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    NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

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    NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

    Edited By Irshad Anwar | Updated on Mar 06, 2023 02:58 PM IST | #CBSE Class 12th

    NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes - We all know about the periodic table and its elements. So, ever wondered that from these elements how Haloalkanes and Halaorenes are actually formed? When a hydrogen atom is replaced by a halogen atom (F, Cl, Br, I) in an aliphatic hydrocarbon it results in formation of Haloalkane or alkane halide. The same goes for Haloarenes, when a hydrogen atom is replaced by a halogen in an aromatic hydrocarbon then it forms Haloarene or aryl halide. These haloalkanes and haloarenes ncert solutions will help in understanding concepts of Haloalkanes and Haloarenes. These haloalkanes and haloarenes class 12 chapter 10 are explained by experts in the easiest way. This will help to resolve all NCERT problems of this chapter.

    Also Read : Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Class 12 Notes

    Topics and Sub-topics of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes-

    Class 12 chemistry ch 10 ncert solutions important topics and subtopics are given below:

    10.1 Classification

    10.2 Nomenclature

    10.3 Nature of C–X Bond

    10.4 Methods of Preparation of Haloalkanes

    10.5 Preparation of Haloarenes

    10.6 Physical Properties

    10.7 Chemical Reactions

    Find NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes below:

    Solutions to In-Text Questions Ex 10.1 to 10.9

    Question 1 Write structures of the following compounds:

    (i) 2-Chloro-3-methylpentane

    Answer :

    The structure of 2-Chloro-3-methylpentane is given below :-

    1650393268093

    Question 10.1 Write structures of the following compounds:

    (ii) 1-Chloro-4-ethylcyclohexane

    Answer :

    The structure of 1-Chloro-4-ethylcyclohexane is given below :-

    1650393304836


    Question 10.1 Write structures of the following compounds:

    (iii) 4-tert. Butyl-3-iodoheptane

    Answer :

    The structure of 4-tert. Butyl-3-iodoheptane is given below :-

    1650393334343


    Question 10.1 Write structures of the following compounds:

    (iv) 1,4-Dibromobut-2-ene

    Answer :

    The structure of 1,4-Dibromobut-2-ene is given below :-

    1650393521544

    Question 10.1 Write structures of the following compounds:

    (v) 1-Bromo-4-sec. butyl-2-methylbenzene

    Answer :

    The structure of 1-Bromo-4-sec. butyl-2-methylbenzene is shown below :-

    1650393588711

    Question 10.2 Why is sulphuric acid not used during the reaction of alcohols with KI?

    Answer :

    We don't use sulphuric acid because it acts as an oxidising agent and the required alkyl iodide is not produced. The reactions are given below :-

    2KI + H 2 SO 4 → 2KHSO 4 + 2HI

    2HI + H 2 SO 4 → I 2 + SO 2 + H 2 O

    Question 10.3 Write structures of different dihalogen derivatives of propane.

    Answer :

    We obtain four dihalogen derivatives of propane :-

    (i) 1,1 Dibromopropane

    1650393649596

    (ii) 2, 2 Dibromopropane

    1650393673880

    (iii) 1, 2 Dibromopropane

    1650393696576

    (iv) 1, 3 Dibromopropane

    1650393717664

    Question 10.4 Among the isomeric alkanes of molecular formula C 5 H 12 , identify the one that on photochemical chlorination yields

    (i) A single monochloride

    Answer :

    In this we have to find an isomer in which replacement of any hydrogen atom gives the singel compound for all replacements.

    So the isomer is Neopentane.

    1650393974824

    Question 10.4 Among the isomeric alkanes of molecular formula C 5 H 12 , identify the one that on photochemical chlorination yields

    (ii) Three isomeric monochlorides.

    Answer :

    For the given condition we must have three different hydrogens so that we can get three different monochlorides on the replacement.

    Thus the isomer is n-pentane.

    1650394033275

    Question 10.4 Among the isomeric alkanes of molecular formula C 5 H 12 , identify the one that on photochemical chlorination yields

    (iii) Four isomeric monochlorides .

    Answer :

    For four monochlorides we need four different hydrogens which can be replaced by chlorine.

    Hence the required isomer is :-

    Question 10.6 Arrange each set of compounds in order of increasing boiling points.

    (i) Bromomethane, Bromoform, Chloromethane, Dibromomethane.

    Answer :

    It is known that boiling point increases with increase in molecular mass when the alkyl group is the same.

    So the order of increasing boiling point is Chloromethane < Bromomethane < Dibromomethane < Bromoform


    Question 10.6 Arrange each set of compounds in order of increasing boiling points.

    (ii) 1-Chloropropane, Isopropyl chloride, 1-Chlorobutane.

    Answer :

    In the given compounds the halide groups are same. In these cases, the boiling point depends on the bulkiness of the alkyl group. The boiling point increases with an increase in the chain length. Also, the boiling point decreases with an increase in branching.

    So the order is :- 1- Chlorobutane > 1- Chloropropane > Isopropyl Chloride


    Question 10.7 Which alkyl halide from the following pairs would you expect to react more rapidly by an S_{N}2 mechanism? Explain your answer.

    CH_{3}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}Br

    Answer :

    In this case, the rate of S_{N}2 reaction will depend on the hindrance of the substrate.

    Since 1- Bromobutane is a 1^{\circ} alkyl halide and 2- Bromobutane is a 2^{\circ} alkyl halide hence 2- Bromobutane gives more hindrance to the nucleophile.

    Hence 1- Bromobutane reacts faster.


    Question 10.7 Which alkyl halide from the following pairs would you expect to react more rapidly by an S_{N}2 mechanism? Explain your answer.

    1650394520742

    Answer :

    The rate of S_{N}2 reaction decreases with increase in hindrance to the attack of the nucleophile.

