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Anatomy of Flowering Plants

Anatomy of Flowering Plants

Edited By Team Careers360 | Updated on May 11, 2022 03:53 PM IST

Introduction
Anatomy is the study of an organism's internal structure. Plant anatomy is primarily concerned with the structure and research of tissue organization. "A group of similar or distinct cells with a shared origin and performing a specific function" is how tissue is defined. Meristematic tissues, also known as Meristems, and Permanent tissue are the two main forms of tissues found in plants.

Permanent Tissues

Complex and Simple tissue are two different forms of permanent tissues.

Complex Tissues: The phloem and xylem make up complex tissues.

The following elements make up phloem (main food conducting tissue):

  • Phloem fibers - they are unbranched and sclerenchymatous and are absent in primary phloem.
  • The perforated ends of sieve tubes. They are the long, slender cells that are arranged end to end.
  • Living cells that store food are known as phloem parenchyma.
  • Elongated cells are known as companion cells. Gymnosperms lack them, whereas angiosperms have them in abundance.

Xylem: Xylem is made up of four different components.

  • The xylem parenchyma is made up of living cells that store lipids and carbohydrates.
  • Tracheid cells are lignified and hard-walled dead cells. They have blunt tips, which aid in water conduction in plants.
  • The lignified xylem fibers have pointed ends. This aids the transport of nutrients and water from the root to the leaf and provides mechanical support..
  • Vessels are tube-like structures that die when they reach adulthood. They support the facility mechanically and are involved in water transportation.

NCERT Books Link:

Simple tissues: Simple Tissues are divided into three categories.

  • Collenchyma is made up of live thickened cells at the corner due to the deposition of pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose.
  • The cells of the parenchyma are simple and unspecialized.
  • Cortex, Pith, Pericycle, and Epidermis are all places where they can be found. They play a role in food storage, photosynthesis, and other processes.
  • Sclerenchyma Long, tapering cells that have been lignified. These are dead cells that play a role in the mechanical function of the body.

NCERT Notes Subject Wise Link:

Meristematic Tissue

Meristematic tissue is defined as a collection of cells with the ability to divide. Meristems come in three varieties. The Intercalary Meristem can be seen on the leaf blades and node bases. The Apical Meristem can be found on the root and shoot apices. Plants can grow laterally with the help of the Lateral Meristem. Apical Meristems can be found in the plant's shoot, root, or tip. They are recognized as cells that are actively dividing.

NCERT Solutions Subject wise link:

NCERT Exemplar Solutions Subject wise link:

Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

1. What do you mean by permanent tissues in flowering plants?

In simple terms, a plant's permanent tissues are those that contain non-dividing cells. In addition, the cells are altered to serve certain activities in the plants. Intercellular gaps can be seen in the spaces between the cells. Inside these cells, there are also large vacuoles.

2. What are the types of tissues in flowering plants?

Plant tissues are divided into two categories: meristematic tissues and permanent tissues.

3. What is meristematic tissue, and how does it differ from other types of tissue?

They are made up of cells that are capable of dividing. They can be further divided into three categories: Intercalary meristem, Lateral meristem, Apical meristem

4. What is the primary role of a parenchyma cell?

All parenchyma cells have one thing in common: they are mature and capable of cell division, which means they play a crucial role in wound healing and regeneration. Photosynthesis, storage, secretion, and transport are all important functions of these cells.

5. Who is the father of the anatomy of flowering plants?

Nehemiah Grew is the father of plant anatomy.

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