About CBSE Class 12th 2020

CBSE 12th Exams 2020- The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) conducts the class 12th board exams every year. Students enrolled in 12th class from a CBSE affiliated institute can appear in these exams. Around 12 lakh students from 11,000 schools appear in the class 12th exam in 168 different subjects. Based on their score in CBSE 12th exams, students will be able to apply for admission to colleges and universities in various undergraduate programs as per his/her choice. CBSE class 12 2020 practical exams conducted from January 1 to February 7, 2020. CBSE 12th result 2020 to be delayed due to coronavirus outbreak.
Latest- As per the CBSE official notification, Class 12th Board exams 2020 will only be held for 29 important subjects. The revised CBSE 12th date sheet 2020 to be released soon.
Earlier the CBSE 12th Exams 2020 were postponed due to coronavirus outbreak till March 31, 2020.

  • The theory exams were started on February 15, 2020.
  • All the exams of CBSE 12th will be conducted in the morning session from 10:30 am to the stipulated time.
  • Students must go through CBSE class 12 Syllabus 2020 to know about the topics and units they need to study for CBSE 12th exams.
  • They should also solve sample papers and previous year's question papers to practise with various questions.
  • CBSE 12th sample papers 2020 has been released along with marking scheme, so go through them to prepare smartly.
  • The board has released the CBSE admit card 2020 on January 17, 2020, for regular students. Admit card for private students has been released on January 21, 2020. 
  • These admit cards can be downloaded in online mode by entering the application number or previous roll number and other details.

CBSE Class 12th 2020 Highlights

Full Exam Name Central Board of Secondary Education Class 12th Examination
Short Exam Name CBSE Class 12th
Conducting Body Central Board of Secondary Education
Frequency of Conduct Once a year
Exam Level Intermediate
Languages Arabic, Bengali +11 More
Mode of Application Offline
Mode of Exam Offline
Exam Duration 3 Hours

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CBSE Class 12th 2020 Important Dates

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Past Dates and Events

18 Mar, 2020

Exam - Legal Studies, Shorthand English- Old, Food Production III, Food Production, Shorthand English- New | Mode: Offline

17 Mar, 2020

Exam - Mathematics, Applied Mathematics | Mode: Offline

16 Mar, 2020

Exam - Taxation, Carnatic Music Vocal, Carnatic Music MEL INS, Hindustani Music Vocal, Hindustani Music MEL INS, Hindustani Music PER INS | Mode: Offline

14 Mar, 2020

Exam - Biology | Mode: Offline

13 Mar, 2020

Exam - Economics | Mode: Offline

12 Mar, 2020

Exam - Tourism | Mode: Offline

07 Mar, 2020

Exam - Chemistry | Mode: Offline

06 Mar, 2020

Exam - Political Science | Mode: Offline

05 Mar, 2020

Exam - Accountancy | Mode: Offline

04 Mar, 2020

Exam - Marketing | Mode: Offline

03 Mar, 2020

Exam - History | Mode: Offline

02 Mar, 2020

Exam - Physics, Applied Physics | Mode: Offline

29 Feb, 2020

Exam - Engineering Sciences, Library & Information Science- (New & Old), Typography & Computer Application - (New & Old), Liberary System & Resource Management, Capital Market Operation, Electronic Technology, Fashion Studies, Printed Textile | Mode: Offline

28 Feb, 2020

Exam - Urdu Elective, Sanskrit Elective, National Cadet Corps, Urdu Core, Sanskrit Core, Engineering Sciences, Front Office Operation, Air Conditioning & Refrigeration, Design, Salesmanship | Mode: Offline

27 Feb, 2020

Exam - English Elective- N, English Elective- C, English Core | Mode: Offline

26 Feb, 2020

Exam - Web Application- Old, Web Application- New, Media | Mode: Offline

25 Feb, 2020

Exam - Entrepreneurship, Office Procedures & Practices, Textile Design, Traditional Indian Textile | Mode: Offline

24 Feb, 2020

Exam - Physical Education | Mode: Offline

22 Feb, 2020

Exam - Psychology | Mode: Offline

20 Feb, 2020

Exam - CRTV and COM PRAC MM, Database Management Application, Painting, Graphics, Sculpture, App/ Commercial Art, Electrical Appliances | Mode: Offline

17 Feb, 2020

Exam - Knowledge Tradition & Practices, Automotive, Financial Market Management, Beauty & Wellness, Agriculture, Insurance, Medical Diagnostics, Auto Engineering, Kathak Dance, Bharatnatyam, Kuchipudi, Odissi, Kathakali | Mode: Offline

15 Feb, 2020

Exam - Multimedia & Web Tech, Mass Media Studies, Food Production IV, Understanding the Evaluation and forms of Mass Media, Retail Operations, Information Storage & Retrieval, Derivative Market Operations, Intro To Hospitality Management, Retail Banking | Mode: Offline

15 Feb, 2020

Exam - Healthcare, Horticulture, Geospatial Technology, Electrical Technology, Cost Accounting, Shorthand (Hindi), Music Production, Food Nutrition & Dietetics, Mass Media Studies, Autoshop Repair, Textile Chemical Processing, Security, Electrical Machines | Mode: Offline

01 Jan, 2020 - 07 Feb, 2020

Exam - Practical Exam | Mode: Offline

21 Jan, 2020

Admit Card - Admit card for Private students | Mode: Online

17 Jan, 2020

Admit Card - Admit card for Regular students | Mode: Offline

01 Oct, 2019 - 15 Oct, 2019

Application - For private candidates (with late fee)) | Mode: Online

26 Aug, 2019 - 30 Sep, 2019

Application - For private candidates | Mode: Online

APPLICATIONS OPEN NOW

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CBSE Class 12th 2020 Eligibility Criteria

Regular students who cleared the class 11 from CBSE or any recognized education board by the State/ UT Government and who are currently studying in Class 12th are eligible to appear for the CBSE 12th exam.

Private candidates are eligible to sit for CBSE 12th exams 2020 provided they fulfill the below criteria:

1. A candidate who had failed CBSE class 12 will be eligible to reappear at a subsequent examination as a private candidate. The candidates will be required to follow the syllabus and textbooks of the year in which he/she will reappear.

2. The following categories of candidates shall also be eligible to appear in CBSE 12th exams 2020 as private candidates at the Delhi Senior School Certificate Examination of the board:

  • Teachers serving in institutions affiliated to CBSE, who have already passed class 10 examination at least two years before taking class 12 examination. The teacher candidate should submit his application form along with a certificate by the Head of school they are serving it. The certificate should be duly countersigned by the Director of Education of the State/Union Territory.
  • Women candidates who are residents of NCT of Delhi and have passed class 10 at least two years before appearing for CBSE class 12.
  • Physically handicapped students who passed class 10 at least two years before appearing CBSE 12th exams 2020. They will have to produce reasonable evidence of having a deficiency which made them unable to attend normal school for the purpose of studies.

3. Women/handicapped private candidates should satisfy the following additional conditions that:

  • They privately pursued the prescribed course of studies under proper guidance
  • They are unable to join CBSE class 12 or there are such other reasons compelling them to appear at the CBSE 12th exams 2020 as a private candidate.
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CBSE Class 12th 2020 Application Process

Mode of Application : Offline

Mode of Payment : Other

  • In order to apply for CBSE 12th exams 2020, regular students are required to fill the examination form as instructed by the officials of their respective schools. 
  • Private candidates have to submit the application form along with prescribed fee and three copies of passport-sized photographs to the regional officer of CBSE of the state/UT they reside in.

Student Appearing Vs Seat Available

Year Student Appeared Seats Available
2019 None None

CBSE Class 12th 2020 Syllabus

English core-

English core: Unit 01
Comprehension
Conceptual understanding, decoding, Analyzing, inferring, interpreting, appreciating, literary, conventions and vocabulary, summarizing and using appropriate format/s
English core: Unit 02
Writing skills
Reasoning, appropriacy of style and tone, using appropriate format and fluency, inference, analysis, evaluation and creativity
English core: Unit 03
Literature Textbooks and Supplementary Reading Text
Recalling, reasoning, appreciating literary convention, inference, analysis, creativity with fluency

English elective+

English elective: Unit 01
Reading Comprehe nsion
Conceptual understanding, decoding, Analyzing, inferring, interpreting, appreciating, literary, conventions and vocabulary, summarizing and using appropriate format/s
English elective: Unit 02
Creative Writing & Applied Grammar
Reasoning, appropriacy of style and tone,using appropriate format and fluency,inference,analysis, evaluating, creativity with Fluency.Applying appropriate language conventions comprehension using structures interactively, application, accuracy and fluency
English elective: Unit 03
Literature
Recalling, reasoning, appreciating literary convention, inference, analysis, creativity with fluency
English elective: Unit 04
Fiction
Recalling, reasoning, appreciating literary conventions, illustrating with relevant quotations from the text, inferring, analyzing, evaluating and creating, giving opinions, justifying with fluency

Accountancy+

Accountancy: Unit 01
Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Organizations
Not-for-profit organizations:concept.Receipts and Payments Account:features and preparation
Income and Expenditure Account:features,preparation of income and expenditure account and balance sheet from the given receipts and payments account with additional information
Accountancy: Unit 02
Accounting for partnership firms
Partnership: features, Partnership Deed. Provisions of the Indian Partnership Act 1932 in the absence of partnership deed. Fixed v/s fluctuating capital accounts
Preparation of Profit and Loss Appropriation account- division of profit among partners, guarantee of profits. Past adjustments (relating to interest on capital, interest on drawing, salary and profit sharing ratio)
Goodwill: nature, factors affecting and methods of valuation - average profit, super profit and capitalization.Accounting for Partnership firms - Reconstitution and Dissolution.
Change in the Profit Sharing Ratio among the existing partners - sacrificing ratio, gaining ratio, accounting for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities and treatment of reserves and accumulated profits
Preparation of revaluation account and balance sheet
Admission of a partner - effect of admission of a partner on change in the profit sharing ratio, treatment of goodwill (as per AS 26), treatment for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities
Admission of a partner: treatment of reserves and accumulated profits, adjustment of capital accounts and preparation of balance sheet. Retirement and death of a partner: effect of retirement / death of a partner on change in profit sharing ratio
Retirement and death of a partner: treatment of goodwill (as per AS 26), treatment for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities, adjustment of accumulated profits and reserves, adjustment of capital accounts and preparation of balance sheet
Preparation of loan account of the retiring partner. Calculation of deceased partner’s share of profit till the date of death. Preparation of deceased partner’s capital account and his executor’s account
Dissolution of a partnership firm: meaning of dissolution of partnership and partnership firm, types of dissolution of a firm. Settlement of accounts - preparation of realization, account, and other related accounts
Accountancy: Unit 03
Accounting for companies
Accounting for Share Capital, Share and share capital: nature and types. Accounting for share capital: issue and allotment of equity and preferences shares. Public subscription of shares - over subscription and under subscription of shares
Issue at par and at premium, calls in advance and arrears (excluding interest), issue of shares for consideration other than cash. Concept of Private Placement and Employee Stock Option Plan (ESOP). Accounting treatment of forfeiture and reissue of shares
Disclosure of share capital in the Balance Sheet of a company. Accounting for Debentures Debentures: Issue of debentures at par, at a premium and at a discount. Issue of debentures for consideration other than cash
Issue of debentures with terms of redemption; debentures as collateral securityconcept, interest on debentures. Writing off discount / loss on issue of debentures
Accountancy: Unit 04
Analysis of financial statements
Financial statements of a Company: Statement of Profit and Loss and Balance Sheet in prescribed form with major headings and sub headings (as per Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013) Financial Statement Analysis: Objectives, importance and limitations
Tools for Financial Statement Analysis: Comparative statements, common size statements, cash flow analysis, ratio analysis. Accounting Ratios: Meaning, Objectives, classification and computation
Liquidity Ratios: Current ratio and Quick ratio. Solvency Ratios: Debt to Equity Ratio, Total Asset to Debt Ratio, Proprietary Ratio and Interest Coverage Ratio
Activity Ratios:Inventory Turnover Ratio,Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio,Trade Payables Turnover Ratio & Working Capital Turnover Ratio.Profitability Ratios:Gross Profit Ratio,Operating Ratio,Operating Profit Ratio,Net Profit Ratio & Return on Investment
Accountancy: Unit 05
Cash flow statement
Meaning, objectives and preparation (as per AS 3 (Revised) (Indirect Method only)