    So 2-bromobutane will react faster than 2-bromo-2-methylpropane in the nucleophilic attack.


    Question 10.7 Which alkyl halide from the following pairs would you expect to react more rapidly by an S_{N}2 mechanism? Explain your answer.

    1650394551180

    Answer :

    In these kinds of cases, we see where is the substituent is attached i.e., how far from the halide group. It can be clearly seen that the methyl group attached in 1-bromo-2-methylbutane is near than that attached in 1-bromo-3-methyl butane.

    Hence the rate of S_{N}2 reaction will be faster in case of 1-bromo-3-methylbutane.


    Question 10.8 In the following pairs of halogen compounds, which compound undergoes faster S_{N}1 reaction?

    (i) 1650394593342

    Answer :

    In S_{N}1 reactions, we see the formation of carbocation and this is the rate determining step for this kind of reactions. So the compound having more stable carbocation will react faster. In the given case 2- Chloro, 2- Methylpropane we have 3^{\circ} carbon whereas in 3- Chloropentane we have 2^{\circ} carbon.


    Question 10.8 In the following pairs of halogen compounds, which compound undergoes faster S_{N}1 reaction?

    1650394629230

    Answer :

    In S_{N}1 reactions, we see the formation of carbocation and this is the rate determining step for these kinds of reactions.So the compound having more stable carbocation will react faster. Hence 2-Chloroheptane will react faster than 1- Chlorohexane.


    Question 10.9 Identify A, B, C, D, E, R and R1 in the following:

    1650394661923

    Answer :

    1st reaction :-

    1650394679729

    2nd reaction :-

    1650394698219

    3rd reaction :-

    1650394715385

    NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes- Exercise Questions

    Question 10.1 Name the following halides according to IUPAC system and classify them as alkyl, allyl, benzyl (primary, secondary, tertiary), vinyl or aryl halides:

    (i) \left ( CH_{3} \right )_{2}CHCH (Cl)CH_{3}

    Answer :

    (i) 2-Chloro-3-methylbutane. And it is a secondary alkyl halide.


    Question 10.1 Name the following halides according to IUPAC system and classify them as alkyl, allyl, benzyl (primary, secondary, tertiary), vinyl or aryl halides:

    (iv) (CH_{3})_{3}CCH_{2}CH(Br)C_{6}H_{5}

    Answer :

    (iv) 1-Bromo-3, 3-dimethyl-1-phenylbutane. And it is secondary benzyl halide.


    Question 10.1 Name the following halides according to IUPAC system and classify them as alkyl, allyl, benzyl (primary, secondary, tertiary), vinyl or aryl halides:

    (xi) m- Cl C_{6}H_{4}CH_{2}CH (CH_{3})_{2}

    Answer :

    (xi) 1-Chloromethyl-3-(2, 2-dimethylpropyl) benzene. And it is primary benzyl halide.

    Question 10.2 Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

    (i) CH_{3}CH(Cl)CH (Br)CH_{3}

    Answer :

    (i) 2-Bromo-3-chlorobutane

    Question 10.2 Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

    (ii) CHF_{2}CBrCIF

    Answer :

    1-Bromo-1-chloro-1, 2, 2-trifluroethane

    Question 10.2 Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

    (iii) Cl CH_{2}C \equiv C CH_{2}Br

    Answer :

    1-Bromo-4-chlorobut-2-yne

    Question 10.2 Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

    (iv) (CCl_{3})_{3}CCl

    Answer :

    2-(Trichloromethyl)-1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 3-heptachloropropane

    Question 10.2 Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

    (v) CH_{3}(p- Cl C_{6}H_{4})_{2}CH(Br)CH_{3}

    Answer :

    2-Bromo-3, 3-bis(4-Chlorophenyl) butane

    Question 10.2 Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds:

    (vi) (CH_{3})_{3}CCH = CCl C_{6}H_{4}I - p

    Answer :

    1-Chloro-1-(4-iodophenyl)-3, 3-dimethylbut-1-ene

    Question 10.3 Write the structures of the following organic halogen compounds.

    (i) 2-Chloro-3-methylpentane

    Answer :

    (i)

    1650394770185

    Question 10.3 Write the structures of the following organic halogen compounds.

    (ii) p-Bromochlorobenzene

    Answer :

    (ii)

    1650394830725

    Question 10.3 Write the structures of the following organic halogen compounds.

    (iii) 1-Chloro-4-ethylcyclohexane

    Answer :

    (iii)

    1650394865688

    Question 10.3 Write the structures of the following organic halogen compounds.

    (iv) 2-(2-Chlorophenyl)-1-iodooctane

    Answer :

    (iv)

    1650394905647

    Question 10.3 Write the structures of the following organic halogen compounds.

    (v) 2-Bromobutane

    Answer :

    (v)

    1650394945214

    Question 10.3 Write the structures of the following organic halogen compounds.

    (vi) 4-tert-Butyl-3-iodoheptane

    Answer :

    (vi)

    1650394997618

    Question 10.3 Write the structures of the following organic halogen compounds.

    (vii) 1-Bromo-4-sec-butyl-2-methylbenzene

    Answer :

    (vii)

    1650395035475

    Question 10.3 Write the structures of the following organic halogen compounds.

    (viii) 1,4-Dibromobut-2-ene

    Answer :

    (viii)

    1650395068985

    Question 10.4 Which one of the following has the highest dipole moment?

    (i) CH 2 Cl 2 (ii) CHCl 3 (iii) CCl 4

    Answer :

    The order of dipole moment will be :- CH 2 Cl 2 > CHCl 3 > CCl 4.

