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Antigen and Immunology: Definition, Properties, Types, Structure, Testing

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Antigen and Immunology: Definition, Properties, Types, Structure, Testing

Edited By Team Careers360 | Updated on Jan 27, 2024 02:31 PM IST

Introduction

An Antigen Is Anything That Causes Your Immune System To Produce Antibodies In Response To It. This Indicates That Your Immune System Is Attempting To Combat The Chemical Because It Does Not Recognise It. An Environmental Substance, Such As Chemicals, Microorganisms, Viruses, Or Pollen, Can Act As An Antigen.

What Is Antigen?

Antigens Are Generally Defined As Any Substance (Molecule) That Can Provoke An Immune Reaction (Humoral Or Cellular) Against It Or That Can Be Recognised By Immune Response By-products Like Antibodies Or Lymphocytes.

Meaning

The Immune System Makes An Antibody As A Protein To Combat External Intruders. Antigens Are Substances That Actually Cause The Formation Of Antibodies; The Prefix Anti- Is Short For Antibody And The Suffix -gen For "Producer."Antigens Are Frequently Rod-shaped Structures That Protrude From An Invading Organism's Surface—typically A Bacterium Or A Virus—and Enable It To Attach Itself To Cells In The Invaded Body. Unfortunately For Them, By Doing This, They Alert The Immune System To Their Presence, Which Causes The Body To Be Inundated With An Army Of Antibodies Resembling Pac-man.

Different Sizes And Shapes Of Antigens Exist. Typically, They Are Made Of Simple Molecules, Toxins, Chemicals, Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Or Nucleic Acids That Come From Foreign Microorganisms That Are Typically Not Found In The Body.

As An Example, When The Common Cold Virus Enters The Body, The Body Produces Antibodies To Protect Against Being Sick.

Types Of Antigens.

On The Basis Of Origin

Depending On Their Place Of Origin, Antigens Come In Various Forms:

  • Exogenous Antigens
  • Endogenous Antigens
  • Autoantigens
  • Tumor Antigens
  • Native Antigens

Exogenous Antigen

Are Non-self Antigens That Are Ingested, Inhaled, Or Injected Into The Body From The Outside. Pollen And Food Particles That Can Produce Allergies Are Among Them, As Are Bacteria And Other Pathogens That Cause Illnesses. Exogenous Antigens Therefore Exist Outside Of Cells, In Body Fluids Like Blood And Lymph, But Not Within Cells. Macrophages, Dendritic Cells, And B Cells Are Examples Of Antigen-presenting Cells (Apcs) That Quickly Take Up Exogenous Antigens Through Endocytosis And Break Them Down Into Little Fragments With The Aid Of Digestive Enzymes In Lysosomes.

Exogenous Antigen

The Antigens That Are Created By Cell Metabolism Are Known As Endogenous Antigens. Antigens That Are Self Or Non-self Can Exist. Here, The Pathogen-related Antigens Produced By The Infected Cells Are Non-self Antigens, Whereas The By-products Of Normal Cell Metabolism Are Self Antigens. Only Non-self Antigens Are Expected To Trigger An Immunological Response From The Immune System.

While Endogenous Antigens Are Created By The Body, Exogenous Antigens Are Introduced Into The Body From The Outside. This Is The Primary Distinction Between Exogenous And Endogenous Antigens.

Autoantigen

To Dissect The Phrase "Autoantigen," Consider Its Parts: The Prefix "Auto" Implies "Self," Which Is Why "Self Antigens" Is One Of Its Synonyms; The Second Part Of The Term "Antigen" Is Defined As A Material That Can Elicit A Particular Immune Reaction. Without Taking Into Account The Characteristics Of The Immunological Response Against It, A "Antigen" Actually Cannot Be Described.

Autoantigens May Be Targeted For Various Purposes In Various Contexts Due To The Diversity Of Autoimmune Disorders And The Potential Differences In Their Genetic And Functional Mechanisms. An Autoantigen Is Typically A Healthy Protein Or Protein Complex (And Occasionally Dna Or Rna) That The Immune System Of Patients With A Particular Autoimmune Disease Recognizes.

Tumor Antigen

Tumor Antigen Is An Antigenic Material Made By Tumor Cells; As A Result, It Prompts The Host's Immune System To Respond. Tumor Antigens Are Helpful Tumor Markers That Help Doctors Identify Tumor Cells During Diagnostic Procedures And May One Day Be Used In Cancer Therapy. A Chemical Or Protein That Is Exclusively Present On Cancer Cells And Not On Healthy Cells.

Native Antigen

An Antigen That Has Not Yet Undergone Apc Processing Is Referred To As A Native Antigen. B Cells May Be Activated By Native Antigens Without Prior Processing, Whereas T Cells Cannot Bind Native Antigens And Must First Have Them Digested And Processed By Apcs.