Biology+

Biology: Unit 01
Reproduction
Reproduction in Organisms, Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants, Human Reproduction, Reproductive Health
Biology: Unit 02
Genetics and evolution
Principles of Inheritance and Variation, Molecular Basis of Inheritance, Evolution
Biology: Unit 03
Biology and human welfare
Human Health and Diseases, Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production, Microbes in Human Welfare
Biology: Unit 04
Biotechnology and its applications
Biotechnology - Principles and processes, Biotechnology and its Application
Biology: Unit 05
Ecology and environment
Organisms and Populations, Ecosystem, Biodiversity and its Conservation, Environmental Issues

Biotechnology+

Biotechnology: Unit 01
Protein and gene manipulation
Recombinant DNA Technology, Protein Structure and Engineering, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics
Biotechnology: Unit 02
Cell culture and genetic manipulation
Microbial Cell Culture and its Applications, Plant Cell Culture and Applications, Animal Cell Culture and Applications

Business studies+

Business studies: Unit 01
Nature and significance of management
Management - concept, objectives, and importance, Management as Science, Art and Profession, Levels of Management, Management functions-planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling, Coordination- concept and importance
Business studies: Unit 02
Principles of management
Principles of Management- concept and significance, Fayol’s principles of management, Taylor’s Scientific management- principles and techniques
Business studies: Unit 03
Business environment
Business Environment- concept and importance, Dimensions of Business EnvironmentEconomic, Social, Technological, Political and Legal Demonetization - concept and features
Impact of Government policy changes on business with special reference to liberalization, privatization and globalization in India
Business studies: Unit 04
Planning
Concept, importance and limitation, Planning process, Single use and standing plans. Objectives, Strategy, Policy, Procedure, method Rule, budget and Programme
Business studies: Unit 05
Organising
Concept and importance, Organising Process, Structure of organisation- functional and divisional concept. Formal and informal organisation- concept, Delegation: concept, elements and importance, Decentralization: concept and importance
Business studies: Unit 06
Staffing
Concept and importance of staffing, Staffing as a part of Human Resource Management concept, Staffing process, Recruitment process, Selection - process, Training and Development - Concept and importance
Methods of training - on the job and off the job - vestibule training, apprenticeship training and internship training
Business studies: Unit 07
Directing
Concept and importance, Elements of Directing, Motivation - concept, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Financial and non-financial incentives, Leadership - concept, styles - authoritative, democratic and laissez faire
Communication - concept, formal and informal communication; barriers to effective communication, how to overcome the barriers
Business studies: Unit 08
Controlling
Controlling - Concept and importance, Relationship between planning and controlling, Steps in process of control
Business studies: Unit 09
Financial management
Concept, role and objectives of Financial Management, Financial decisions: investment, financing and dividend- Meaning and factors affecting, Financial Planning - concept and importance
Capital Structure – concept and factors affecting capital structure, Fixed and Working Capital - Concept and factors affecting their requirements
Business studies: Unit 10
Financial markets
Financial Markets: Concept, Functions and types, Money market and its instruments, Capital market and its types (primary and secondary), methods of floatation in the primary market
Stock Exchange - Functions and trading procedure, Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) - objectives and functions
Business studies: Unit 11
Marketing
Marketing – Concept, functions and philosophies, Marketing Mix – Concept and elements, Product - branding, labelling and packaging – Concept, Price - Concept, Factors determining price
Physical Distribution – concept, components and channels of distribution, Promotion – Concept and elements; Advertising, Personal Selling, Sales Promotion and Public Relations
Business studies: Unit 12
Consumer protection
Concept and importance of consumer protection, Consumer Protection Act 1986: Meaning of consumer Rights and responsibilities of consumers, Who can file a complaint? Redressal machinery, Remedies available
Consumer awareness - Role of consumer organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)

Carnatic Melodic+

Carnatic Melodic: Unit 01
History and Theory of Indian Music
An out-line knowledge of the following Lakshana Granthas: Sangita Saramrita Sangita Sampradaya Pradarsini, Svaramelakalanidhi and Ragavibhodha, Brihaddesi
Short life sketch and contributions of the following:Annamacharya,Swati Tirunal,Kshetrajna,Maha Vaidyanatha Iyer,Patnam Subramanya lyer,Ramnad Srinivasa Iyengar Mysore Doraiswamy Iyengar,Dwaram Venkataswamy,Naidu Karaikkudi Brothers,Mysore Vasudevachar
Brief study of the musical form, Kriti, Tiruppugazh, Padam, Javali and Tillana.Detailed study of the Manodharma Sangita
Definition and explanation of the following: Janaka, Janya system of Ragas, Bhashanga, Upanga, Varja, Vakra Ragas, Gamakas, Arudi, Eduppu, Jati, Prabandham, Grama, Murchchana, Jaati and Vishesha Prayogas
Description of the ragas prescribed;Candidates should be able to write in notation the kriti/kirtana in the ragas prescribed; The candidate should be able to describe the construction of the instrument opted for alongwith the basic techniques of playing
The candidate should have an outline knowledge of the classification of instruments in general and a brief history of the instrument opted for

Carnatic Vocal+

Carnatic Vocal: Unit 01
History and Theory of Indian Music
An Out line Knowledge of the following Lakshana Grandha to Sangita Saramrita, Sangita Sampradaya Pradarsini, Svaramelakalanidhi, Raga Vibodha, Brihaddesi
Short life sketch and contributions of the following: Annamacharya, Kshetrajna, Swati Tirunal, Gopalakrishna Bharati, Maha Vaidyanatha Iyer, Patanam Subramanya Aiyar. Ramnad Srinivasa Iyenger, Mysore Vasudevachar
A study of musical forms:- Kriti, Padam, Javali, Tillana, Tiruppugazh, Ragamalika; Detailed study of Manodharma Sangita
Definition and explanation of the following:- Janaka-Janya ragas, Bhashanga, Upanga, Varja, Vakra ragas, Gamakas, Arudi, Eduppu, Prabandham, Grama, Murchana, Jaati
Lakshanas of the ragas prescribed in practical activity; Candidates should be able to write in notation of the kriti/kirtana in the prescribed ragas
Brief description of concert instruments, their construction and techniques of playing;Classification of Musical Instruments in general

Carnatic Percussion+

Carnatic Percussion: Unit 01
History and Theory of Indian Music
An outline knowledge of following Lakshana Granthas with special reference to Tala and percussion in Chaturdandi Prakashika, Sangita Ratnakara, Ragavibhodha, Svaramela Kalanidhi
Short life sketch and contributions of the following luminaries: Needamangalam Meenakshi Sundaram Pillai, Tanjore Vaidyanatha Iyer, Palghat Mani Iyer, Umaiyalpuram Kodanda Ramaiyer, Pudukkottai Swaminatha Pillai, Palani Subramania Pillai, Vilvadri Iyer
Study of the musical forms,Pallavi,Sollukattu,Tillana,Padam and Javali;Definition and explanation of the following:Padagarbham,Arudi,Eduppu,Gati-bheda,Anuloma,Pratiloma,Tisram,Trikalam,Theka,108 Talas,Shadangas,Tiruppugazh Talas,TalaVadya ensemble
The candidates should have an outline knowledge of the classification of Percussion instruments in general and a brief history of the instrument opted for
Technical Terms: Vilamba, Madhya, Druta, Atitam, Anagatam, Pharan, Kalapramanam, Ghumki, Konnakkol, Choru, Varu, Toppi
The candidate should possess knowledge of the fundamental structure, technique and playing of other percussion instruments like Morsing, Tabla, Chenda, Edakka and Gettu Vadyam

Chemistry+

Chemistry: Unit 01
Solutions
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult's law
Elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Van't Hoff factor
Chemistry: Unit 02
Electrochemistry
Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea)
Dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion
Chemistry: Unit 03
Chemical kinetics
Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant
Integrated rate equations and half-life (only for zero and first order reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenius equation.
Chemistry: Unit 04
Surface chemistry
Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis, homogenous and heterogenous activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension
Lyophilic, lyophobic multi-molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion - types of emulsions
Chemistry: Unit 05
General principles and processes of isolation of elements
Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction - electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron
Chemistry: Unit 06
P -block elements
Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, dioxygen: Preparation, Properties and uses, classification of Oxides, Ozone, Sulphur - allotropic forms
Compounds of Sulphur: Preparation Properties and uses of Sulphur-dioxide, Sulphuric Acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; Oxoacids of Sulphur (Structures only)
Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties
Compounds of halogens, Preparation, properties and uses of Chlorine and Hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens (structures only)
Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses
Chemistry: Unit 07
‘d’ and ‘f’ Block Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals
General trends in properties of first row transition metals-metallic character,ionization enthalpy,oxidation state,ionic radii,colour,catalytic property,magnetic properties,interstitial compounds,alloy formation,preparation & properties of K2Cr2O7 & KMnO4
Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences. Actinoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids
Chemistry: Unit 08
Coordination compounds
Coordination compounds - Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds
Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereoisomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative inclusion, extraction of metals and biological system)
Chemistry: Unit 09
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Haloalkanes:Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation. Haloarenes:Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only)
Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT
Chemistry: Unit 10
Alcohols, phenols and ethers
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols. Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses
Chemistry: Unit 11
Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes, uses
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses
Chemistry: Unit 12
Organic compounds containing nitrogen
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines. Cyanides and Isocyanides - will be mentioned at relevant places in text
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry
Chemistry: Unit 13
Biomolecules
Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); Importance of carbohydrates
Proteins -Elementary idea of - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes
Hormones - Elementary idea excluding structure. Vitamins - Classification and functions. Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA
Chemistry: Unit 14
Polymers
Copolymerization, some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and nonbiodegradable polymers
Chemistry: Unit 15
Chemistry in everyday life
Chemicals in medicines - analgesics, tranquilizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines
Chemicals in food - preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action