    The reason for the above order is given as- CCl 4 is a symmetrical compound so its dipole moment will be zero. In case of CHCl 3 , one of the Cl cancels dipole moment of the opposite Cl atom, so net dipole moment is just due to one Cl. In the case of CH 2 Cl 2 , both Cl groups contribute to the dipole moment so it has the highest dipole moment among all.

    Question 10.5 A hydrocarbon C 5 H 10 does not react with chlorine in dark but gives a single monochloro compound C 5 H 9 Cl in bright sunlight. Identify the hydrocarbon.

    Answer :

    We are given the formula C 5 H 10 which can be either of an alkene or of cycloalkane. Since the hydrocarbon doesn't react with chlorine in dark thus it cannot be alkene. So the only option left out is cyclopentane.

    1650395110987

    Question 10.6 Write the isomers of the compound having formula C_{4}H_{9}Br .

    Answer :

    The isomers of the compound C_{4}H_{9}Br are :-

    (i) 1-Bromobutane

    1650395155565

    (ii) 2-Bromobutane

    1650395182967

    (iii) 1-Bromo-2-methylpropane

    1650395202259

    (iv) 2-Bromo-2-methylpropane

    1650395222249

    Question 10.7 Write the equations for the preparation of 1-iodobutane from:

    (i) 1-butanol

    Answer :

    (i) The procedure given below can be used :-

    1650395262688

    Question 10.7 Write the equations for the preparation of 1-iodobutane from

    (ii) 1-chlorobutane

    Answer :

    (ii) The required product can be obtained as shown below :-

    1650395301827

    Question 10.7 Write the equations for the preparation of 1-iodobutane from

    (iii) but-1-ene

    Answer :

    (iii) The required product is obtained by following procedure :-

    1650395383932

    Question 10.8 What are ambident nucleophiles? Explain with an example.

    Answer :

    The ambident nucleophiles are those nucleophiles which have two nucleophilic sites through which they can attack. For e.g Nitrile ion can attack through both nitrogen atom (forms nitroalkanes) and an oxygen atom (forms alkyl nitrites), thus it is an ambident nucleophile.


    Question 10.9 Which compound in each of the following pairs will react faster in S N 2 reaction with –OH?

    (i) CH 3 Br or CH 3 I

    Answer :

    In this case, we have the same alkyl group but different halide ions. For this rate of S N 2 reaction increases with increase in atomic mass. So, CH 3 I will react faster than CH 3 Br.


    Question 10.9 Which compound in each of the following pairs will react faster in S N 2 reaction with –OH?

    (ii) (CH_{3})_{3}CCl or CH_{3}Cl

    Answer :

    In this case, the hindrance will be deciding factor for the rate of S N 2 reaction because hindrance will directly affect the attack of the nucleophile. So CH_{3}Cl will react faster as compared to (CH_{3})_{3}CCl .

    Question 10.10 Predict all the alkenes that would be formed by dehydrohalogenation of the following halides with sodium ethoxide in ethanol and identify the major alkene:

    (i) 1-Bromo-1-methylcyclohexane

    Answer :

    1650395452626

    In this compound, it is clear that we have identical \beta hydrogen, therefore, dehalogenation of the given compound gives the same alkene.

    1650395489418

    Question 10.10 Predict all the alkenes that would be formed by dehydrohalogenation of the following halides with sodium ethoxide in ethanol and identify the major alkene:

    (ii) 2-Chloro-2-methylbutane

    Answer :

    (ii)

    1650395539877

    In this compound we have two kind of \beta hydrogen. So dehalogenation will give two kind of alkenes, namely 2-Methylbut-2-ene and 2-Methylbut-1-ene.

    15949131170821594913112687

    The major product of this reaction will be 2-Methylbut-2-ene as the number of \alpha - hydrogens attached to double bonded carbon are more in case of this compound.

    Question 10.10 Predict all the alkenes that would be formed by dehydrohalogenation of the following halides with sodium ethoxide in ethanol and identify the major alkene:

    (iii) 2,2,3-Trimethyl-3-bromopentane

    Answer :

    (iii)

    1650395582853

    In this compound we have two type of \beta - hydrogen thus dehalogenation we get two types of products namely 3, 4, 4-Trimethylpent-2-ene and 2-Ethyl-3,3-dimethylbut-2-ene.

    1650395602563 and 1650395617100

    Here 3, 4, 4-Trimethylpent-2-ene will be major product, since the \alpha - hydrogen attached to the double bond are greater.

    Question 10.11 How will you bring about the following conversions?

    (i) Ethanol to but-1-yne

    Answer :

    (i) The conversion will take place by following procedure :-

    1650395649100

    Now,

    1650395667267

    1650395692814

    Question 10.11 How will you bring about the following conversions?

    (ii) Ethane to bromoethene

    Answer :

    (ii)

    1650395734449

    Question 10.11 How will you bring about the following conversions?

    (iii) Propene to 1-nitropropane

    Answer :

    (iii)

    1650395766265

    Question 10.11 How will you bring about the following conversions?

    (iv) Toluene to benzyl alcohol

    Answer :

    (iv)

    1650395803620

    Question 10.11 How will you bring about the following conversions?

    (v) Propene to propyne

    Answer :

    (v)

    1650395841286

    Question 10.11 How will you bring about the following conversions?

    (vi) Ethanol to ethyl fluoride

    Answer :

    (vi)

    1650395904233

    Question 10.11 How will you bring about the following conversions?

    (vii) Bromomethane to propanone

    Answer :

    (vii)

    1650395947461

    Question 10.11 How will you bring about the following conversions?

    (viii) But-1-ene to but-2-ene

    Answer :

    (viii)

    1650396011008

    Question 10.11 How will you bring about the following conversions?

    (ix) 1-Chlorobutane to n-octane

    Answer :

    (ix)

    1650396049768

    Question 10.11 How will you bring about the following conversions?

