(1+2)}\ =\ \sqrt{3}BM\\=1.72BM

    Stereochemistry:- Optically inactive.

    Question 9.25 Explain the violet colour of the complex [Ti(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{3+} on the basis of crystal field theory.

    Answer :

    In ground state,Ti has 23 electrons with electronic configuration 3d 3 4s 2 .

    The oxidation state of Ti in the given compound is +3.

    Hence it will now have the configuration 3d 2 . Since it has 2 unpaired electrons and has the ability to undergo d-d transition, the given complex gives violet colour.

    Question 9.26 What is meant by the chelate effect? Give an example .

    Answer :

    When a ligand is attached to the metal ion in such a manner that it forms a ring-like structure, then the metal-ligand bond is found to be more stable i.e., complexes containing chelate rings are more stable than complexes without rings. The formation of such rings is known as the chelate effect.

    1649397576241

    Question 9.27 Discuss briefly giving an example in each case the role of coordination compounds in:

    (i) biological systems

    Answer :

    Coordination compounds play a great role in biological systems. The pigment which is responsible for photosynthesis, chlorophyll, is a coordination compound of magnesium. Haemoglobin (which acts as oxygen carrier) the red pigment of blood is a coordination compound of iron. Vitamin B 12 , cyanocobalamine, the anti-pernicious anaemia factor, are few coordination compounds of cobalt which have biological importance.

    Question 9.27 Discuss briefly giving an example in each case the role of coordination compounds in:

    (ii) medicinal chemistry

    Answer :

    The role of coordination compounds in the medicine industry is very huge such as the use of chelate therapy in medicinal chemistry. The excess of copper and iron are removed by the chelating ligands D–penicillamine and desferrioxamine B via the formation of coordination compounds. Nowadays, some coordination compounds of platinum (such as cis–platin and related compounds) effectively inhibit the growth of tumours.


    Question 9.27 Discuss briefly giving an example in each case the role of coordination compounds in:

    (iii) analytical chemistry

    Answer :

    (iii) In analytical chemistry, the familiar colour reactions given by metal ions with a number of ligands generally chelating ligands. The formation of coordination entities gives the basis for their detection and estimation by classical and instrumental methods of analysis.

    Question 9.27 Discuss briefly giving an example in each case the role of coordination compounds in:

    (iv) extraction/metallurgy of metals

    Answer :

    In the metal extraction process of metals, like silver and gold, make use of complex formation. For example, gold combines with cyanide in the presence of oxygen and water to form the coordination entity [Au(CN) 2 ] in aqueous solution which can be further separated by addition of zinc.

    Question 9.28 How many ions are produced from the complex Co(NH_{3})_{6}Cl_{2} in solution?

    (i) 6 (ii) 4 (iii) 3 (iv) 2

    Answer :

    Total of 3 ions will be produced.

    2 of Cl - and one ion of [Co(NH 3 ) 6 ] + will be produced.

    Question 9.29 Amongst the following ions which one has the highest magnetic moment value?

    (i)[Cr(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{3+} (ii)[Fe(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{2+} (iii)[Zn(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{2+}

    Answer :

    (i) No. of unpaired electrons in [Cr(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{3+} is 3.

    The magnetic moment is given by :

    =\ \sqrt{n(n+2)}

    or =\ \sqrt{3(3+2)}\ =\ \sqrt{15}BM

    (ii) Similarly in [Fe(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{2+} the number of unpaired electrons is 4.

    So the magnetic moment :

    =\ \sqrt{4(4+2)}\ =\ \sqrt{24}BM

    (iii) In the case of [Zn(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{2+} the number of unpaired electrons is 0. So its magnetic moment is also zero.

    Thus [Fe(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{2+} has the highest dipole moment among all.

    Question 9.31 Amongst the following, the most stable complex is

    (i)[Fe(H_{2}O_{6})]^{3+} (ii)[Fe(NH_{3})_{6}]^{3+} (iii)[Fe(C_{2}O_{4})_{3}]^{3-} (iv)[FeCl_{6}]^{3-}

    Answer :

    We know that due to the chelation effect stability of the chelating compound is more than the simple compound. Thus it is easy to notice that [Fe(C_{2}O_{4})_{3}]^{3-} is most stable among all given compounds.