Computer Science - Old+

Computer Science - Old: Unit 01
Object Oiented Programmimg In C++
Object Oriented Programming,Implementation of Object Oriented Programming concepts in C++,Constructor and Destructor,Destructor,Inheritance (Extending Classes),Data File Handling,Text File,Binary File,Pointers
Computer Science - Old: Unit 02
Data structure
Introduction to data structure,Arrays,Stack (Array and Linked implementation of Stack),Queue: (Array and Linked Implementation)
Computer Science - Old: Unit 03
Database Management System And Sql
Data base Concepts,Relational data model,Relational algebra,Structured Query Language: General Concepts,Data Types,SQL COMMANDS,SQL functions
Computer Science - Old: Unit 04
Boolean algebra
Role of Logical Operations in Computing,Binary-valued Quantities, Boolean Variable, Boolean Constant and Boolean Operators: AND, OR,NOT; Truth Tables;
Closure Property, Commutative Law, Associative Law, Identity law, Inverse Law, Principle of Duality, Idempotent Law, Distributive Law, Absorption Law, Involution Law, DeMorgan’s Law and their applications
Obtaining Sum of Product (SOP) and Product of Sum (POS) form the Truth Table, Reducing Boolean Expression (SOP and POS) to its minimal form, Use of Karnaugh Map for minimization of Boolean expressions (up to 4 variables)
Application of Boolean Logic: Digital electronic circuit design using basic Logic Gates (NOT, AND,OR, NAND, NOR);Use of Boolean operators (NOT, AND, OR) in SQL SELECT statements; Use of Boolean operators (AND, OR) in search engine queries
Computer Science - Old: Unit 05
Communication technologies
Evolution of Networking,Data Communication terminologies,Transmission media,Network devices,Network Topologies and types,Network Protocol,Mobile Telecommunication Technologies,Network Security Concepts,Introduction To Web services

Computer Science - New+

Computer Science - New: Unit 01
Programming and computational thinking
Revision of the basics of Python, Functions: scope, parameter passing, mutable/immutable properties of data objects, pass arrays to functions, return values, functions using libraries: mathematical, and string functions
File handling: open and close a file, read, write, and append to a file, standard input, output, and error streams, relative and absolute paths. Using Python libraries: create and import Python libraries
Recursion: simple algorithms with recursion: factorial, Fibonacci numbers; recursion on arrays: binary search
Idea of efficiency: performance defined as inversely proportional to the wall clock time, count the number of operations a piece of code is performing, and measure the time taken by a program
Data visualization using Pyplot: line chart, pie chart, and bar chart. Data-structures: lists, stacks, queues
Computer Science - New: Unit 02
Computer networks
Structure of a network: Types of networks: local area and wide area (web and internet), new technologies such as cloud and IoT, public vs. private cloud, wired and wireless networks; concept of a client and server
Network devices such as a NIC, switch, hub, router, and access point. Network stack: amplitude and frequency modulation, collision in wireless networks, error checking, and the notion of a MAC address, main idea of routing
IP addresses: (v4 and v6), routing table, router, DNS, and web URLs, TCP: basic idea of retransmission, and rate modulation when there is congestion (analogy to a road network), Protocols: 2G, 3G, 4G, WiFi
What makes a protocol have a higher bandwidth? Basic network tools: traceroute, ping, ipconfig, nslookup, whois, speed-test
Application layer: HTTP (basic idea), working of email, secure communication: encryption and certificates (HTTPS), network applications: remote desktop, remote login, HTTP, FTP, SCP, SSH, POP/IMAP, SMTP, VoIP, NFC
Computer Science - New: Unit 03
Data Management - 2
Write a minimal Django based web application that parses a GET and POST request, and writes the fields to a file - flat file and CSV file. Interface Python with an SQL database, SQL commands: aggregation functions – having, group by, order by
Computer Science - New: Unit 04
Society, Law and Ethics -2
Intellectual property rights, plagiarism, digital rights management, and licensing (Creative Commons, GPL and Apache), open source, open data, privacy. Privacy laws, fraud; cyber-crime- phishing, illegal downloads, child pornography, scams
Cyber forensics, IT Act, 2000. Technology and society: understanding of societal issues and cultural changes induced by technology. E-waste management: proper disposal of used electronic gadgets
Identity theft, unique ids, and biometrics. Gender and disability issues while teaching and using computers.

Dance+

Dance: Unit 01
Kathak dance
1. A brief history with other classical dance styles of India. 2. Acquaintance with the life sketch of few great exponents from past and few from present of the dance form
3. Elementary introduction to the text Natyashastra,Abhinaya Darpan:(a)Identification of the author.(b)Myths regarding the origin of dance according to each text.c)Basic knowledge regarding the whole of each text,Natyashastra,Abhinaya Darpan
4. Basic understanding of the term ABHINAYA and definition of its four aspects: angika, vachika, aharya, satvika. 5. Aquitance of the three gharanas of kathak dance (Lucknow, Jaipur, Banaras) 6. Rasa: definition and explanation of nine rasas
7. Knowledge of the following terms: (short note) sangeet, tal, laya, sthana, chari, gati, mandala, karana angahara, bhramari, utplavana, lokadharmi, natyadharmi, rasa and bhava
8. Knowledge of the technical terminology of the dance form. a) Definition of the following: i) Vandana ii) Tihaayi iii) Aamad iv) Toda/Tukraa v) Paran vi) Chakardar Toda /Tukraa and Paran vii) Gatnikas viii) Gatbhaav
8. b) Knowledge of Theka of Dadra, Kaharwa, Roopak. c) Definition of Tali, Khali, Sam, Tihaayi. d) Ability to notate a Tukraa/Toda and Paran. 9. Acquaintance with the traditional costumes and make up
Dance: Unit 02
Bharatnatyam Dance
1. A brief history and acquaintance with other classical styles or folk forms prevalent in the region, other than the one offered for study
2. Acquaintance with life history of the chief exponents and contributors of the past of the Dance form. (Rukmini Devi Arundale, Balasraswati, Meenakshi Sundaram Pillai, Tanjore quartette)
3. Acquaintance with the contents of the Abhinaya Darpana. (The chapters and the aspects of dance dealt within them)
4. Knowledge of the following terms: (i) Nritta, Nritya, Natya (Sanskrit slokas from the Abinaya Darpana and basic definition) Tandava (7 tandavas with detailed stories) Lasya, Lokadharmi, Natyadharmi (Definitions with example)
4.(ii) Anga, Upanga, Pratyanga (Slokas and meaning from Abinaya Darpana) (iii) Sthana, Chari, Mandala, Bharmari, Utplavana (Slokas and meaning from Abinaya Darpana)
4. (iv) Abhinaya (Angika, Vachika, Satvika, Aharya-slokas from the Abinaya Darpana along with the meaning) (v) Sangeeta, Tala, Laya (Definition of the term, seven talams, three layams) (vi) Rasa (names of the nine rasas and their English meanings)
4. (vii) Sthayibhava, Sancharibhava (Basic definition in terms of rasa)
5. Knowledge of the technical terminology of the particular Dance form (any one to be studied in accordance with the Dance style offered)
5. (a) Definitions of the following: araimandi, muzhumandi, kuttanam, korvai, karvai, adavu, shollu, aradhi, theerumanam, jati, jaati, gati, avartana, yati, taalanga, thattukazhi, nattuvangam, arangetram)
5 (b) Ability to write a korvai of two avartanams in Adi taalam with Adavu syllable. 6. Acquaintance with the traditional costumes, make up of the Dance style opted
Dance: Unit 03
Kuchipudi Dance
A brief history and acquaintance with some traditional dance forms of the region, other than the one offered for study. 2. Acquaintance with life history of the chief exponents of the dance form, past and present
3. Acquaintance with the contents of the Natya Shastra in general, Abhinaya Darpanam in brief
4. Knowledge of the following terms: (i) Nritta, Nritya, Natya, Tandava, Lasya, Lokadharmi, Natyadharmi (ii) Anga, Upanga, Pratyanga (iii) Sthanaka, Chari, Karana, Mandala
4. (iv) Chaturvidha Abhinaya (Angika, Vachika, Satyika, Aharya) with special reference to HastaAbhinaya, Mukhaja Abhinaya and Netra-Abhinaya. (v) Sangeetam, Talam (Adugu, Gati, Jaati, Trikala, Jathi) (vi) Rasa, Sthayi Bhava, Sanchari Bhava, Sattvika Bhava
5.Types of compositions and formats used in Kuchipudi Definitions of the following: (a)Rangapuja,Swarapallavi,Shabdam,Tarangam,Padam,Javali,Ashthapadi,Kalaapam, (Bhaama Kalaapam,Golla Kalaapam).(b) Ability to write a jathi with the required Tala Angas
6. Knowledge of the traditional costumes and make up of the dance style
Dance: Unit 04
Odissi Dance
1.Elementary knowledge about the three styles of Chhau: Mayurbhanj, Seraikella and Purulia. 2. Brief notes on the lives and contribution of the three Gurus: Guru Pankaj Charan Das, Guru Kelucharan Mohapatra and Guru Deba Prasad Das
3. Elementary introduction to the texts; Natya Shastra, Abhinaya Darpana, and Abhinaya Chandrika: a) Identification of the author (approximate date) b) Basic overview of the broad areas covered in the context of each text
3. c) Myths regarding the origin of dance according to each text. 4. Basic understanding of the term ABHINAYA and definition of its four aspects: angika, vachika, aharya and sattvik. 5. Rasa: Definition and short explanation of the nine rasas
6. Short notes on: a) The Aharya of Odissi. b) The music accompaniment of Odissi. c) Past and present exponents of Odissi: their short biography and contribution.
7. Brief explnation of the following terms: (Unit IV Class XI) a) Nritta, Nritya and Natya b) Matra, Laya, Taal, Avartana, Vibhaga (Anga) c) Tandava and Lasya d) Natyadharmi and Lokdharmi
8. Ability to write the notation of the learnt items of Batu/Sthayi and Moksha
Dance: Unit 05
Manipuri dance
1.Brief history and acquaintance with other classical styles or folk forms prevalent in the region other than the one offered for study, e.g., Maram. 2. Acquaintance with life history of chief exponents past and present of the dance form
3.Acquaintance with the contents of Abhinaya Darpana.4. Knowledge of the following terms:(a)Nritta,Nritya & Natya.Tandava,Lasya,Loka Dharmi,Natya Dharmi.(b)Abhinaya: Angika,Vachika,Aharya & Satvika (c)Sangeet:Tala Laya(d)Rasa:Sthayi Bhava,Sanchari Bhava
5. Knowledge of technical terms of the style: (a) Chali, Bhangi, Longlei, Uplei (b) Bhangi Pareng Achouba, Vrindavan Pareng, Khurumba Pareng, Goshtha Bhangi Pareng. (c) Different kinds of Choloms: Kartal Cholom, Khubak Isei Cholom, Pung Cholom
5.(d) Sankirtan. Different Talas, Rajmel, Menkup, Tanchap. (e) Different kinds of Raas. 6. Acquaintance with the traditional costumes, make up for the dance style offered. (a) Potloi and its different components for Radha and Gopis
6.(b) Krishna’s costume. (c) Costume of the Sankirtan artistes, male and female. (d) Typical traditional make up for Manipuri classical dances with emphasis on Vaishnava Tilak
Dance: Unit 06
Kathakali Dance
1. A brief history and acquaintance with other classical styles or folk forms prevalent in the region other than the one offered for study. 2. Acquaintance with the life history of the great masters of the dance form of both past and present
3. Acquaintance with the contents of the Hastha Lakshana Deepika and Natyasasthra. 4. Knowledge of the following terms: (i) Nritta, Nritya, Natya, Tandava, Lasya, Lokadharmi, Natyadharmi. (ii) Anga, Upanga, Prathyanga
4.(iii) Sthaana, Chaari, Gati, Mandala, Karana, Bhramari, Utplavana. (iv) Abhinaya (Angika, Vachika, Satvika, Aharaya) with special reference to Hasta-Abhinaya, Mukhaja-Abhinaya and Netra-Abhinaya. (v) Sangeeta, Tala, Laya
4.(vi) Rasa, Rasadhrishti, Sthaayibhava, Sthaayidrishti, Sancharibhava, Bhaava, Vibhaava, Anubhaava and Sathvika Bhaava
5. Knowledge of the Technical Terminology of the Art forms. Acquaintance with the traditional costumes and makeup of the Dance style opted. 7. Knowledge of Kathakali music both vocal and percussion