    (x) Benzene to biphenyl.

    Answer :

    (x)

    1650396088832

    Question 10.12 Explain why

    (i) the dipole moment of chlorobenzene is lower than that of cyclohexyl chloride?

    Answer :

    We know that the Cl-atom in chlorobenzene is attached to a sp 2 hybridized carbon atom whereas, in cyclohexyl chloride, the Cl-atom is attached to a sp 3 hybridized carbon atom. It is known that sp 2 hybridized carbon has more s-character than sp 3 hybridized carbon atom. Thus, chlorobenzene is more electronegative than cyclohexyl chloride.

    Apart from this, the - R effect of the benzene ring of chlorobenzene results in decreasing the electron density of the C - Cl bond near the Cl-atom. And the C - Cl bond in chlorobenzene becomes less polar. Due to these reasons, the dipole moment of chlorobenzene is lower than that of cyclohexyl chloride.


    Question 10.12 Explain why

    (ii) alkyl halides, though polar, are immiscible with water?

    Answer :

    For being soluble in the water we have a condition that the solute-water force of attraction must be stronger than the solute-solute and water-water forces of attraction. Alkyl halides are held together by dipole-dipole interactions and there are polar molecules. Similarly, the intermolecular force of attraction present between the water molecules is hydrogen bonding. The new force of attraction after we dissolve solute in water i.e., between the alkyl halides and water molecules is weaker than the alkyl halide-alkyl halide and water-water forces of attraction. That is why alkyl halides (though polar) are immiscible with water.

    Question 10.12 Explain why

    (iii) Grignard reagents should be prepared under anhydrous conditions?

    Answer :

    This is done because in presence of moisture, they react to give alkane.

    1650396174518

    Question 10.13 Give the uses of freon 12, DDT, carbon tetrachloride and iodoform.

    Answer :

    (i) Freon-12 or dichlorodifluoromethane is generally known as CFC. It is used in refrigerators and air conditioners as a refrigerant. It is also used in body sprays, hair sprays, etc. But it has environmental impacts as it damages the ozone layer.

    (ii) DDT or p, p-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane is one of the best-known insecticides which was used very widely all over the world. It is very effective against mosquitoes, insects and lice. But it has harmful effects.

    (iii) CCl 4 :- It is mostly used for manufacturing refrigerants for refrigerators and air conditioners. It is also used as a solvent in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products. In the early years, carbon tetrachloride was widely used as a cleaning fluid and a fire extinguisher.

    (iv) Iodoform was used earlier as an antiseptic. And this antiseptic property of iodoform is due to the liberation of free iodine when it comes in contact with the skin.

    Question 10.14 Write the structure of the major organic product in each of the following reactions:

    (i) CH_{3}CH_{2}CH_{2}Cl+NaI\xrightarrow[heat]{acetone}

    Answer :

    (i) The obtained product is :-

    CH_{3}CH_{2}CH_{2}Cl+NaI\xrightarrow[heat]{acetone} 18566


    Question 10.14 Write the structure of the major organic product in each of the following reactions:

    (ii) (CH_{3})_{3}CBr+KOH \xrightarrow[heat]{ethanol}

    Answer :

    (ii) The obtained product is 2-Methylpropene

    15949131416551594913139667


    Question 10.14 Write the structure of the major organic product in each of the following reactions:

    (iii) CH_{3}CH(Br)CH_{2}CH_{3}+ NaOH \overset{water}{\rightarrow}

    Answer :

    (iii) The obtained product is Butan-2-ol.

    15949131578861594913156062

    Question 10.14 Write the structure of the major organic product in each of the following reactions:

    (iv) CH_{3}CH_{2}Br+KCN \overset{aq. ethanol}{\rightarrow}

    Answer :

    (iv) The obtained product is Cyanoethane.

    Bromobutane to cyanoethane

    Question 10.14 Write the structure of the major organic product in each of the following reactions:

    (v) C_{6}H_{5}ONa + C_{2}H_{5}Cl \rightarrow

    Answer :

    (v) The obtained product is Phenetole.

    Sodium phenoxide to phenetole

    Question 10.14 Write the structure of the major organic product in each of the following reactions:

    (vi) CH_{3}CH_{2}CH_{2}OH+SOCl_{2}\rightarrow

    Answer :

    (vi) The obtained product is 1-Chloropropane.

    1- propanol to 1-Chloropropane

    Question 10.14 Write the structure of the major organic product in each of the following reactions:

    (vii) CH_{3}CH_{2}CH = CH _{2}+HBr \overset{peroxide}{\rightarrow}

    Answer :

    (vii) The obtained product is 1-Bromobutane.

    But-1-ene to 1-bromobutane

    Question 10.14 Write the structure of the major organic product in each of the following reactions:

    (viii) CH_{3}CH = C(CH_{3})_{2}+ HBr \rightarrow

    Answer :

    The obtained product is 2-Bromo-2-methylbutane.

    1650396358369

    Question 10.15 Write the mechanism of the following reaction:

    nBuBr + KCN \overset{EtOH -H_{2}O}{\rightarrow} nB_{4}CN

    Answer :

    The reaction will proceed through S N 2 mechanism. The mechanism for the given reaction is shown below :-

    1650396425250

    Question 10.16 Arrange the compounds of each set in order of reactivity towards S N 2 displacement:

    (i) 2-Bromo-2-methylbutane, 1-Bromopentane, 2-Bromopentane

    Answer :

    (i) Here the deciding factor the rate of reaction will be a steric hindrance.