    Question 9.32 What will be the correct order for the wavelengths of absorption in the visible region for the following:

    [Ni(NO_{2})_{6}]^{4-}, [Ni(NH_{3})_{6}]^{2+}, [Ni(H_{2}O)_{6}]^{2+} ?

    Answer :

    The order of the wavelength of absorption will be decided from the order of their CFSE values.

    The CFSE values increase in the order :- H 2 O < NH 3 < NO 2 -

    Hence, the order of wavelengths of absorption in the visible region is : [Ni(H 2 O) 6 ] 2+ > [Ni(NH 3 ) 6 ] 2+ > [Ni(NO 2 ) 6 ] 4-

    NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry - Chapterwise

    More About NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 9 Coordination Compounds

    After studying chapter 9 Coordination Compounds of Class 12 Chemistry, you will be able to know the meaning of terms like a central atom or ion, coordination entity, ligand, coordination number, oxidation number, homoleptic and heteroleptic, able to learn the rules of nomenclature of coordination compounds, define various types of isomerism in coordination compounds and various applications of coordination compounds in daily life.

    Topics and Sub-topics of NCERT solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 9 Coordination Compounds-

    9.1 Werner's Theory of Coordination Compounds

    9.2 Definitions of Some Important Terms Pertaining to Coordination Compounds

    9.3 Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds

    9.4 Isomerism in Coordination Compounds

    9.5 Bonding in Coordination Compounds

    9.6 Bonding in Metal Carbonyls

    9.7 Importance and Applications of Coordination Compounds

    NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Subject-wise

    Benefits of NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 9 Coordination Compounds

    • The NCERT Class 12 Chemistry solutions chapter 9 Coordination Compounds are prepared and explained well by subject experts to help you in the preparation of CBSE Board exams.

    • NCERT solutions for other classes and subjects can aid you in various competitive exams like JEE, NEET, BITS, and, KVPY etc.

    • The seven sub-topics of NCERT syllabus Chemistry chapter 9 Coordination Compounds covers important concepts like Werner’s Theory of coordination compounds, definitions of some important terms relating to coordination compounds, the rules of nomenclature of coordination compounds etc.

    • By referring to the Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 9 NCERT book solutions, students can understand all the important concepts and practice questions well enough before their examination.

    • The comprehensive answers given in the CBSE NCERT solutions for Class 12 Chemistry chapter 9 Coordination Compounds will be helpful in understanding the chapter easily.

    • The revision will be quite easier because the detailed solutions will help you to remember the concepts and get very good marks in your class.

    • Homework problems won't bother you anymore, all you need to do is check the detailed NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry and you are good to go.

    Also, check NCERT Exemplar Class 12 Solutions

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    Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

    1. What is the weightage of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 9 in CBSE board exam?

    Weightage of Coordination Compounds in CBSE Board exam is 6-7 marks. Follow NCERT textbook for a good score in the board exam.

    2. What is the weightage of NCERT Class 12 Chemistry chapter 9 in JEE Mains?

    Weightage of Coordination Compounds in JEE mains is 10 marks. To practice questions students can refer to NCERT exemplar and JEE Main previous year papers.

    3. What is the weightage of NCERT Class 12 Chemistry chapter 9 in NEET?

    Coordination compounds is a very important chapter for the NEET exam and it holds a weightage of 9% of the total marks.

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    Questions related to CBSE Class 12th

    Have a question related to CBSE Class 12th ?

    hello,

    Yes you can appear for the compartment paper again since CBSE gives three chances to a candidate to clear his/her exams so you still have two more attempts. However, you can appear for your improvement paper for all subjects but you cannot appear for the ones in which you have failed.

    I hope this was helpful!