Economics+

Economics: Unit 01
National income and related aggregates
What is Macroeconomics? Basic concepts in macroeconomics: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment and depreciation. Circular flow of income (two sector model)
Methods of calculating National Income - Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method. Aggregates related to National Income: Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP)
Gross and Net Domestic Product (GDP and NDP) - at market price, at factor cost; Real and Nominal GDP. GDP and Welfare
Economics: Unit 02
Money and banking
Money - meaning and supply of money - Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks. Money creation by the commercial banking system
Central bank and its functions (example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of issue, Govt. Bank, Banker's Bank, Control of Credit through Bank Rate, CRR, SLR, Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate, Open Market Operations, Margin requirement
Economics: Unit 03
Determination of income and employment
Aggregate demand and its components. Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal). Short-run equilibrium output; investment multiplier and its mechanism. Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment
Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them - changes in government spending, taxes and money supply
Economics: Unit 04
Government budget and the economy
Government budget - meaning, objectives and components. Classification of receipts - revenue receipts and capital receipts
Classification of expenditure – revenue expenditure and capital expenditure. Measures of government deficit - revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, primary deficit their meaning
Economics: Unit 05
Balance of payments
Balance of payments account - meaning and components; balance of payments deficitmeaning. Foreign exchange rate - meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating. Determination of exchange rate in a free market
Economics: Unit 06
Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991
A brief introduction of the state of Indian economy on the eve of independence. Common goals of Five Year Plans, Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy, etc.),
industry (industrial licensing, etc.) and foreign trade. Economic Reforms since 1991: Features and appraisals of liberalisation, globalisation and privatisation (LPG policy); Concepts of demonetization and GST
Economics: Unit 07
Current challenges facing Indian economy
Poverty, Rural development, Human Capital Formation, Employment, Infrastructure, Sustainable Economic Development
Economics: Unit 08
Development Experience of India
A comparison with neighbours, India and Pakistan, India and China, Issues: growth, population, sectoral development and other Human Development Indicators.

Engineering graphics+

Engineering graphics: Unit 01
Isometric projection of solids
(i) Construction of isometric scale showing main divisions of 10mm and smaller divisions of 1mm, also showing the leading angles. Drawing helping view/s such as triangles, pentagon, hexagon, etc., using isometric scale
(ii)Isometric projection (drawn to isometric scale) of solids such as cube,regular prism & pyramids (triangular,square,pentagonal & hexagonal)
(ii) Cone,cylinder,sphere,hemi- sphere,frustum of right regular pyramids (triangular,square,pentagonal,hexagonal) & cone,when they are cut by a plane parallel to the base
The axis and the base side of the solid should be either perpendicular to HP / VP or parallel to HP and VP. (Indicate the direction of viewing)
(iii)Combination of two solids (except "frustum" of Pyramids and Cone) Keeping the base side parallel or perpendicular to HP/VP and placed centrally together, axis of both the solids should not be given parallel to HP
Engineering graphics: Unit 02
Machine drawing
Drawing of machine parts (i) Drawing to full size scale with instruments.(Internal choice will be given between any two of the following). Introduction of threads:Standard profiles of screw threads - Square,Knuckle,B.S.W.,Metric (external and internal)
Bolts (Square, Hexagonal, Tee and Hook); Nuts (Square and Hexagonal); Plain washer, combination of nut and bolt with or without washer for assembling two parts together
Single riveted lap joint with standard dimensions. (ii) Free-hand sketches (Internal choice will be given between any two of the following)
Conventional representation of external and internal threads; studs (plain, square-neck and collar); screws (round-head, cheese-head, 900 flat counter sunk-head, hexagonal socket head and grub-screw)
Types of rivets:- snap head, pan head-without tapered neck, flat head and 600 countersunk flat head. Types of sunk-keys (rectangular taper, woodruff and double-head feather key with gib head on both ends)
Assembly drawings and Dis-Assembly drawings (Internal choice will be given between an Assembly drawing and a Dis-Assembly drawing).

Entrepreneurship+

Entrepreneurship: Unit 01
Entrepreneurial opportunities - contents
Sensing Entrepreneural Opportunities, Environment Scanning, Problem Identification, Spotting Trends, Creativity and Innovation, Selecting the Right Opportunity
Entrepreneurship: Unit 02
Entrepreneurial opportunities - learning outcomes
Understand the concept and elements of business opportunity, Understand the process involved in sensing opportunities, Give the meaning of environment scanning, To understand the need to see the environment
Enlist the various forces affecting business environment, Understand the different fields of ideas, Enlist the various sources of idea fields, Understand the process of transformation of ideas into opportunities
Explain the meaning of trend spotting, Understand the concept of opportunityassessment, Explain the meaning of trend spotting, Identify the different ways of spotting trends, Differentiate the process of creativity and innovation
Entrepreneurship: Unit 03
Business Planning - Contents
Business Plan, Organisational plan, Operational plan, Production plan, Financial plan, Marketing Plan, Human Resource Planning
Entrepreneurship: Unit 04
Business Planning - Learning Outcomes
Understand the concept of entrepreneurial planning, Understand the forms of business enterprise, Distinguish among the various forms of Business enterprise
Explain the concept of Business plan, Appreciate the importance of a Business Plan, Describe the various components of Business plan, Differentiate among the various components of Business plan
Entrepreneurship: Unit 05
Enterprise marketing - contents
Marketing and Sales strategy, Branding - Business name, logo, tagline, Promotion strategy, Negotiations - Importance and methods, Customer Relationship Management, Vendor Management
Entrepreneurship: Unit 06
Enterprise marketing - learning outcomes
Enlist the various marketing strategies used in a Business firm, Explain the concepts of Product, Price, Place and Promotion, Understand the concept of Branding, Packaging and Labelling, Describe the various methods of pricing
Explain the various channels of distribution, Appreciate and discuss the various factors affecting the channels of distribution, Understand the sales strategy, State the different types of components of sales strategy
Enumerate the different tools of promotion, Understand the meaning and objectives of Advertising, Able to discuss the various modes of Advertising, Will be able to understand the concept of personal selling and sales promotion
Discuss the various techniques of sales promotion, Understand the meaning and methods of negotiation, Understand the concept of customer relationship management, State the importance of CustomerRelationship Management
Explain the concept of management in a firm, Explain the concept and importance of vendor management in a firm
Entrepreneurship: Unit 07
Enterprise growth strategies - contents
Franchising, Merger and Acquisition
Entrepreneurship: Unit 08
Enterprise growth strategies - learning outcomes
Understand the concept of growth & development of an enterprise,Explain the concept of franchise,Explain different types of franchise,Explain advantages & limitations of franchise,Understand growth of a firm is possible through mergers and acquisitions
Explain the different types of mergers ,State the meaning and types of acquisitions ,Understand the reasons for mergers and acquisitions. Understand the reasons for failure of mergers and acquisitions
Entrepreneurship: Unit 09
Business arithmetic - contents
Business Arithmetic .Unit of Sale, Unit Cost for multiple products or services .Break even Analysis for multiple products or services .Computation of working capital .Inventory control and EOQ .Return on Investment (ROI) and Return on Equity (ROE)
Entrepreneurship: Unit 10
Business Arithmetic - learning outcomes
After going through this unit, the student/ learner would be able to:Understand the concept of Unit Cost,Understand the concept of unit price,Calculate Break-even point for Multiple products,Understand the meaning of inventory control
Explain the concept of working capital,Calculate Return on Investment; Return on Equity and Economic order quantity
Entrepreneurship: Unit 11
Resource mobilization - contents
Resource Mobilization,Angel Investor,Venture Capital Funds,Stock Market – raising funds
Entrepreneurship: Unit 12
Resource mobilization - learning outcomes
Understand the need of finance in the Business .Understand the various sources of funds required for a firm .Understand the methods of raising finance in primary market.Understand the importance of secondary market for mobilization or resources
Give the meaning of stock exchange .Raising funds through financial markets .Understand the relevance of stock exchange as a medium through which funds can be raised .Explain the concept of angel investors .Explain the concept of venture capital

Painting+

Painting: Unit 01
The Rajasthani and Pahari schools of miniature painting
A brief introduction to Indian Miniature Schools: Western-Indian, Pala, Rajasthani, Mughal, Central India, Deccan and Pahari : The Rajasthani School, The Pahari School
Painting: Unit 02
The Mughal and Deccan schools of miniature painting
The Mughal School, The Deccan School
Painting: Unit 03
The Bengal school of painting and the modern trends in Indian art
(A) National Flag of India and the Symbolic significance of its forms and the colours. (B) (1) Introduction to the Bengal School of Painting (2) Contribution of Indian artists in the struggle for National Freedom Movement

Graphics+

Graphics: Unit 01
The Rajasthani and Pahari schools of miniature painting
A brief introduction to Indian Miniature Schools: Western-Indian, Pala, Rajasthani, Mughal, Central India, Deccan and Pahari : The Rajasthani School, The Pahari School
Graphics: Unit 02
The Mughal and Deccan schools of miniature painting
The Mughal School, The Deccan School
Graphics: Unit 03
The Bengal school of painting and the modern trends in Indian art
(A) National Flag of India and the Symbolic significance of its forms and the colours. (B) (1) Introduction to the Bengal School of Painting (2) Contribution of Indian artists in the struggle for National Freedom Movement
B. (3) Study and appreciation of the following paintings of the Bengal school (C) The Modern Trends in Indian Art

Sculpture+

Sculpture: Unit 01
The Rajasthani and Pahari schools of miniature painting
A brief introduction to Indian Miniature Schools: Western-Indian, Pala, Rajasthani, Mughal, Central India, Deccan and Pahari : The Rajasthani School, The Pahari School
Sculpture: Unit 02
The Mughal and Deccan schools of miniature painting
The Mughal School, The Deccan School
Sculpture: Unit 03
The Bengal school of painting and the modern trends in Indian art
(A) National Flag of India and the Symbolic significance of its forms and the colours. (B) (1) Introduction to the Bengal School of Painting (2) Contribution of Indian artists in the struggle for National Freedom Movement
B (3) Study and appreciation of the following paintings of the Bengal school (C) The Modern Trends in Indian Art

Applied art+

Applied art: Unit 01
The Rajasthani and Pahari schools of miniature painting
A brief introduction to Indian Miniature Schools: Western-Indian, Pala, Rajasthani, Mughal, Central India, Deccan and Pahari : The Rajasthani School, The Pahari School
Applied art: Unit 02
The Mughal and Deccan schools of miniature painting
The Mughal School, The Deccan School
Applied art: Unit 03
The Bengal school of painting and the modern trends in Indian art
(A) National Flag of India and the Symbolic significance of its forms and the colours. (B) (1) Introduction to the Bengal School of Painting (2) Contribution of Indian artists in the struggle for National Freedom Movement
B(3) Study and appreciation of the following paintings of the Bengal school (C) The Modern Trends in Indian Art