    1650396424113

    It is clear from the above that the order of hindrance is:-

    1-Bromopentane < 2-bromopentane < 2-Bromo-2-methylbutane

    So the order of rate of reaction will be:-

    2-Bromo-2-methylbutane < 2-Bromopentane < 1-Bromopentane

    Question 10.16 Arrange the compounds of each set in order of reactivity towards S N 2 displacement:

    (ii) 1-Bromo-3-methylbutane, 2-Bromo-2-methylbutane, 2-Bromo-3-methylbutane

    Answer :

    (ii) In this case, also, the order of the rate of reaction will be decided from the steric hindrance factor.

    1650396475386

    It is clear from the above that the steric hindrance in 2-Bromo-2-methylbutane highest (note that hindrance of the carbon attached to halide ion is seen). So the order of the rate of reaction is:-

    2-Bromo-2-methylbutane < 2-Bromo-3-methylbutane < 1-Bromo-3-methylbutane


    Question 10.16 Arrange the compounds of each set in order of reactivity towards S N 2 displacement:

    (iii) 1-Bromobutane, 1-Bromo-2,2-dimethylpropane, 1-Bromo-2-methylbutane, 1-Bromo-3-methylbutane.

    Answer :

    (iii) The steric hindrance is the deciding factor here.

    The order of steric hindrance is :-

    1-Bromobutane < 1-Bromo-3-methylbutane < 1-Bromo-2-methylbutane< 1-Bromo-2, 2-dimethylpropane

    Thus the order of the rate of reaction will be : -

    1-Bromo-2, 2-dimethylpropane < 1-Bromo-2-methylbutane < 1-Bromo-3- methylbutane < 1-Bromobutane

    Question 10.17 Out of C_{6}H_{5}CH_{2}Cl and C_{6}H_{5}CHCl C_{6}H_{5} , which is more easily hydrolysed by aqueous KOH.

    Answer :

    Hydrolysis by KOH will take place by the formation of a carbocation in its rate-determining step. So the compound having stable carbocation will hydrolyse faster.

    The carbocations of both the compounds are given below:-

    1650396510971

    It is clear that carbocation of C_{6}H_{5}CHCl C_{6}H_{5} is more stable.

    Hence C_{6}H_{5}CHCl C_{6}H_{5} will hydrolyse faster than C_{6}H_{5}CH_{2}Cl .

    Question 10.18 p-Dichlorobenzene has higher m.p. than those of o- and m-isomers. Discuss.

    Answer :

    The structures of o-Dichlorobenzene, m-Dichlorobenzene and p-Dichlorobenzene are given below.

    1650396563342 16503965788941650396597407

    We can see that p-Dichlorobenzene is a very symmetric structure thus packing of it will be maximum. As a result more and more energy will be required to break bonds (during boiling). Thus boiling point is high for p-Dichlorobenzene.

    Question 10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out?

    (i) Propene to propan-1-ol


    Answer :

    The mechanism is given below :-

    1650396628364

    Question 10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out?

    (ii) Ethanol to but-1-yne

    Answer :

    The reaction mechanism is given below :-

    1650396659481

    Question 10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out?

    (iii) 1-Bromopropane to 2-bromopropane

    Answer :

    (iii) The mechanism is given below :-

    1650396693799

    Question 10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out?

    (iv) Toluene to benzyl alcohol

    Answer :

    (iv) The mechanism is given below :-

    1650396725677

    Question 10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out?

    (v) Benzene to 4-bromonitrobenzene

    Answer :

    The mechanism for the given reaction is as follows :-

    1650396774093

    Question 10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out?

    (vi) Benzyl alcohol to 2-phenylethanoic acid

    Answer :

    (vi) The mechanism for the reaction is given below :-

    1650396805595

    Question 10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out?

    (vii) Ethanol to propanenitrile

    Answer :

    (vii) The mechanism of the given reaction reaction is :-

    1650396845862

    Question 10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out?

    (viii) Aniline to chlorobenzene

    Answer :

    The mechanism of the reaction is given below :-

    1650396881053

    Question 10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out ?

    (ix) 2-Chlorobutane to 3, 4-dimethylhexane

    Answer :

    (ix) The required mechanism is as follows :-

    1650396915499

    Question 10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out?

    (x) 2-Methyl-1-propene to 2-chloro-2-methylpropane

    Answer :

    (x) The required mechanism is given below :-

    1650396949386

    Question 10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out ?

    (xi) Ethyl chloride to propanoic acid

    Answer :

    The mechanism of the given reaction is :-

    1650396978762

    Question 10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out?

    (xii) But-1-ene to n-butyliodide

    Answer :

    The mechanism is given below :-

    1650397010184

    Question 10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out?

    (xiii) 2-Chloropropane to 1-propanol

    Answer :

    The mechanism is :-

    1650397041445

    Question 10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out?

    (xiv) Isopropyl alcohol to iodoform

    Answer :

    (xiv) The proposed mechanism is :-

    1650397073455

    Question 10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out?

    (xv) Chlorobenzene to p-nitrophenol

    Answer :

    (xv) The required mechanism is given below :-

    1650397106405 `

    Question 10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out?

    (xvi) 2-Bromopropane to 1-bromopropane

    Answer :

    The mechanism of the reaction is given below :-

    1650397139391

    Question 10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out?

    (xvii) Chloroethane to butane

    Answer :

    (xvii) The mechanism of the reaction is :-

    1650397178117

    Question 10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out?

    (xviii) Benzene to diphenyl

    Answer :

    The mechanism for the given reaction is :-

    1650397215170

    Question 10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out?

    (xix) tert-Butyl bromide to isobutyl bromide

    Answer :

    The mechanism of the given reaction is :-

    1650397251052

    Question 10.19 How the following conversions can be carried out?

    (xx) Aniline to phenylisocyanide

    Answer :

    The mechanism for the given reaction is as follows :-

    1650397282194

    Question 10.20 The treatment of alkyl chlorides with aqueous KOH leads to the formation of alcohols but in the presence of alcoholic KOH, alkenes are major products. Explain.