On The Basis Of Immune Response

Antigens Can Be Categorized Into The Following Groups According To The Immunological Response:

Immunogen

These Can Trigger An Immunological Response On Their Own And May Be Proteins Or Polysaccharides.

Hapten

These Are Foreign, Non-protein Substances, And In Order To Elicit An Immune Response, They Need A Carrier Molecule.

Structure Of Antigen

The Elements Of An Antigen Are Called Epitopes Or Antigenic Determinants. Each Antigen Contains A Number Of Epitopes. At Least Two Of An Antibody's Binding Sites Are Capable Of Attaching To Particular Antigen Epitopes.

The Lock And Key Mechanism Governs How The Antigens And Antibody Join.

Immunity Is The Body's Capacity To Defend Itself From Pathogens And Antigens Through The Immune System. Immunity May Be Inherited Or Developed Through Vaccinations.

Properties Of Antigen

The Following Are Antigens' Characteristics:

  • To Generate An Immunological Response, The Antigen Must Be An Alien Material.
  • The Antigens' Molecular Weights Range From 14,000 To 6,00,000 Da.
  • They Mostly Consist Of Carbohydrates And Proteins.
  • They Will Be More Immunogenic The More Chemically Complex They Are.
  • Antigens Are Unique To Each Species.
  • Age Has An Impact On Immunogenicity. People Who Are Very Young Or Very Old Have Very Low Immunogenicity.

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Antigen Vs Immunogen

Antigen

Immunogen

A Substance That Binds To Cells Or Antibodies In A Specific Way. The Surface Receptors Of T And B Cells

A Potential Immune-reaction Inducing Antigen

Probably Both Immunogenic And Non-immunogenic

Immunogenic

Some Are Not Immunogens.

They're All Antigens.

Proteins, Polysaccharides, Lipids, Nucleic Acids, Or Any Combination Therein

Proteins And Large Polysaccharides Are Typically Present..

Low Molecular Weight Molecules Are Haptens.

When Haptens Bind To Large Carrier Molecules, They Develop Immunogenic Properties.

Antigenicity

The Term "Antigenicity" Refers To A Substance's Ability To Adhere To Immune Cells And Trigger An Immunological Response. The Capacity Of An Antigen Or Hapten To Bind To The Receptors On A B-cell Or A T-cell Is Another Way To Define Antigenicity.

Immunogenicity

The Capacity Of A Foreign Substance, Such As An Antigen, To Elicit An Immune Response In The Body Of A Person Or Another Animal Is Known As Immunogenicity. It May Be Desired Or Undesirable.

In Vaccinations, The Injection Of An Antigen (The Vaccine) Causes An Immune Response Against The Pathogen, Defending The Organism From Further Exposure. A Key Consideration In The Creation Of Vaccines Is Immunogenicity.

Examples

Immunogens Also Include Antigens. Pollen, Bacteria, Parasitic Worms, And Viruses Are A Few Types Of Antigens. Various Chemicals On The Surface Of Foreign Cells, Allergies, Blood Group Antigens, Hla, And Poisons.

Hapten

A Hapten Is A Substance That Can Bind To A Particular Antibody But Is Not Itself Antigenic. When Administered Directly To Animals, Many Of The Small Molecules, Including Toxins, Medications, And Hormones, Are Incapable Of Eliciting An Immune Response. They Are Referred To As Haptens Because They Lack Immunogenicity On Their Own.

A Well-known Illustration Of A Hapten Is Urushiol, The Poison Ivy Toxin.


Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

1. What are antigens?

By eliciting an immunological response, antigens are substances that cause the formation of antibodies.

2. What is Immunization?

The process of immunizing a person involves triggering their immune system, usually through the administration of a vaccine. This procedure aids in a person's defense against a subsequent infection or terrible disease.

3. What is Immunology?

Biology's field of immunology focuses on the study of the immune system in humans, including the different types of immune systems, their functions, and how the body defends itself from infectious diseases brought on by microorganisms and other infectious agents.

4. What substances constitute antigens?

Antigens typically contain proteins, peptides, and polysaccharides.

5. What size does an antigen have?

Vaccines against viral or protein subunit antigens are the smallest (10 nm).

6. What antigen is the most significant?

RhD is the most significant Rh antigen. when RhD is visible on the surface of red cells

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Automation Test Engineer

An Automation Test Engineer job involves executing automated test scripts. He or she identifies the project’s problems and troubleshoots them. The role involves documenting the defect using management tools. He or she works with the application team in order to resolve any issues arising during the testing process. 

2 Jobs Available
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