Geography-Part A+

Geography-Part A: Unit 01
Human geography
Nature and Scope
Geography-Part A: Unit 02
People
Population-distribution,density & growth,Population change-spatial pattern & structure;determinants of population change,Population Composition -age-sex ratio;rural-urban composition,Human development-concept;selected indicators,international comparisons
Geography-Part A: Unit 03
Human activities
Primary activities - concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities - some examples from selected countries, Secondary activities-concept
Manufacturing: types - household, small scale, large scale; agro based and mineral based industries; people engaged in secondary activities - some examples from selected countries, Tertiary activities-concept
Trade, transport and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities - some examples from selected countries, Quatenary activities-concept; people engaged in quatenary activities - case study from selected countries
Geography-Part A: Unit 04
Transport, communication and trade
Land transport - roads, railways; trans-continental railways, Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes, Air transport- Intercontinental air routes, Oil and gas pipelines
Satellite communication and cyber space- importance and usage for geographical information; use of GPS, International trade- bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade; role of WTO in international trade
Geography-Part A: Unit 05
Human settlements
Settlement types - rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries

Geography-Part B+

Geography-Part B: Unit 01
People
Population: distribution, density and growth; composition of population - linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in growth of population. Migration: international, national-causes and consequences
Human development: selected indicators and regional patterns. Population, environment and development
Geography-Part B: Unit 02
Human settlements
Rural settlements - types and distribution, Urban settlements - types, distribution and functional classification
Geography-Part B: Unit 03
Resources and development
Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use;geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber); agricultural development and problems
Water resources-availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management
Mineral & energy resources- distribution of metallic (Iron ore,Copper,Bauxite,Manganese); non-metallic (Mica,Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal,Petroleum,Natural gas & Hydroelectricity) & non-conventional energy sources (solar,wind,biogas) & conservation
Industries - types, factors of industrial location; distribution and changing pattern of selected industriesiron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries
Impact of liberalization, privatization and globalization on industrial location; industrial clusters, Planning in India- target group area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study)
Geography-Part B: Unit 04
Transport, communication and international trade
Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication net works, International trade- changing pattern of India's foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports
Geography-Part B: Unit 05
Geographical perspective on selected issues and problems
Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal, Urbanization, rural-urban migration; problems of slums, Land degradation

Hindustani Melodic+

Hindustani Melodic: Unit 01
Unit 1
Gram, Murchhana, Varna, Alankar, Alap, Tana, Gamak, Meend, Kan, Khatka, Murki, krintan, Zamzama, Ghaseet, Sut.
Hindustani Melodic: Unit 02
Unit 2
Classification of Ragas- Ancient, Medieval and Moderm, Historical development of time theory of Ragas
Hindustani Melodic: Unit 03
Unit 3
Sangeet Ratnakar, Sangeet Parijat, Life sketch and Contribution of Inayat Khan, Mushtaq Ali Khan, Alauddin Khan, Abdul Halim Zafar
Hindustani Melodic: Unit 04
Unit 4
Description of Prescribed Talas along with Tala NotationThah, Dugun, Tigun and Chaugun, Study of various parts and tuning of the Instrument opted for.
Hindustani Melodic: Unit 05
Unit 5
Critical study of Prescribed Ragas along with Recognizing Ragas from phrases of Swaras and elaborating them, Writing in Notation the Compositions of Prescribed Ragas.

Hindustani Percussion+

Hindustani Percussion: Unit 01
Unit 1
Short notes of the following Uthan/Peskhar, Chakradar, and Baant, (a) Chautala-Ektala (b) Jhaptala-Sultala (c) Teentala-Tilwada
Hindustani Percussion: Unit 02
Unit 2
Classification of Layakari, Brief description of Gharanas of Tabla or Pakhawaj
Hindustani Percussion: Unit 03
Unit 3
History of Tabla or Pakhawaj, Brief history of Medieval and Modern period of Hindustani Music specially in the field of percussion instruments
Hindustani Percussion: Unit 04
Unit 4
Biographies of Pandit Kishan Maharaj, Ustad Karamatullah Khan and Ustad Zakir Hussain, Silent feature of Raja Chatrapati Singh, Guru Purushotam Das and Pandit Pagal Das.
Hindustani Percussion: Unit 05
Unit 5
Writing notation of the prescribed Talas and compositions, Recognition of Talas from given portion of the Thekas and compositions. Prescribe Talas: Teentala/Adi tala, Rupak/Tevra

Hindustani vocal+

Hindustani vocal: Unit 01
Unit 1
Alankar, Varna, Kan, Meend, Khatka, Murki, Gamak, Sadra, Dadra, Gram, Murchhana, Alap, Tana.
Hindustani vocal: Unit 02
Unit 2
Classification of Ragas- Anicent, Medieval and Modern, Historical development of time theory of Ragas
Hindustani vocal: Unit 03
Unit 3
Sangeet Ratnakar II, Sangeet Parijat, Life sketch and Cotribution of Abdul Karim Khan, Faiyaz Khan, Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, Krishna Rao ShankarPandit
Hindustani vocal: Unit 04
Unit 4
Description of Prescribed Talas along with Tala Notation- Thah, Dugun, Tigun and Chaugun, Study of various parts and tuning of Tanpura
Hindustani vocal: Unit 05
Unit 5
Critical study of Prescribed Ragas along with Recognizing Ragas from phrases of Swaras and elaborating them, Writing in Notation the Compositions of Prescribed Ragas, Writing in Notation the Compositions of Prescribed Ragas

History - Part 1+

History - Part 1: Unit 01
The story of the first cities: harappan archaeology
Harappan, Archaeology. Broad overview: Early urban centres Story of discovery: Harappan civilization Excerpt: Archaeological report on a major site Discussion: How it has been utilized by archaeologists/historians.
History - Part 1: Unit 02
Political and economic history: how inscriptions tell a story
Broad overview: Political and economic history from the Mauryan to the Gupta period Story of discovery: Inscriptions and the decipherment of the script. Shifts in the understanding of political and economic history
Excerpt: Asokan inscription and Gupta period land grant Discussion: Interpretation of inscriptions by historians.
History - Part 1: Unit 03
Social histories: using the Mahabharata
Broad overview: Issues in social history, including caste, class, kinship and gender Story ofdiscovery:Transmission and publications of the Mahabharata Excerpt: from the Mahabharata, illustrating how it has been used by historians
Discussion:Other sources for reconstructing social history
History - Part 1: Unit 04
A history of buddhism: Sanchi stupa
Broad overview: a. A brief review of religious histories of Vedic religion, Jainism, Vaishnavism, Shaivism (Puranic Hinduism). b. Focus on Buddhism. Story of discovery: Sanchi stupa Excerpt: Reproduction of sculptures from Sanchi
Discussion: Ways in which sculpture has been interpreted by historians, other sources for reconstructing the history of Buddhism

History - Part 2+

History - Part 2: Unit 01
Medieval society through travellers’ accounts
Broad overview: Outline of social and cultural life as they appear in travellers' accounts. Story of their writings: A discussion of where they travelled, why they travelled, what they wrote, and for whom they wrote
Excerpts: from AlBiruni, Ibn Battuta, Francois Bernier Discussion: What these travel accounts can tell us and how they have been interpreted by historians
History - Part 2: Unit 02
Religious histories: the bhakti-Sufi tradition
Broad overview: a. Outline of religious developments during this period b. Ideas and practices of the Bhakti-Sufi saints StoryofTransmission:HowBhakti-Sufi compositions have been preserved
Excerpt: Extracts from selected BhaktiSufi works. Discussion: Ways in which these have been interpreted by historians
History - Part 2: Unit 03
New architecture: Hampi
Broad overview: a. Outlineofnewbuildingsduring Vijayanagar period-temples, forts, irrigation facilities. b. Relationship between architecture and the political system Story of Discovery: Account of how Hampi was found
Excerpt: Visuals of buildings at Hampi Discussion: Ways in which historians have analyzed and interpreted these structures.
History - Part 2: Unit 04
Agrarian Relations: The Ain-i-Akbari
Broad overview: a. Structure of agrarian relations in the 16thand 17thcenturies.Patterns of change over the period StoryofDiscovery:Account of the compilation and translation of Ain-i-Akbari
Excerpt: from the Ain-i-Akbari Discussion: Ways in which historians have used the text to reconstruct history.
History - Part 2: Unit 05
The mughal court: reconstructing histories through chronicles
Broad overview: a. Outline of political history 15th-17th centuries b. DiscussionoftheMughalcourtand politics Story of Discovery: Account of the production of court chronicles, and their subsequent translation and transmission
Excerpts:from the Akbarnama and Padshahnama. Discussion: Ways in which historians have used the texts to reconstruct political histories

History - Part 3+

History - Part 3: Unit 01
Colonialism and rural society: evidence from official reports
Broad overview: a. Life of zamindars, peasants and artisans in the late 18th century b. East India Company, revenue settlements in various regions of India and surveys c. Changes over the nineteenth century Story of official records
Excerpts: From Fifth Report, Accounts of Frances Buchanan-Hamilton, and Deccan Riots Report. Discussion: What the official records tell and do not tell, and how they have been used by historians
History - Part 3: Unit 02
Representations of 1857
Broad overview: a.The events of 1857-58 b.Vision of Unity c.How these events were recorded and narrated. Focus: Lucknow Excerpts: Pictures of 1857
Extracts from contemporary accounts Discussion: How the pictures of 1857 shaped British opinion of what had happened.
History - Part 3: Unit 03
Colonialism and Indian towns: town plans and municipal reports
Broad overview:History of towns in India, colonization and cities, hill stations, town planning of Madras, Calcutta and Bombay. Excerpts: Photographs and paintings. Plans of cities. Extract from town plan reports
Focus on Calcutta town planning Discussion: How the above sources can be used to reconstruct the history of towns. What these sources do not reveal
History - Part 3: Unit 04
Mahatma Gandhi through contemporary eyes
Broad overview: a. The Nationalist Movement 1918 -48. b. The nature of Gandhian politics and leadership. Focus: Mahatma Gandhi and the three movements and his last days as “finest hours”
Excerpts: Reports from English and Indian language newspapers and other contemporary writings. Discussion: How newspapers can be a source of history
History - Part 3: Unit 05
Partition through oral sources
Broad over view: a. The history of the 1940s b. Nationalism, Communalism and Partition. Focus: Punjab and Bengal
Excerpts: Oral testimonies of those who experienced partition. Discussion: Ways in which these have been analyzed to reconstruct the history of the event
History - Part 3: Unit 06
The making of the constitution
Broad overview: a. Independence and the new nation state. b. The making of the Constitution Focus: The Constitutional Assembly debates Excerpts: from the debates Discussion: What such debates reveal and how they can be analyzed

Home science+

Home science: Unit 01
Human Development: Life Span Approach (Part II)
Adolescence (12 – 18 years),Adulthood
Home science: Unit 02
Nutrition during life span
Meal Planning,Food safety and quality,Therapeutic modification of normal diet with respect to consistency, frequency,foodstuffs, nutrients and methods of cooking,Modification of diet according to common ailments
Home science: Unit 03
Money management and consumer education
Family Income,Savings and Investment,
Home science: Unit 04
Apparel: Designing, Selection and Care
(i) Application of elements of art and principles of design in designing apparel (ii) Selection and purchase of fabrics- purpose, cost, season, quality, durability, ease of maintenance and comfort
(iii) Selection of apparel- factors influencing selection of apparel- age, size, climate, occupation, figure, occasion, fashion, drape cost and workmanship (iv) Care and maintenance of clothes
Home science: Unit 05
Community Development and Extension (Part II)
Water safety,Salient features of income generating schemes
Home science: Unit 06
Career options after home science education
Career options of self and wage employment in various fields of Home Science