    Good Luck

    Hello dear,

    If you was not able to clear 1st compartment and now you giving second compartment so YES, you can go for your improvement exam next year but if a student receives an improvement, they are given the opportunity to retake the boards as a private candidate the following year, but there are some requirements. First, the student must pass all of their subjects; if they received a compartment in any subject, they must then pass the compartment exam before being eligible for the improvement.


    As you can registered yourself as private candidate for giving your improvement exam of 12 standard CBSE(Central Board of Secondary Education).For that you have to wait for a whole year which is bit difficult for you.


    Positive side of waiting for whole year is you have a whole year to preparing yourself for your examination. You have no distraction or something which may causes your failure in the exams. In whole year you have to stay focused on your 12 standard examination for doing well in it. By this you get a highest marks as a comparison of others.


    Believe in Yourself! You can make anything happen


    All the very best.

    Hello Student,

    I appreciate your Interest in education. See the improvement is not restricted to one subject or multiple subjects  and  we cannot say if improvement in one subject in one year leads to improvement in more subjects in coming year.

    You just need to have a revision of all subjects what you have completed in the school. have a revision and practice of subjects and concepts helps you better.

    All the best.

    If you'll do hard work then by hard work of 6 months you can achieve your goal but you have to start studying for it dont waste your time its a very important year so please dont waste it otherwise you'll regret.

    Yes, you can take admission in class 12th privately there are many colleges in which you can give 12th privately.

    View All

    A block of mass 0.50 kg is moving with a speed of 2.00 ms-1 on a smooth surface. It strikes another mass of 1.00 kg and then they move together as a single body. The energy loss during the collision is

    Option 1)

    0.34\; J

    Option 2)

    0.16\; J

    Option 3)

    1.00\; J

    Option 4)

    0.67\; J

    A person trying to lose weight by burning fat lifts a mass of 10 kg upto a height of 1 m 1000 times.  Assume that the potential energy lost each time he lowers the mass is dissipated.  How much fat will he use up considering the work done only when the weight is lifted up ?  Fat supplies 3.8×107 J of energy per kg which is converted to mechanical energy with a 20% efficiency rate.  Take g = 9.8 ms−2 :

    Option 1)

    2.45×10−3 kg

    Option 2)

     6.45×10−3 kg

    Option 3)

     9.89×10−3 kg

    Option 4)

    12.89×10−3 kg

     

    An athlete in the olympic games covers a distance of 100 m in 10 s. His kinetic energy can be estimated to be in the range

    Option 1)

    2,000 \; J - 5,000\; J

    Option 2)

    200 \, \, J - 500 \, \, J

    Option 3)

    2\times 10^{5}J-3\times 10^{5}J

    Option 4)

    20,000 \, \, J - 50,000 \, \, J

    A particle is projected at 600   to the horizontal with a kinetic energy K. The kinetic energy at the highest point

    Option 1)

    K/2\,

    Option 2)

    \; K\;

    Option 3)

    zero\;

    Option 4)

    K/4

    In the reaction,

    2Al_{(s)}+6HCL_{(aq)}\rightarrow 2Al^{3+}\, _{(aq)}+6Cl^{-}\, _{(aq)}+3H_{2(g)}

    Option 1)

    11.2\, L\, H_{2(g)}  at STP  is produced for every mole HCL_{(aq)}  consumed

    Option 2)

    6L\, HCl_{(aq)}  is consumed for ever 3L\, H_{2(g)}      produced

    Option 3)

    33.6 L\, H_{2(g)} is produced regardless of temperature and pressure for every mole Al that reacts

    Option 4)

    67.2\, L\, H_{2(g)} at STP is produced for every mole Al that reacts .

    How many moles of magnesium phosphate, Mg_{3}(PO_{4})_{2} will contain 0.25 mole of oxygen atoms?

    Option 1)

    0.02

    Option 2)

    3.125 × 10-2

    Option 3)

    1.25 × 10-2

    Option 4)

    2.5 × 10-2

    If we consider that 1/6, in place of 1/12, mass of carbon atom is taken to be the relative atomic mass unit, the mass of one mole of a substance will

    Option 1)

    decrease twice

    Option 2)

    increase two fold

    Option 3)

    remain unchanged

    Option 4)

    be a function of the molecular mass of the substance.