    Answer :

    In an aqueous solution, KOH almost completely dissociates into OH - ions. We know that OH - ions are strong nucleophile, which leads the alkyl chloride to undergo a reaction to form alcohol. But an alcoholic solution of KOH contains alkoxide (RO - ) ion, which is a strong base. Thus, it can remove hydrogen from the β-carbon of the alkyl chloride and form an alkene. The OH - ion is a weaker base than RO - ion. The basic character of OH - ion decreases in aqueous solution. Therefore, it cannot remove hydrogen from the β-carbon.

    1650397317223

    1650397335438

    Question 10.22 What happens when

    (i) n-butyl chloride is treated with alcoholic KOH,

    Answer :

    When n-butyl chloride is treated with alcoholic KOH the following reaction occurs:-

    1650397448020

    Question 10.22 What happens when

    (ii) bromobenzene is treated with Mg in the presence of dry ether

    Answer :

    When bromobenzene is treated with Mg in the presence of dry ether the following reaction occurs :-

    1650397481230

    Question 10.22 What happens when

    (iii) chlorobenzene is subjected to hydrolysis

    Answer :

    The reaction is given below :-

    1650397519695

    Question 10.22 What happens when

    (iv) ethyl chloride is treated with aqueous KOH

    Answer :

    When ethyl chloride is treated with aqueous KOH the following reaction occurs :-

    1650397551997

    Question 10.22 What happens when

    (v) methyl bromide is treated with sodium in the presence of dry ether

    Answer :

    When methyl bromide is treated with sodium in the presence of dry ether then following reaction occurs:-

    1650397586595

    Question 10.22 What happens when

    (vi) methyl chloride is treated with KCN?

    Answer :

    When methyl chloride is treated with KCN the following reaction occurs:-

    1650397621876

    More About NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Haloalkanes And Haloarenes

    Our body produces thyroxine hormone which contains iodine and deficiency of iodine can cause a disease called goiter. In this chapter, you will study methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties and uses of haloalkanes and haloarenes. You will find all the NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes here for free.

    Also Read| NCERT Exemplar Solutions For Haloalkanes And Haloarenes

    This NCERT syllabus chapter carries 4 marks in the CBSE board exams hence it becomes necessary for you to find all the Class 12 Chemistry chapter 10 NCERT solutions haloalkanes and haloarenes to score good marks. In this NCERT book chapter, there are 9 intext questions and 22 questions in the exercise and you will get complete NCERT Solutions for Class 12 for reference.

    These NCERT Solutions will help you in your preparation for CBSE Board exams as well as in competitive exams like JEE, NEET, BITSAT, and KVPY, etc. The seven sub-topics of NCERT solutions for Class 12 Chemistry chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes covers important concepts like IUPAC nomenclature and preparation of haloalkanes and haloarenes and discuss how to use stereochemistry as a tool in the understanding the reaction mechanism and applications of organo-metallic compounds.

    At the end of the chapter, the environmental effects of polyhalogen compounds are also highlighted. Halogenated compounds remain in the environment due to their resistance to breakdown by the bacteria in the soil. By referring to the NCERT Class 12 Chemistry solutions chapter 10, students can understand all the important concepts and practice questions well enough before their examination. Read the entire article to know more on Class 12 Chemistry chapter 10 NCERT solutions.

    Some Important Basic Points of the NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Solutions Chapter 10

    • The replacement of one or more than one H-atom in an aliphatic hydrocarbon by halogen atoms results in the formation haloalkane or alkyl halide and the replacement of H-atoms in an aromatic hydrocarbon by halogen atoms results in the formation of haloarene or aryl halide.

    • In haloalkanes, halogen atoms attached to theSP^{3}hybridised carbon atom of an alkyl group.

    • in haloarenes, halogen atoms attached to theSP^{2}hybridised carbon atoms of an aryl group.

    • For better understanding use NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry chapter 10 PDF, students can download it by using an online webpage to PDF converter

    NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry

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    NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Subject wise

    Benefits of NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

    • The detailed and comprehensive answers given in the NCERT Class 12 Chemistry solutions chapter 10 will be helpful in understanding the chapter easily.

    • Revision will be quite easier because the detailed solutions will help you to remember the concepts and get good marks in your class.

    • Homework problems won't bother you anymore, all you need to do is check the detailed NCERT solutions for Class 12 Chemistry and you are good to go.

    If you have a doubt or question, these Class 12 Chemistry chapter 10 NCERT solutions will help you quickly. You will get all the answers that will help you score well in your exams.

    Also Check NCERT Books and NCERT Syllabus here:

    Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

    1. What are the important topics of this chapter?

    Below is the list of important topics:

    • Preparation of haloalkanes

    • Physical properties of halo derivatives

    • Reactions of Haloalkanes Stereoisomerism Definition: Enantiomers, Racemic mixture, Racemisation Reactions of haloarenes

    2. What is the weightage of NCERT Class 12 Chemistry chapter 10 in CBSE board exam?

    Weightage of NCERT class 12 Chemistry chapter 10 in CBSE board exam is 4 marks. Follow NCERT syllabus and NCERT textbook for a good score in the exam. To practice more questions NCERT exemplar can also be used.

    3. What is the weightage of NCERT Class 12 Chemistry chapter 10 in JEE Main and NEET?

    This chapter consists of 4 marks in JEE mains. Weightage of NCERT class 12 Chemistry chapter 10 in NEET is 3%.

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    Questions related to CBSE Class 12th

    Have a question related to CBSE Class 12th ?

    hello,

    Yes you can appear for the compartment paper again since CBSE gives three chances to a candidate to clear his/her exams so you still have two more attempts. However, you can appear for your improvement paper for all subjects but you cannot appear for the ones in which you have failed.