Informatics Practices - Old+

Informatics Practices - Old: Unit 01
Networking and open standards
Computer Networking,Open Source Concepts
Informatics Practices - Old: Unit 02
Programming
Review of Class XI,Programming Fundamentals
Informatics Practices - Old: Unit 03
Relational database management system
Review of RDBMS from Class XI,Database Fundamentals
Informatics Practices - Old: Unit 04
It applications
Front-end Interface,Back-end Database,Front-End and Database Connectivity,Demonstration and development of appropriate Front-end interface and Back-end Database for e-Governance, e-Business and e-Learning applications,Impact of ICT on society

Informatics Practices - New+

Informatics Practices - New: Unit 01
Data Handling - 2
Python Pandas, Numpy, Plotting with Pyplot
Informatics Practices - New: Unit 02
Basic software engineering
Introduction to software engineering, Software Processes: waterfall model, evolutionary model, and component based model, Delivery models: incremental delivery, spiral delivery
Process activities:Specification,design/implementation,validation,evolution,Agile methods:Pair programming & Scrum, Business use-case diagrams,Practical aspects:Version control system (GIT) & do case studies of software systems & build use-case diagrams
Informatics Practices - New: Unit 03
Data Management -2
Write a minimal Django based web application that parses a GET and POST request, and writes the fields to a file – flat file and CSV file. Interface Python with an SQL database, SQL commands: aggregation functions, having, group by, order by
Informatics Practices - New: Unit 04
Society, Law and Ethics - 2
Intellectual property rights, plagiarism, digital rights management, and licensing (Creative Commons, GPL and Apache), open source, open data, privacy. Privacy laws, fraud;
Cybercrime- phishing, illegal downloads, child pornography, scams; cyber forensics, IT Act, 2000. Technology and society: understanding of societal issues and cultural changes induced by technology
E-waste management: proper disposal of used electronic gadgets. Identity theft, unique ids, and biometrics. Gender and disability issues while teaching and using computers.
Role of new media in society: online campaigns, crowdsourcing, smart mobs, Issues with the internet: internet as an echo chamber, net neutrality, internet addiction, Case studies - Arab Spring, WikiLeaks, Bit coin

Knowledge Tradition - Practices India+

Knowledge Tradition - Practices India: Unit 01
Agriculture:A survey
Agriculture in Prehistory and Protohistory/ Textual Sources/ Types of Lands/ Rain-Fed and Irrigated Crops/ Implements/ Seed and Sowing/ Manures/ Pests and Their Management
Cattle Management/ Horticulture and Arboriculture/ Fishing/ Agriculture and Society,Agricultural Heritage
Knowledge Tradition - Practices India: Unit 02
Architecture:A survey
Early and ClassicalArchitecture,Medieval & Colonial Architecture
Knowledge Tradition - Practices India: Unit 03
Dance: A survey
Classical Dance Forms, Folk Dance Forms
Knowledge Tradition - Practices India: Unit 04
Education Systems and Practices:A survey
Goals of Indian Education/ Teaching and Learning/ the Teacher and the Student/ Centres of Education/ Temples as First Schools/ Gurukulas/ Viharas and Universities/ Community Supported Education/ The Continuing System
Primary Texts on Education in India,Narratives of Indian Education in the 17th, 18th and 19th Centuries
Knowledge Tradition - Practices India: Unit 05
Ethics: Individual and Social
The Cosmic Order/ Buddhist Ethics/ Jain Ethics/ Sikh Ethics/ The Bhakti,Movement,Primary Texts on Ethics
Knowledge Tradition - Practices India: Unit 06
Martial Arts Traditions:A Survey
Texts/ Practice of Martial Arts/ Stick Combat/Ka_arippayau Martial Arts Traditions: Excerpts from Primary Texts
Knowledge Tradition - Practices India: Unit 07
Language and Grammar
Languages of India/ Study of Language in India/ Disciplines of Language Studies in India/ Classification of Speech-Sounds/ Theory of Grammar,Primary Texts on Language: Excerpts from Primary Texts
Knowledge Tradition - Practices India: Unit 08
Other Technologies:A Survey
Harappan Technologies/ Later pottery/ Glass/ Water Management/ Textile Technology/ Writing Technology/ Pyrotechnics/ Cosmetics andPerfumes,Other Technologies: Excerpts from Primary Texts
Knowledge Tradition - Practices India: Unit 09
Painting: A Survey
Classical Texts/ Mural Painting/Miniature, Painting/Mughal Paintings/Tanjore and Mysore Painting/Folk painting,Painting: Excerpts from Primary Texts
Knowledge Tradition - Practices India: Unit 10
Society State and Polity:A Survey
Plurality of Indian Society/Underlying Principles of Indian Society/Family/Indian Society and Reform/The Indian State/Goal of a State/ Polity/Bureaucracy/Legal System,Primary Texts on Society State and Polity
Knowledge Tradition - Practices India: Unit 11
Trade & Commerce: A Survey Test
How Does Trade Work?/Trade in Ancient India/ Different Countries, Many Goods/ Ports and Sailors/ Land Routes/ India’s Dominance up to Precolonial Times/ By-Products of Trade/ Further Reading,Excerpts from the Primary Text

Legal studies+

Legal studies: Unit 01
Judiciary
Legal studies: Unit 02
Topics in law
Legal studies: Unit 03
Arbitration, tribunal adjudication and alternate dispute resolution
Legal studies: Unit 04
Human rights in India
Legal studies: Unit 05
Legal profession in India
Legal studies: Unit 06
Legal services
Legal studies: Unit 07
International context

Mathematics+

Mathematics: Unit 01
Relations and Functions
Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one andonto functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Mathematics: Unit 02
Algebra
Matrices, Determinants
Mathematics: Unit 03
Calculus
Continuity and Differentiability, Applications of Derivatives, Integrals, Applications of the Integrals, Differential Equations
Mathematics: Unit 04
Vectors and three - dimensional geometry
Vectors : Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector.Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector
Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector
Components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio
Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties and application of scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors, scalar triple product of vectors
Three - dimensional Geometry Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points.Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines
Cartesian and vector equation of a plane.Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane.Distance of a point from a plane
Mathematics: Unit 05
Linear programming
Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems
Graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions (bounded or unbounded), feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints)
Mathematics: Unit 06
Probability
Conditional probability, multiplication theorem on probability, independent events, total probability, Bayes’ theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of random variable

National Cadet Corps - Part 1+

National Cadet Corps - Part 1: Unit 01
National Integration and Awareness-Contents
National Cadet Corps - Part 1: Unit 02
Drill
National Cadet Corps - Part 1: Unit 03
Weapon training
National Cadet Corps - Part 1: Unit 04
Personality development and leadership
National Cadet Corps - Part 1: Unit 05
Disaster management
National Cadet Corps - Part 1: Unit 06
Social awareness and community development
National Cadet Corps - Part 1: Unit 07
Health and hygiene
National Cadet Corps - Part 1: Unit 08
Adventure training and obstacle training
National Cadet Corps - Part 1: Unit 09
Environment awareness and conservation

National Cadet Corps - Part 2(A)+

National Cadet Corps - Part 2(A): Unit 01
Armed forces
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(A): Unit 02
Map reading
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(A): Unit 03
Field craft and battle craft
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(A): Unit 04
Introduction to information of Weapons and Equipment
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(A): Unit 05
Military history
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(A): Unit 06
Communication

National Cadet Corps - Part 2(B)+

National Cadet Corps - Part 2(B): Unit 01
Naval orientation
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(B): Unit 02
Naval War Fare
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(B): Unit 03
Naval combination
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(B): Unit 04
Navigation
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(B): Unit 05
Sea manship
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(B): Unit 06
Boat work
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(B): Unit 07
Fire Fighting, Flooding and Damage Control
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(B): Unit 08
Ship and Boat Modeling
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(B): Unit 09
Swimming

National Cadet Corps - Part 2(C)+

National Cadet Corps - Part 2(C): Unit 01
General service knowledge
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(C): Unit 02
Air campaigns
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(C): Unit 03
Aircraft recognition
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(C): Unit 04
Principles of flight
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(C): Unit 05
Airmanship
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(C): Unit 06
Navigation
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(C): Unit 07
Meteorology
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(C): Unit 08
Aero engines
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(C): Unit 09
Air frames
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(C): Unit 10
Instruments
National Cadet Corps - Part 2(C): Unit 11
Aero modelling

Physical education+

Physical education: Unit 01
Planning in sports
Meaning & Objectives Of Planning, Various Committees & its Responsibilities (pre; during & post), Tournament – Knock-Out, League Or Round Robin & Combination
Procedure To Draw Fixtures – Knock-Out (Bye & Seeding) & League (Staircase & Cyclic), Intramural & Extramural – Meaning, Objectives & Its Significance, Specific Sports Programme (Sports Day, Health Run, Run For Fun, Run For Specific Cause & Run For Unity)
Physical education: Unit 02
Sports & Nutrition
Balanced Diet & Nutrition: Macro & Micro Nutrients, Nutritive & Non-Nutritive Components Of Diet, Eating For Weight Control – A Healthy Weight, The Pitfalls of Dieting, Food Intolerance & Food Myths
Physical education: Unit 03
Yoga & Lifestyle
Asanas as preventive measures, Obesity: Procedure, Benefits & contraindications for Vajrasana, Hastasana, Trikonasana, Ardh Matsyendrasana
Diabetes: Procedure, Benefits & contraindications for Bhujangasana, Paschimottasana, Pavan Muktasana, Ardh Matsyendrasana
Asthema: Procedure, Benefits & contraindications for Sukhasana, Chakrasana, Gomukhasana, Parvatasana, Bhujangasana, Paschimottasana, Matsyasana
Hypertension: Tadasana, Vajrasana, Pavan Muktasana, Ardha Chakrasana, Bhujangasana, Sharasana, Back Pain: Tadasana, Ardh Matsyendrasana, Vakrasana, Shalabhasana, Bhujangasana
Physical education: Unit 04
Physical Education & Sports for CWSN (Children With Special Needs - Divyang)
Concept of Disability & Disorder, Types of Disability, its causes & nature (cognitive disability, intellectual disability, physical disability), Types of Disorder, its cause & nature (ADHD, SPD, ASD, ODD, OCD),Disability Etiquettes
Advantage of Physical Activities for children with special needs, Strategies to make Physical Activities assessable for children with special need
Physical education: Unit 05
Children & Women in Sports
Motor development & factors affecting it, Exercise Guidelines at different stages of growth & Development, Common Postural Deformities - Knock Knee; Flat Foot; Round Shoulders; Lordosis, Kyphosis, Bow Legs and Scoliosis and their corrective measures
Sports participation of women in India, Special consideration (Menarch & Menstural Disfunction), Female Athletes Triad (Oestoperosis, Amenoria, Eating Disorders)
Physical education: Unit 06
Test & Measurement in Sports
Motor Fitness Test – 50 M Standing Start, 600 M Run/Walk, Sit & Reach, Partial Curl Up, Push Ups (Boys), Modified Push Ups (Girls), Standing Broad Jump, Agility – 4x10 M Shuttle Run
General Motor Fitness – Barrow three item general motor ability (Standing Broad Jump, Zig Zag Run, Medicine Ball Put – For Boys: 03 Kg & For Girls: 01 Kg)
Measurement of Cardio Vascular Fitness – Harvard Step Test/Rockport Test - Computation of Fitness Index: Duration of the Exercise in Seconds x 100 5.5 x Pulse count of 1-1.5 Min after Exercise. Rikli & Jones - Senior Citizen Fitness Test
Physical education: Unit 07
Physiology & Injuries in Sports
Physiological factor determining component of Physical Fitness, Effect of exercise on Cardio Respiratory System, Effect of exercise on Muscular System, Physiological changes due to ageing
Sports injuries: Classification (Soft Tissue Injuries:(Abrasion, Contusion, Laceration, Incision, Sprain & Strain)
Bone & Joint Injuries: (Dislocation, Fractures: Stress Fracture, Green Stick, Communated, Transverse Oblique & Impacted) Causes, Prevention& treatment, First Aid – Aims & Objectives
Physical education: Unit 08
Biomechanics & Sports
Meaning and Importance of Biomechanics in Sports, Types of movements (Flexion, Extension, Abduction & Adduction) Newton’s Law of Motion & its application in sports, Friction & Sports
Physical education: Unit 09
Psychology & Sports
Personality; its definition & types – Trait & Types (Sheldon & Jung Classification) & Big Five Theory, Motivation, its type & techniques, Exercise Adherence
Reasons to Exercise, Benefits of Exercise, Strategies for Enhancing Adherence to Exercise, Meaning, Concept & Types of Aggressions in Sports
Physical education: Unit 10
Training in sports
Strength – Definition, types & methods of improving Strength – Isometric, Isotonic & Isokinetic, Endurance - Definition, types & methods to develop Endurance – Continuous Training, Interval Training & Fartlek Training
Speed – Definition, types & methods to develop Speed – Acceleration Run & Pace Run, Flexibility – Definition, types & methods to improve flexibility, Coordinative Abilities – Definition & types, Circuit Training - Introduction & its importance