    With increase of temperature, which of these changes?

    Option 1)

    Molality

    Option 2)

    Weight fraction of solute

    Option 3)

    Fraction of solute present in water

    Option 4)

    Mole fraction.

    Number of atoms in 558.5 gram Fe (at. wt.of Fe = 55.85 g mol-1) is

    Option 1)

    twice that in 60 g carbon

    Option 2)

    6.023 × 1022

    Option 3)

    half that in 8 g He

    Option 4)

    558.5 × 6.023 × 1023

    A pulley of radius 2 m is rotated about its axis by a force F = (20t - 5t2) newton (where t is measured in seconds) applied tangentially. If the moment of inertia of the pulley about its axis of rotation is 10 kg m2 , the number of rotations made by the pulley before its direction of motion if reversed, is

    Option 1)

    less than 3

    Option 2)

    more than 3 but less than 6

    Option 3)

    more than 6 but less than 9

    Option 4)

    more than 9

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    Transportation Planner

    A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

    3 Jobs Available
    Conservation Architect

    A Conservation Architect is a professional responsible for conserving and restoring buildings or monuments having a historic value. He or she applies techniques to document and stabilise the object’s state without any further damage. A Conservation Architect restores the monuments and heritage buildings to bring them back to their original state.

    2 Jobs Available
    Safety Manager

    A Safety Manager is a professional responsible for employee’s safety at work. He or she plans, implements and oversees the company’s employee safety. A Safety Manager ensures compliance and adherence to Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) guidelines.

    2 Jobs Available
    Team Lead

    A Team Leader is a professional responsible for guiding, monitoring and leading the entire group. He or she is responsible for motivating team members by providing a pleasant work environment to them and inspiring positive communication. A Team Leader contributes to the achievement of the organisation’s goals. He or she improves the confidence, product knowledge and communication skills of the team members and empowers them.

    2 Jobs Available
    Structural Engineer

    A Structural Engineer designs buildings, bridges, and other related structures. He or she analyzes the structures and makes sure the structures are strong enough to be used by the people. A career as a Structural Engineer requires working in the construction process. It comes under the civil engineering discipline. A Structure Engineer creates structural models with the help of computer-aided design software. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Architect

    Individuals in the architecture career are the building designers who plan the whole construction keeping the safety and requirements of the people. Individuals in architect career in India provides professional services for new constructions, alterations, renovations and several other activities. Individuals in architectural careers in India visit site locations to visualize their projects and prepare scaled drawings to submit to a client or employer as a design. Individuals in architecture careers also estimate build costs, materials needed, and the projected time frame to complete a build.

    2 Jobs Available
    Landscape Architect

    Having a landscape architecture career, you are involved in site analysis, site inventory, land planning, planting design, grading, stormwater management, suitable design, and construction specification. Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of Central Park in New York introduced the title “landscape architect”. The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA) proclaims that "Landscape Architects research, plan, design and advise on the stewardship, conservation and sustainability of development of the environment and spaces, both within and beyond the built environment". Therefore, individuals who opt for a career as a landscape architect are those who are educated and experienced in landscape architecture. Students need to pursue various landscape architecture degrees, such as M.Des, M.Plan to become landscape architects. If you have more questions regarding a career as a landscape architect or how to become a landscape architect then you can read the article to get your doubts cleared. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Plumber

    An expert in plumbing is aware of building regulations and safety standards and works to make sure these standards are upheld. Testing pipes for leakage using air pressure and other gauges, and also the ability to construct new pipe systems by cutting, fitting, measuring and threading pipes are some of the other more involved aspects of plumbing. Individuals in the plumber career path are self-employed or work for a small business employing less than ten people, though some might find working for larger entities or the government more desirable.

    2 Jobs Available
    Orthotist and Prosthetist

    Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

    6 Jobs Available
    Pathologist

    A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.

    5 Jobs Available
    Veterinary Doctor

    A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.