    I hope this was helpful!

    Good Luck

    Hello dear,

    If you was not able to clear 1st compartment and now you giving second compartment so YES, you can go for your improvement exam next year but if a student receives an improvement, they are given the opportunity to retake the boards as a private candidate the following year, but there are some requirements. First, the student must pass all of their subjects; if they received a compartment in any subject, they must then pass the compartment exam before being eligible for the improvement.


    As you can registered yourself as private candidate for giving your improvement exam of 12 standard CBSE(Central Board of Secondary Education).For that you have to wait for a whole year which is bit difficult for you.


    Positive side of waiting for whole year is you have a whole year to preparing yourself for your examination. You have no distraction or something which may causes your failure in the exams. In whole year you have to stay focused on your 12 standard examination for doing well in it. By this you get a highest marks as a comparison of others.


    Believe in Yourself! You can make anything happen


    All the very best.

    Hello Student,

    I appreciate your Interest in education. See the improvement is not restricted to one subject or multiple subjects  and  we cannot say if improvement in one subject in one year leads to improvement in more subjects in coming year.

    You just need to have a revision of all subjects what you have completed in the school. have a revision and practice of subjects and concepts helps you better.

    All the best.

    If you'll do hard work then by hard work of 6 months you can achieve your goal but you have to start studying for it dont waste your time its a very important year so please dont waste it otherwise you'll regret.

    Yes, you can take admission in class 12th privately there are many colleges in which you can give 12th privately.

    View All

    A block of mass 0.50 kg is moving with a speed of 2.00 ms-1 on a smooth surface. It strikes another mass of 1.00 kg and then they move together as a single body. The energy loss during the collision is

    Option 1)

    0.34\; J

    Option 2)

    0.16\; J

    Option 3)

    1.00\; J

    Option 4)

    0.67\; J

    A person trying to lose weight by burning fat lifts a mass of 10 kg upto a height of 1 m 1000 times.  Assume that the potential energy lost each time he lowers the mass is dissipated.  How much fat will he use up considering the work done only when the weight is lifted up ?  Fat supplies 3.8×107 J of energy per kg which is converted to mechanical energy with a 20% efficiency rate.  Take g = 9.8 ms−2 :

    Option 1)

    2.45×10−3 kg

    Option 2)

     6.45×10−3 kg

    Option 3)

     9.89×10−3 kg

    Option 4)

    12.89×10−3 kg

     

    An athlete in the olympic games covers a distance of 100 m in 10 s. His kinetic energy can be estimated to be in the range

    Option 1)

    2,000 \; J - 5,000\; J

    Option 2)

    200 \, \, J - 500 \, \, J

    Option 3)

    2\times 10^{5}J-3\times 10^{5}J

    Option 4)

    20,000 \, \, J - 50,000 \, \, J

    A particle is projected at 600   to the horizontal with a kinetic energy K. The kinetic energy at the highest point

    Option 1)

    K/2\,

    Option 2)

    \; K\;

    Option 3)

    zero\;

    Option 4)

    K/4

    In the reaction,

    2Al_{(s)}+6HCL_{(aq)}\rightarrow 2Al^{3+}\, _{(aq)}+6Cl^{-}\, _{(aq)}+3H_{2(g)}

    Option 1)

    11.2\, L\, H_{2(g)}  at STP  is produced for every mole HCL_{(aq)}  consumed

    Option 2)

    6L\, HCl_{(aq)}  is consumed for ever 3L\, H_{2(g)}      produced

    Option 3)

    33.6 L\, H_{2(g)} is produced regardless of temperature and pressure for every mole Al that reacts

    Option 4)

    67.2\, L\, H_{2(g)} at STP is produced for every mole Al that reacts .

    How many moles of magnesium phosphate, Mg_{3}(PO_{4})_{2} will contain 0.25 mole of oxygen atoms?

    Option 1)

    0.02

    Option 2)

    3.125 × 10-2

    Option 3)

    1.25 × 10-2

    Option 4)

    2.5 × 10-2

    If we consider that 1/6, in place of 1/12, mass of carbon atom is taken to be the relative atomic mass unit, the mass of one mole of a substance will

    Option 1)

    decrease twice

    Option 2)

    increase two fold

    Option 3)

    remain unchanged

    Option 4)

    be a function of the molecular mass of the substance.

    With increase of temperature, which of these changes?

    Option 1)

    Molality

    Option 2)

    Weight fraction of solute

    Option 3)

    Fraction of solute present in water

    Option 4)

    Mole fraction.

    Number of atoms in 558.5 gram Fe (at. wt.of Fe = 55.85 g mol-1) is

    Option 1)

    twice that in 60 g carbon

    Option 2)

    6.023 × 1022

    Option 3)

    half that in 8 g He

    Option 4)

    558.5 × 6.023 × 1023

    A pulley of radius 2 m is rotated about its axis by a force F = (20t - 5t2) newton (where t is measured in seconds) applied tangentially. If the moment of inertia of the pulley about its axis of rotation is 10 kg m2 , the number of rotations made by the pulley before its direction of motion if reversed, is

    Option 1)

    less than 3

    Option 2)

    more than 3 but less than 6

    Option 3)

    more than 6 but less than 9

    Option 4)

    more than 9

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    Talent Agent

    The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

    If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

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    Videographer

    Careers in videography are art that can be defined as a creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than a simple recording of a simple event. It would be wrong to portrait it as a subcategory of photography, rather photography is one of the crafts used in videographer jobs in addition to technical skills like organization, management, interpretation, and image-manipulation techniques. Students pursue Visual Media, Film, Television, Digital Video Production to opt for a videographer career path. The visual impacts of a film are driven by the creative decisions taken in videography jobs. Individuals who opt for a career as a videographer are involved in the entire lifecycle of a film and production. 