Physics+

Physics: Unit 01
Electrostatics
Electric Charges and Fields, Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
Physics: Unit 02
Current electricity
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm's law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear)
Electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity, Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance
Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combinationof cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff's laws and simple applications,Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge
Potentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell
Physics: Unit 03
Magnetic effects of current and magnetism
Moving Charges and Magnetism, Magnetism and Matter
Physics: Unit 04
Electromagnetic induction and alternating currents
Electromagnetic Induction, Alternating Current
Physics: Unit 05
Electromagnetic waves
Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only)
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses
Physics: Unit 06
Optics
Ray Optics and Optical Instruments, Wave Optics
Physics: Unit 07
Dual nature of radiation and matter
Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light
Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation, Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained)
Physics: Unit 08
Atoms and nuclei
Atoms: Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum
Nuclei: Composition and size of nucleus, Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law
Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion
Physics: Unit 09
Electronic devices
Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier
Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator

Political Science Part A+

Political Science Part A: Unit 01
Cold war era
Emergence of two power blocs after the second world war. Arenas of the cold war. Challenges to Bipolarity: Non Aligned Movement, quest for new international economic order. India and the cold war
Political Science Part A: Unit 02
The end of bipolarity
New entities in world politics: Russia, Balkan states and Central Asian states. Introduction of democratic politics and capitalism in postcommunist regimes. India’s relations with Russia and other post-communist countries
Political Science Part A: Unit 03
US hegemony in world politics
Growth of unilateralism: Afghanistan, first Gulf War, response to 9/11 and attack on Iraq. Dominance and challenge to the US in economy and ideology. India’s renegotiation of its relationship with USA
Political Science Part A: Unit 04
Alternative centres of power
Rise of China as an economic power in post-Mao era, creation and expansion of European Union, ASEAN. India’s changing relations with China
Political Science Part A: Unit 05
Contemporary south Asia in the post-cold war era
Democratisation in Pakistan and Nepal. Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka, Impact of economic globalization on the region. Conflicts and efforts for peace in South Asia. India’s relation with its neighbours
Political Science Part A: Unit 06
International organizations
Restructuring and the future of the UN. India’s position in the restructured UN. Rise of new international actors: new international economic organizations, NGOs. How democratic and accountable are the new institutions of global governance?
Political Science Part A: Unit 07
Security in contemporary world
Traditional concerns of security and politics of disarmament. Non-traditional or human security: global poverty, health and education. Issues of human rights and migration
Political Science Part A: Unit 08
Environment and natural resources
Environment movement and evolution of global environmental norms. Conflicts over traditional and common property resources. Rights of indigenous people. India’s stand in global environmental debates
Political Science Part A: Unit 09
Globalization
Economic, cultural and political manifestations. Debates on the nature of consequences of globalization. Anti-globalization movements. India as an arena of globalization and struggle against it

Political Science Part B+

Political Science Part B: Unit 01
Challenges of Nation-Building
Nehru’s approach to nation-building; Legacy of partition: challenge of ‘refugee’ resettlement, the Kashmir problem. Organization and reorganization of states; Political conflicts over language
Political Science Part B: Unit 02
Era of One-party dominance
First three general elections, nature of Congress dominance at the national level, uneven dominance at the state level, coalitional nature of Congress. Major opposition parties
Political Science Part B: Unit 03
Politics of planned development
Five year plans, expansion of state sector and the rise of new economic interests. Famine and suspension of five year plans. Green Revolution and its political fallouts
Political Science Part B: Unit 04
India’s external relations
Nehru’s foreign policy. Sino-Indian war of 1962, Indo-Pak war of 1965 and 1971. India’s nuclear programme. Shifting alliance in world politics
Political Science Part B: Unit 05
Challenges to the congress system
Political succession after Nehru. Non-Congressism and electoral upset of 1967, Congress split and reconstitution, Congress’ victory in 1971 elections, politics of ‘garibi hatao’
Political Science Part B: Unit 06
Crisis of the democratic order
Search for ‘committed’ bureaucracy and judiciary. Navnirman movement in Gujarat and the Bihar movement. Emergency: context, constitutional and extra-constitutional dimensions, resistance to emergency
1977 elections and the formation of Janata Party. Rise of civil liberties organizations
Political Science Part B: Unit 07
Rise of Popular Movements in India
Farmers’ movements, Women’s movement, Environment and Development-affected people’s movements. Implementation of Mandal Commission report and its aftermath
Political Science Part B: Unit 08
Regional aspirations
Rise of regional parties. Punjab crisis and the anti-Sikh riots of 1984. The Kashmir situation. Challenges and responses in the North East
Political Science Part B: Unit 09
Recent developments in Indian politics
Participatory upsurge in 1990s. rise of the JD and the BJP. Increasing role of regional parties and coalition politics. Coalition governments: NDA (1998-2004) UPA (2004-2014) NDS (2014 onwards)

Psychology+

Psychology: Unit 01
Variations in psychological attributes
Introduction, Individual Differences in Human Functioning, Assessment of Psychological Attributes, Intelligence, Psychometric Theories of Intelligence, Information Processing Theory, Theory of Multiple Intelligences,Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Planning, Attentionarousal and Simultaneous successive Model of Intelligence, Individual Differences in Intelligence, Culture and Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence, Special Abilities: Aptitude: Nature and Measurement, Creativity
Psychology: Unit 02
Self and personality
Introduction, Self and Personality, Concept of Self, Cognitive and Behavioural Aspects of Self, Culture and Self, Concept of Personality
Major Approaches to the Study of Personality : Type Approaches, Trait Approaches, Psychodynamic Approach, Behavioural Approach, Cultural Approach, Humanistic Approach,
Assessment of Personality : Self-report Measures, Projective Techniques, Behavioural Analysis
Psychology: Unit 03
Meeting life challenges
1. Introduction 2. Nature, Types and Sources of Stress 3. Effects of Stress on Psychological Functioning and Health, stress and Health, General Adaptation Syndrome, Stress and Immune System, Lifestyle
4.Coping with Stress, Stress Management Techniques 5. Promoting Positive Health and Well-being, Life Skills
Psychology: Unit 04
Psychological disorders
Introduction 2. Concepts of Abnormality and Psychological Disorders, Historical Background 3. Classification of Psychological Disorders 4. Factors Underlying Abnormal Behaviour
5. Major Psychological Disorders, Anxiety Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, Trauma-and Stressor-Related Disorders, Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders, Dissociative Disorders
5. Depressive Disorder, Bipolar and Related Disorders, Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders, Neurodevelopmental Disorders
5. Disruptive, Impulse-Control and Conduct Disorders, Feeding and Eating Disorders, Substance Related and Addictive Disorders
Psychology: Unit 05
Therapeutic approaches
Nature & Process of psychotherapy, Therapeutic relationship 2. Types of Therapies, Psychodynamic Therapy, Behaviour Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, Humanistic-existential Therapy, Biomedical Therapy, Alternative Therapies 3.Rehabilitation of the Mentally Ill
Psychology: Unit 06
Attitude and social cognition
1. Introduction 2. Explaining Social Behaviour 3. Nature and Components of Attitudes 4. Attitude Formation and Change, Attitude Formation, Attitude Change, Attitude-Behaviour Relationship5. Prejudice and Discrimination
6. Strategies for Handling Prejudice7. Social Cognition8. Schemas and Stereotypes9. Impression Formation and Explaining10.Behaviour of Others through Attributions, Impression Formation, Attribution of Causality
11.Behaviour in the Presence of Others 12. Pro-social Behaviour, Factors Affecting Pro-social Behaviour
Psychology: Unit 07
Social influence and group processes
Introduction 2. Nature and Formation of Groups 3. Type of Groups 4. Influence of Group on Individual Behaviour, Social Loafing, Group Polarisation 5. Conformity, Compliance and Obedience
6. Cooperation and Competition, Determinants of Cooperation and Competition 7. Social Identity 8. Intergroup Conflict: Nature and Causes 9. Conflict Resolution Strategies
Psychology: Unit 08
Psychology and life
Introduction 2. Human-Environment Relationship, Different Views of the Human-Environment Relationship 3. Environmental Effects on Human Behaviour, Human Influence on the Environment, Noise, Pollution, Crowding, Natural Disasters
4. Promoting Pro-environmental Behaviour 5. Psychology and Social Concerns, Poverty and Discrimination, Aggression, Violence and Peace, Mahatma Gandhi on Non-violence, Health, Impact of Television on Behaviour
Psychology: Unit 09
Developing psychological skills
Introduction 2. Developing as an effective Psychologist 3. General Skills 4. Observational Skills 5. Specific Skills .Communication Skills , Psychological Testing Skills 6. Interviewing Skills 7. Counselling Skills

Sociology Part A+

Sociology Part A: Unit 01
Introducing Indian society
Colonialism, Nationalism, Class and Community (Nonevaluative)
Sociology Part A: Unit 02
The Demographic Structure of Indian Society
Theories and concepts in demography, Rural-Urban Linkages and Divisions
Sociology Part A: Unit 03
Social institutions-continuity and change
The Caste System, Tribal Communities, Family and Kinship
Sociology Part A: Unit 04
Market as a social institution
Sociological perspectives on markets and the economy .Globalization - Interlinking of Local, Regional, National and International Markets
Sociology Part A: Unit 05
Patterns of social inequality and exclusion
Social Inequality and Social Exclusion, Caste prejudice, Scheduled Castes & Other Backward Classes, Adivasi Struggles, The Struggle for Women’s Equality and Rights, The struggles of the Differently Abled
Sociology Part A: Unit 06
Challenges of Cultural Diversity
Cultural communities and the nation state, Problems of Regionalism, The Nation state, religion related issues and identities, Communalism, secularism and the nation state, State and Civil Society
Sociology Part A: Unit 07
Suggestions for project work