    5 Jobs Available
    Gynaecologist

    Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

    4 Jobs Available
    Oncologist

    An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.

    3 Jobs Available
    Surgical Technologist

    When it comes to an operation theatre, there are several tasks that are to be carried out before as well as after the operation or surgery has taken place. Such tasks are not possible without surgical tech and surgical tech tools. A single surgeon cannot do it all alone. It’s like for a footballer he needs his team’s support to score a goal the same goes for a surgeon. It is here, when a surgical technologist comes into the picture. It is the job of a surgical technologist to prepare the operation theatre with all the required equipment before the surgery. Not only that, once an operation is done it is the job of the surgical technologist to clean all the equipment. One has to fulfil the minimum requirements of surgical tech qualifications. 

    Also Read: Career as Nurse

    3 Jobs Available
    Critical Care Specialist

    A career as Critical Care Specialist is responsible for providing the best possible prompt medical care to patients. He or she writes progress notes of patients in records. A Critical Care Specialist also liaises with admitting consultants and proceeds with the follow-up treatments. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Ophthalmologist

    Individuals in the ophthalmologist career in India are trained medically to care for all eye problems and conditions. Some optometric physicians further specialize in a particular area of the eye and are known as sub-specialists who are responsible for taking care of each and every aspect of a patient's eye problem. An ophthalmologist's job description includes performing a variety of tasks such as diagnosing the problem, prescribing medicines, performing eye surgery, recommending eyeglasses, or looking after post-surgery treatment. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Actor

    For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

    4 Jobs Available
    Radio Jockey

    Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

    A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.

    3 Jobs Available
    Acrobat

    Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

    3 Jobs Available
    Video Game Designer

    Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages. Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

    3 Jobs Available
    Talent Agent

    The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

    If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

    3 Jobs Available
    Videographer

    Careers in videography are art that can be defined as a creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than a simple recording of a simple event. It would be wrong to portrait it as a subcategory of photography, rather photography is one of the crafts used in videographer jobs in addition to technical skills like organization, management, interpretation, and image-manipulation techniques. Students pursue Visual Media, Film, Television, Digital Video Production to opt for a videographer career path. The visual impacts of a film are driven by the creative decisions taken in videography jobs. Individuals who opt for a career as a videographer are involved in the entire lifecycle of a film and production. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Multimedia Specialist

    A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Visual Communication Designer

    Individuals who want to opt for a career as a Visual Communication Designer will work in the graphic design and arts industry. Every sector in the modern age is using visuals to connect with people, clients, or customers. This career involves art and technology and candidates who want to pursue their career as visual communication designer has a great scope of career opportunity.

    2 Jobs Available
    Copy Writer

    In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism, Advertising, Marketing Management. Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

    5 Jobs Available
    Journalist

    Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

    3 Jobs Available
    Publisher

    For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

    3 Jobs Available
    Vlogger

    In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. Ever since internet cost got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, the career as vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the career as vlogger, how to become a vlogger, so on and so forth then continue reading the article. Students can visit Jamia Millia Islamia, Asian College of Journalism, Indian Institute of Mass Communication to pursue journalism degrees.

    3 Jobs Available
    Editor

    Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

    3 Jobs Available
    Advertising Manager

    Advertising managers consult with the financial department to plan a marketing strategy schedule and cost estimates. We often see advertisements that attract us a lot, not every advertisement is just to promote a business but some of them provide a social message as well. There was an advertisement for a washing machine brand that implies a story that even a man can do household activities. And of course, how could we even forget those jingles which we often sing while working?

    2 Jobs Available
    Photographer

    Photography is considered both a science and an art, an artistic means of expression in which the camera replaces the pen. In a career as a photographer, an individual is hired to capture the moments of public and private events, such as press conferences or weddings, or may also work inside a studio, where people go to get their picture clicked. Photography is divided into many streams each generating numerous career opportunities in photography. With the boom in advertising, media, and the fashion industry, photography has emerged as a lucrative and thrilling career option for many Indian youths.