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    Multimedia Specialist

    A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

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    Visual Communication Designer

    Individuals who want to opt for a career as a Visual Communication Designer will work in the graphic design and arts industry. Every sector in the modern age is using visuals to connect with people, clients, or customers. This career involves art and technology and candidates who want to pursue their career as visual communication designer has a great scope of career opportunity.

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    Copy Writer

    In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism, Advertising, Marketing Management. Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

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    Journalist

    Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

    3 Jobs Available
    Publisher

    For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

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    Vlogger

    In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. Ever since internet cost got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, the career as vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the career as vlogger, how to become a vlogger, so on and so forth then continue reading the article. Students can visit Jamia Millia Islamia, Asian College of Journalism, Indian Institute of Mass Communication to pursue journalism degrees.

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    Editor

    Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

    3 Jobs Available
    Advertising Manager

    Advertising managers consult with the financial department to plan a marketing strategy schedule and cost estimates. We often see advertisements that attract us a lot, not every advertisement is just to promote a business but some of them provide a social message as well. There was an advertisement for a washing machine brand that implies a story that even a man can do household activities. And of course, how could we even forget those jingles which we often sing while working?

    2 Jobs Available
    Photographer

    Photography is considered both a science and an art, an artistic means of expression in which the camera replaces the pen. In a career as a photographer, an individual is hired to capture the moments of public and private events, such as press conferences or weddings, or may also work inside a studio, where people go to get their picture clicked. Photography is divided into many streams each generating numerous career opportunities in photography. With the boom in advertising, media, and the fashion industry, photography has emerged as a lucrative and thrilling career option for many Indian youths.

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    Social Media Manager

    A career as social media manager involves implementing the company’s or brand’s marketing plan across all social media channels. Social media managers help in building or improving a brand’s or a company’s website traffic, build brand awareness, create and implement marketing and brand strategy. Social media managers are key to important social communication as well.

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    Product Manager

    A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

    3 Jobs Available
    Quality Controller

    A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

    A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

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    Production Manager

    Production Manager Job Description: A Production Manager is responsible for ensuring smooth running of manufacturing processes in an efficient manner. He or she plans and organises production schedules. The role of Production Manager involves estimation, negotiation on budget and timescales with the clients and managers. 

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    Team Lead

    A Team Leader is a professional responsible for guiding, monitoring and leading the entire group. He or she is responsible for motivating team members by providing a pleasant work environment to them and inspiring positive communication. A Team Leader contributes to the achievement of the organisation’s goals. He or she improves the confidence, product knowledge and communication skills of the team members and empowers them.

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    Quality Systems Manager

    A Quality Systems Manager is a professional responsible for developing strategies, processes, policies, standards and systems concerning the company as well as operations of its supply chain. It includes auditing to ensure compliance. It could also be carried out by a third party. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Merchandiser

    A career as a merchandiser requires one to promote specific products and services of one or different brands, to increase the in-house sales of the store. Merchandising job focuses on enticing the customers to enter the store and hence increasing their chances of buying a product. Although the buyer is the one who selects the lines, it all depends on the merchandiser on how much money a buyer will spend, how many lines will be purchased, and what will be the quantity of those lines. In a career as merchandiser, one is required to closely work with the display staff in order to decide in what way a product would be displayed so that sales can be maximised. In small brands or local retail stores, a merchandiser is responsible for both merchandising and buying. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Procurement Manager

    The procurement Manager is also known as  Purchasing Manager. The role of the Procurement Manager is to source products and services for a company. A Procurement Manager is involved in developing a purchasing strategy, including the company's budget and the supplies as well as the vendors who can provide goods and services to the company. His or her ultimate goal is to bring the right products or services at the right time with cost-effectiveness. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Production Planner

    Individuals who opt for a career as a production planner are professionals who are responsible for ensuring goods manufactured by the employing company are cost-effective and meets quality specifications including ensuring the availability of ready to distribute stock in a timely fashion manner. 

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    Information Security Manager

    Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

    3 Jobs Available
    Computer Programmer

    Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

    3 Jobs Available
    Product Manager

    A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

    3 Jobs Available
    ITSM Manager

    ITSM Manager is a professional responsible for heading the ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) or (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) processes. He or she ensures that operation management provides appropriate resource levels for problem resolutions. The ITSM Manager oversees the level of prioritisation for the problems, critical incidents, planned as well as proactive tasks. 

    3 Jobs Available
    .NET Developer

    .NET Developer Job Description: A .NET Developer is a professional responsible for producing code using .NET languages. He or she is a software developer who uses the .NET technologies platform to create various applications. Dot NET Developer job comes with the responsibility of  creating, designing and developing applications using .NET languages such as VB and C#. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Corporate Executive

    Are you searching for a Corporate Executive job description? A Corporate Executive role comes with administrative duties. He or she provides support to the leadership of the organisation. A Corporate Executive fulfils the business purpose and ensures its financial stability. In this article, we are going to discuss how to become corporate executive.

    2 Jobs Available
    DevOps Architect

    A DevOps Architect is responsible for defining a systematic solution that fits the best across technical, operational and and management standards. He or she generates an organised solution by examining a large system environment and selects appropriate application frameworks in order to deal with the system’s difficulties. 

    2 Jobs Available
    Cloud Solution Architect

    Individuals who are interested in working as a Cloud Administration should have the necessary technical skills to handle various tasks related to computing. These include the design and implementation of cloud computing services, as well as the maintenance of their own. Aside from being able to program multiple programming languages, such as Ruby, Python, and Java, individuals also need a degree in computer science.

    2 Jobs Available
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