Sociology Part B+

Sociology Part B: Unit 01
Structural change
Colonialism, Industrialization, Urbanization
Sociology Part B: Unit 02
Cultural change
Social Reform Movements and Laws, Different Kinds of Social Change: Sanskritisation, Westernization, Modernization, Secularization
Sociology Part B: Unit 03
The story of Indian democracy
The Constitution as an instrument of Social Change, Panchayati Raj and the Challenges of Social Transformation, Political Parties, Pressure Groups and Democratic Politics
Sociology Part B: Unit 04
Change and development in rural society
Land Reforms, Green Revolution and Emerging Agrarian society , Agrarian Structure : Caste & class in Rural India .Land Reforms , Green revolution and its social consequences ,Transformation in Rural Society, Globalization, Liberalization and Rural Society
Sociology Part B: Unit 05
Change and development in industrial society
From Planned Industrialization to Liberalization, Getting a Job, Work Processes
Sociology Part B: Unit 06
Globalization and social change
Dimensions of Globalization
Sociology Part B: Unit 07
Mass media and communications
Types of Mass Media: Radio, Television and Print Media, Changing Nature of Mass Media
Sociology Part B: Unit 08
Social movements
Theories & Classification of Social Movements,Environmental Movements,Class-Based Movements: Workers, Peasants,Caste-Based Movements: Dalit Movement,Backward Castes,Trends in Upper Caste Responses,Tribal Movements,Women’s Movements in Independent India

To qualify the CBSE 12th exams 2020 with flying colors, students should be aware of how, what and when to prepare for the board exam. Read the CBSE 12th preparation tips below to make the preparation easier-

  • Know the syllabus and start early: Before starting CBSE Class 12th preparation, candidates should first check the syllabus prescribed by the board for both theory and practical. This helps in knowing the most important topics to cover for board exams.
  • Solve as many question papers as possible: CBSE provides previous year question papers and model papers officially. Students can download the same from the official site of CBSE in the curriculum section and solve maximum numbers of question papers to get an understanding of the types of questions asked in the CBSE 12th exams 2020.   
  • Eat healthy: This is a very important point. Yes, you have your exams knocking at your door. But that does not mean that you can stop eating and keep mugging from your textbooks. Take time to relax. Have your meals on time and more importantly don't skip any of them. 
  • Exercise: All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy! So, don't just sit on your study desk and read all the time. Take time to move around. Learn some basic exercises, especially, those that involve breathing and moving your arms.  
  • Sleep well: Along with eating and exercising, it is very important that you don't lose your sleep over your exam. Many students sleep late when they are preparing. This is to be avoided at all cost. Less sleep will only hamper your memory. As a result, you might forget what you have studied in the examination hall. 
  • Make notes: Keep a pen and notepad handy. Keep taking notes. Keeping a note helps in remembering the important points.

Knowing exam pattern enables a student to prepare for CBSE 12th exams 2020 in better way by making them aware of important aspects of an exam. CBSE class 12 exam pattern is divided into three main streams that are science, commerce and arts. Some subjects of CBSE 12th are common for all stream students. The exam pattern and marking scheme of CBSE 12th major subjects is given in the following tables:

CBSE Class 12 Physics & Chemistry Exam Pattern

Exam duration3 Hours
Practical Marks30 Marks
Theory marks70 marks
Total no. of questions37
Very short answer type questions (1 mark each)20
Short answer type questions (2 mark each)7
Long answer type -I questions (3 mark each)7
Long answer type -II questions (5 mark each)
3

CBSE Class 12 Mathematics Exam Pattern

Exam duration3 Hours
Internal Marks20 Marks
Theory marks80 marks
Total no. of questions36
Very short answer type questions (1 mark each)20
Short answer type questions (2 mark each)6
Long answer type-I questions (4 mark each)6
Long answer type-II questions (6 mark each)
4

CBSE Class 12 Biology Exam Pattern

Exam duration3 Hours
Practical Marks30 Marks
Theory marks70 marks
Total no. of questions27
Very short answer type questions (1 mark each)5
Short answer type-I questions (2 mark each)7
Short answer type-II questions (3 mark each)12
Long answer type questions (5 mark each)
3

CBSE 12th English Core Exam Pattern

Exam duration3 hours
Maximum marks100 marks (80 Marks for Theory + 20 Marks for assessment of listening and speaking skills)
Total number of questions33
MCQ and objective type questions (1 mark each)20
Short Answer type-I questions (2 mark each)5
Short Answer type -II questions (4 mark each)3
Long Answer type questions (6 mark each)3
Very Long Answer type questions  (10 marks each)2

CBSE 12th Accountancy Exam Pattern

Exam duration3 hours
Theory marks80 
Practical marks20 
Total number of questions
32
MCQ and objective type questions (1 mark each)
20
Short answer I type questions (3 marks each)2
Short answer II type questions (4 marks each)5
Long answer I type questions (6 marks each)3
Long answer II type questions (8 marks each)2

CBSE 12th Business Studies Exam Pattern

Exam duration3 hours
Theory marks80 
Internal marks20 
Total number of questions
34
MCQ and objective type questions (1 mark each)
20
Short answer I type questions (3 marks each)5
Short answer II type questions (4 marks each)3
Long answer I type questions (6 marks each)3
Long answer II type questions (8 marks each)3


CBSE Class 12 Geography Marking Scheme

Exam duration3 hours
Total marks100 marks
Theory marks70 marks
Practical marks30 marks

CBSE 12th History Marking Scheme

Exam duration3 hours
Total marks100 marks
Theory marks80 marks
Project work 20 marks
Total number of questions
31
MCQ and objective type questions (1 mark each)
20
Short answer type questions (3 marks each)4
Source based questions (6 marks each)3
Long answer type questions (8 marks each)
3
Map Work (6 marks)1
  • Students are advised to practice the sample papers or previous year question papers as prescribed by CBSE to know the exam pattern well. 
  • By solving the last year's sample papers, students can check the type of questions to be asked in CBSE 12th exams 2020.
  • CBSE has released the class 12 sample papers on its official website.
  • Moreover, they also know how to answer, what is being expected out, type of questions doing rounds year around.
  • Central Board of Secondary Education has released admit card of CBSE 12th exams 2020 for regular students on January 17, 2020
  • The admit card for private candidates has been released on January 21, 2020. 
  • Regular students can collect their Class 12th board exams admit card from their respective schools.
  • Private students can download it from the official website of CBSE. 
  • CBSE Class 12 admit card will contain the exam schedule, student name, date of birth, CBSE 12th roll number and exam day instructions.
  • Students should keep their admit cards safe till they get admission in higher studies as CBSE 12th roll number and mark sheet is the minimum requirement to get admission. 

Documents Required at Exam

  • Admit Card
  • School ID card

CBSE will announce the result for CBSE 12th exams 2020 in the online mode. Students will be able to view their scores on CBSE 12th result which will be uploaded on cbseresults.nic.in. Students should have their admit card number, roll number, school number and test center number to access their result. Students who are unsatisfied with their scores can either apply for re-evaluation or can appear in Compartment exams if they fail in one or two exams.

The CBSE re-evaluation result will be released in the second week of June 2020. Students can check the same through DigiLocker. 

CBSE 12th compartment exams 2020 will be conducted in July and the result for the same will be announced after 02 weeks of commencement. 

Steps to Check the CBSE Class 12 Result 2020

  • Visit the CBSE class 12 official link.
  • Enter your class XII board roll number, admit card number, school number and test centre number and click on 'submit'.
  • Your result of CBSE Board 12th will display on the screen.
  • Download it. Take a printout of it and keep it safe for future reference.

Qualifying Marks Trend

Year Category Cutoff
2020 General 33
OBC 33
SC 33
ST 26
2019 General 33
OBC 33
SC 33
ST 33

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Question: Can I apply for CBSE 12th exams in online mode?

Answer:

Students who has failed in 2019 or placed in compartment in 2019 result or wants to improve their previous marks can apply for CBSE 12th exams 2020 in online mode to appear as private student.

Question: What are the CBSE 12th exams dates?

Answer:

CBSE 12th practical exams have been held from January 1 to February 7, 2020 following which theory exams were commenced from February 15, 2020.

Question: What should I carry to CBSE 12th exam hall?

Answer:

Students must carry their admit card and school ID card to the exam hall.

Question: How can I score better in CBSE 12th?

Answer:

You will have to study rigorously to score good marks in CBSE 12th exams and practice with previous year papers to boost preparation for the exams.

Question: What are the minimum marks to pass CBSE class 12 exams 2020?

Answer:

A student will have to score at least 33% marks separately in CBSE 12th theory exam and practical exam/Internal assessment/Project work along with 33% marks in aggregate.

Questions related to CBSE Class 12th

Showing 42 out of 42 Questions
13 Views

I just want to ask that if a student of cbse class 12th 2020 predicted the score of chemistry -70/100 biology 79/100 and in physics ge predicted 21/70 so CBSE can give him gracing by seeing others subject marks???

Rehan Alam Student Expert 5th Apr, 2020

Dear Aspirant,

No, your marks from other subjects will not have any impact on the marks in other subject. However, it is being noticed that the physics paper of 2020 was a bit on the tougher side and whenever such things happens, CBSE do lenient marking so if you are sure of 21 marks, you might as well expect passing marks.

Hope this helps. Thank you.

6 Views

I can get below 75% in 12th 2019, then i go for improvement exams for all 5 subjects in 2020, but i give only 1 subject exam due to some personal reasons and absent in other 4,, then I eligible to give improvement exams in 2021.

Megha 3rd Apr, 2020

Hello Aspirant !

As per the CBSE , improvement exam. can be taken only in the successive year of passing Class XII exams


So , you cannot appear for the exam in 2021.

For more information you can visit :
http://cbse.nic.in/newsite/index.html

Hope it helps !

3 Views

may i know the exam date of history 315 sr.secondary

Manish Singh 25th Mar, 2020

After the cancellation of the open board 12th class examination till 31st March, a new date sheet has been announced by the National institute for Open Schooling on its official website. According to it the  exam date for History 315 for class 12 is 9th April

20 Views

12 compartment student take admission in any college of b.tech. after complete compartment exam.

Soham sengupta 19th Mar, 2020

Hello,

actually it is not possible to take admission in any college of BTech after just completing your 10 + 2 compartment exam. You have to  give the exam of of any joint entrance examination for  engineering or similar like this. You have to pass on this examination and if you have a good rank you can take admission in good colleges. Don't worry if you have not a good rank you can take admission in private colleges also with low ranks also.

Hope this will help you.

75 Views

Im fail in 12 last year. in this year Im private candidate of cbse 2020 . if i fail in one subject. can i give compartment exam

Rehan Alam Student Expert 17th Mar, 2020

Dear Aspirant,

Compartment is an extra chance to appear for the exam which you might not be able to qualify in the first time. Compartment is given if you are fail in only one subject, so yes if you fail in one subject then you're allowed to give compartment, however, if you have fail in more than one subject, then it is considered as fail.

Hope this helps. Thank you.

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