    2 Jobs Available
    Social Media Manager

    A career as social media manager involves implementing the company’s or brand’s marketing plan across all social media channels. Social media managers help in building or improving a brand’s or a company’s website traffic, build brand awareness, create and implement marketing and brand strategy. Social media managers are key to important social communication as well.

    2 Jobs Available
    Product Manager

    A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

    3 Jobs Available
    Quality Controller

    A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

    A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

    3 Jobs Available
    Production Manager

    Production Manager Job Description: A Production Manager is responsible for ensuring smooth running of manufacturing processes in an efficient manner. He or she plans and organises production schedules. The role of Production Manager involves estimation, negotiation on budget and timescales with the clients and managers. 

    Resource Links for Online MBA 

    3 Jobs Available
    Team Lead

    A Team Leader is a professional responsible for guiding, monitoring and leading the entire group. He or she is responsible for motivating team members by providing a pleasant work environment to them and inspiring positive communication. A Team Leader contributes to the achievement of the organisation’s goals. He or she improves the confidence, product knowledge and communication skills of the team members and empowers them.

    2 Jobs Available
    Quality Systems Manager

    A Quality Systems Manager is a professional responsible for developing strategies, processes, policies, standards and systems concerning the company as well as operations of its supply chain. It includes auditing to ensure compliance. It could also be carried out by a third party. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Merchandiser

    A career as a merchandiser requires one to promote specific products and services of one or different brands, to increase the in-house sales of the store. Merchandising job focuses on enticing the customers to enter the store and hence increasing their chances of buying a product. Although the buyer is the one who selects the lines, it all depends on the merchandiser on how much money a buyer will spend, how many lines will be purchased, and what will be the quantity of those lines. In a career as merchandiser, one is required to closely work with the display staff in order to decide in what way a product would be displayed so that sales can be maximised. In small brands or local retail stores, a merchandiser is responsible for both merchandising and buying. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Procurement Manager

    The procurement Manager is also known as  Purchasing Manager. The role of the Procurement Manager is to source products and services for a company. A Procurement Manager is involved in developing a purchasing strategy, including the company's budget and the supplies as well as the vendors who can provide goods and services to the company. His or her ultimate goal is to bring the right products or services at the right time with cost-effectiveness. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Production Planner

    Individuals who opt for a career as a production planner are professionals who are responsible for ensuring goods manufactured by the employing company are cost-effective and meets quality specifications including ensuring the availability of ready to distribute stock in a timely fashion manner. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Information Security Manager

    Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

    3 Jobs Available
    Computer Programmer

    Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

    3 Jobs Available
    Product Manager

    A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

    3 Jobs Available
    ITSM Manager

    ITSM Manager is a professional responsible for heading the ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) or (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) processes. He or she ensures that operation management provides appropriate resource levels for problem resolutions. The ITSM Manager oversees the level of prioritisation for the problems, critical incidents, planned as well as proactive tasks. 

    3 Jobs Available
    .NET Developer

    .NET Developer Job Description: A .NET Developer is a professional responsible for producing code using .NET languages. He or she is a software developer who uses the .NET technologies platform to create various applications. Dot NET Developer job comes with the responsibility of  creating, designing and developing applications using .NET languages such as VB and C#. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Corporate Executive

    Are you searching for a Corporate Executive job description? A Corporate Executive role comes with administrative duties. He or she provides support to the leadership of the organisation. A Corporate Executive fulfils the business purpose and ensures its financial stability. In this article, we are going to discuss how to become corporate executive.

    2 Jobs Available
    DevOps Architect

    A DevOps Architect is responsible for defining a systematic solution that fits the best across technical, operational and and management standards. He or she generates an organised solution by examining a large system environment and selects appropriate application frameworks in order to deal with the system’s difficulties. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Cloud Solution Architect

    Individuals who are interested in working as a Cloud Administration should have the necessary technical skills to handle various tasks related to computing. These include the design and implementation of cloud computing services, as well as the maintenance of their own. Aside from being able to program multiple programming languages, such as Ruby, Python, and Java, individuals also need a degree in computer science.

    2 Jobs Available
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