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Reproduction in Organisms

Reproduction in Organisms

Edited By Team Careers360 | Updated on May 10, 2022 03:44 PM IST

The biological process that results in the reproduction of offspring is called reproduction. Breeding chicks achieve the same characteristics as human offspring. Thus, childbirth is part of the cycle in which birth, growth, and death occur. It allows for the continuation of animal species, generation after generation. Since all living things have a limited life span and must die, reproduction ensures the survival of species through all generations. All living things reproduce be it microorganisms, plants, or animals.

Types of Reproduction

Different breeding methods for plants and animals are known, here, we can find mainly two categories:

→Asexual reproduction

→Sexual Production

Asexual Reproduction

Here, the parent cell or living organism divides to form genetically and morphologically similar individuals called clones.

Sexual Reproduction

Here, the male gamete combines with the gamete from the female parent to form the zygote.

Asexual Reproduction in Living Organisms

It is most commonly seen in Protestants, Monerans, and Fungi.

Example: Amoeba reproduces by binary fission when the parent cell divides into two parts and each part develops into a daughter cell. Similarly, bacteria reproduce in two different ways. Yeast produces by germination with other members of the fungus regime as Penicillium reproduces with conidia.

In addition, living organisms in the kingdom of Animalia such as Hydra reproduce by reproductive structures called shoots whereas sponges produce internal buds called gemmule that help in sexual reproduction.

Apart from this, Asexual Reproduction is seen in plants such as algae. Algae (Chlamydomonas) produce zoospores that later mature as plants. During adverse conditions, the algae are sexually transmitted.

Vegetative propagation is a form of asexual reproduction in plants that help in the Production of vegetative propagules in high-yielding plants. For example, special structures (buds) in potatoes, the stem of a plant, form buds known as ‘eyes’ that later burst like new plants. In ginger, rhizomes are specially modified stems with buds and nodes propagated vegetatively. The bryophyllum leaf has notes on the edges of the leaf called adventitious buds that fall later to produce new plants. Runners, offset, bulbs and suckers are some examples of vegetative propagules in plants. Farmers and ranchers take full advantage of this process to produce strawberry farms, potato growing, and ginger fields. However, overgrowth of the water hyacinth in the Bay of Bengal has killed millions of fish.

NCERT Books Link:

Sexual Reproduction in Living Organisms

Organisms that engage in sexual reproduction vary in their external and internal structures; the production pattern remains the same.

The adolescent phase, the reproductive phase and the senescence phase are three stages of life. Adolescence is characterised by an increase in height in both humans and animals; in plants, the emergence of new leaves can be seen in the young stage or in the vegetable phase which varies from different plants. Adolescence lasts 13-16 years for humans and mangoes remain in this stage for about 3-5 years.

The second is the reproductive stage, the flowers begin to appear on the plants, and Mango, a perennial plant, it is difficult to separate the stages as you continue to shed leaves all year round which is a sign of recovery. Bamboo blooms once every 100 years and oranges once every 12 years. Plants form special structures during the reproductive phase, as well as in humans, the reproductive stage begins in adolescence and leads to the development of sexual characteristics such as facial hair in men and breasts in women. There are circulatory changes that occur in the ovaries and tubes and hormones i.e. the menstrual cycle in the ovaries and the estrus or estrous cycles in the uterus. Mammals show periodic changes, e.g. Humans are sustainable farmers as they are able to reproduce at all times during their breeding phase.

The senescence phase is characterised by depression, lack of menstrual cycle and metabolic rate, ultimately leading to death. The category is controlled by hormones and natural factors. In many species, the reproductive system plays a key role in ensuring survival.

NCERT Notes Subject Wise Link:

Sexual Reproduction Events

Subsequent episodes of the sexual reproductive phase are divided into three categories, namely:

Pre-Fertilization Events: Gametogenesis and gamete transfer are two important pre-fertilization events.

Fertilisation events: It is an important event in which a combination of gametes occurs called syngamy that leads to the formation of a zygote. Also, external fertilisation and internal fertilisation are two words that should be well understood.

Post-Fertilization Events: It involves the formation of a diploid zygote and the development of an embryo from a zygote called embryogenesis in which cell division and cell division occur.

NCERT Solutions Subject wise link:

NCERT Exemplar Solutions Subject wise link:

Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

1. What Are Oviparous and Viviparous Animals?

Animal classification is done based on whether the zygote growth occurs outside or inside the female parent. When laying eggs of fertilised or unfertilized eggs, the animals are referred to as egg-producing animals as reptiles and birds, and when they give birth to a young individual, they are called viviparous animals.

2. How Do Prokaryotes Produce?

Prokaryotes are sexually transmitted by dividing cells or dividing them into parent plants. Special structures are made for plants such as runners, suckers, root crops, rhizomes and offsets that give birth to new offspring. It is also called vegetative propagation.

3. What is Sexual reproduction?

It incorporates the formation of  gametes that combine to form the zygote (in the case of humans). It is a more complex and slow process than normal reproduction and most high-end animals reproduce in this way. Divided into pre-fertilization, fertilisation and post-fertilization.

4. Does breeding always require more than one item?

Although reproducing sex requires two parents, it does not always have to be two different people. 

 Some organisms are usually called hermaphroditic which means that they contain both male and female gametes.

5. How do living things reproduce?

A living thing is capable of reproducing. There are two ways in which living things can produce their own copies: sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction. In a reproductive process, the male and female cells in the two parents combine to form a zygote that will eventually grow into a creature of their own.

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